types of business
Below, we ve listed some of the more common types of fairies that people are likely to encounter but this is by no means an all inclusive list. Most of the residents of the fairy realm will fall into one of three categories, neutral fairies, the Seelie, and the Unseelie. The neutral fairies are just that, neither aligned with the good or bad. This may be an oversimplification but the Seelie are generally considered to be the light (mainly positive) fairies while the Unseelie are quite the opposite.
1) The well known Pixie This small, winged fairy has a human-type form and at its tallest is only 6” tall. Pixies are quite attracted to small children, laughter, and happiness. They love gardens (especially Heather) and other flowering plants. Like hummingbirds, they are known to sip nectar from flowers like Honeysuckle. Fun loving, carefree and prankish, they often take household items from humans only to return them later when they’ve had their fun. They are more spontaneous and active than their larger fairy counterparts and generally have a shorter attention span. They are very social beings and live in a monarchy under a king or queen.
2) Trooping Fairies These fairies are generally the same size as pixies (6” tall) but have no wings. They are known as trooping fairies because they travel together in long processions. The males often wear green jackets and they tend live near the woods where there is a lot of underbrush. They are also known to inhabit trees often referred to by humans as a “fairy tree.” Trooping fairies can be larger or smaller than 6” and can be friendly or sinister.
3) Brownies At 4.5” tall , they are a bit smaller than pixies and trooping fairies. Brownies wear brown clothing, are very meticulous and tend to have a darker brown skin color. They have no wings but are quite capable of getting to high places by each one climbing on to the other to boost each other up. These intelligent and good natured fairies originated in Scotland and are known as household fairies, meaning they reside within the home and often do chores to help out a deserving human family in exchange for food and other offerings. They are nocturnal.
4) Fauns A creature of the woodland forests, the faun has horns on his head and a body that resembles a goat below the waist and a human above. Fauns tend to be alluring, seductive and compelling, often preying upon the unsuspecting by using mind control and magic conjured from their pipes or flute to get what they desire from their victim. According to the elves, if one sees a faun, avert your eyes because as soon as they have your attention, you are under their control. That’s why humans have depicted satan to be a faun. They are neutral but can be very dangerous.
5) Merpeople includes the well known mermaid, mermen, and the smaller, fresh water dweller known as a Gherring. Merpeople are neutral but cooperate well with the elves and barter with them. They tend to be superficial and self centered and are often depicted with a mirror and a comb. They are generally unhappy about the pollution and destruction of their waters and they tend to hold humans responsible for this. Still, Mermaids in particular tend to be very fond of human males and often fall in love with them which unfortunately often ends with the human drowning. They live in social communities.
6) The Leprechaun Leprechauns tend to be solitary fairies rather than social fairies and are usually seen wearing green clothing (sometimes with red) and a green hat. Said to be shoemakers by trade, they have the legendary pot of gold and enjoy matching wits with humans (and are often victorious in this area). Most have red hair and a well groomed beard and have a rounded build which averages around 2-3” tall. They are family oriented but are not overly social to other fae unless they have earned their trust. However, when money is involved, they will do business with everyone.
7) The Gnome These kind hearted forest dwellers generally make their homes underground near oak trees. They are known for their protection and healing of wildlife and in general are very beneficial to have around. In appearance, they are around 10-12” tall and wear a red pointed hat with blue or green jackets. They mature early and both sexes have white hair by the time they are 100 or so with a life-span of over 1000 years. On rare occasion they can be found in human dwellings but usually prefer to live in the woods, closer to nature.
8 ) The Hobgoblin A dark brown creature who inhabits the forests areas and lives in trees, the Hobgoblin is a solitary fae which enjoys keeping to himself (or herself). This neutral fairy is generally a peaceful fellow and is not aggressive unless provoked. His temper can flare easily so it is wise to try and stay on his good side. They can get especially nasty if their tree is threatened.
9) The Grundels Most often found in the homes of larger Elves, Grundels have a symbiotic relationship where they work for the elves in exchange for a protected home. They are dedicated to their host family of elves and generally stay with the same family for generations, moving with them as necessity dictates. Grundels are about 3 feet tall, and often wear striped clothing. (Sorry, no picture available)
10) Elves Found in many places throughout the world, elves are very plentiful in Scandinavia, many parts of Europe, and more recently, the United States. They are a very long lived race and are gifted with sharper senses, grace, agility and perceptions than humans. They excel in the arts and crafts, including the art of magic which they define as the gathering, focusing and directing of natural energy. In general, they dislike technology and live close to nature in an idyllic setting, respecting and working with all aspects of nature.
Physically, elves are generally the same height as humans or taller but slighter in build. (There are some exceptions to this rule however and a much shorter variety of elves does exist.) In appearance, their faces might seem to be more angular than humans and they do have the more pointed ears so often depicted in books and movies. They prefer to wear medieval-type clothing but have also been known to enjoy wearing a more modern style of clothing such as jeans, on occasion.
They are divided into two basic groups now: the Seelie those that want to work with humans to heal the planet we both share and the Unseelie those who would rather solve the problem by eliminating humans all together. The Elves of Fyn, the source of the information on this site, belong to the first group (Seelie) and you can find a bit more information about them here. It is recommended that you avoid contact with the Unseelie altogether.
Update: Hi Everyone! Because of the number of comments on this post, I am moving all further comments to the forum. It would be very helpful if you could try to stay on topic or create a new topic if you would like it makes it so much less confusing that way. Thanks so much!
business intelligence (BI)
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Business intelligence (BI) is a technology-driven process for analyzing data and presenting actionable information to help executives, managers and other corporate end users make informed business decisions.
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BI encompasses a wide variety of tools, applications and methodologies that enable organizations to collect data from internal systems and external sources; prepare it for analysis; develop and run queries against that data; and create reports, dashboards and data visualizations to make the analytical results available to corporate decision-makers, as well as operational workers.
Business intelligence vs. data analytics
Sporadic use of the term business intelligence dates back to at least the 1860s, but consultant Howard Dresner is credited with first proposing it in 1989 as an umbrella phrase for applying data analysis techniques to support business decision-making processes. What came to be known as BI tools evolved from earlier, often mainframe-based analytical systems, such as decision support systems and executive information systems.
Comparison of BI and advanced analytics
Business intelligence is sometimes used interchangeably with business analytics; in other cases, business analytics is used either more narrowly to refer to advanced data analytics or more broadly to include both BI and advanced analytics.
Why is business intelligence important?
The potential benefits of business intelligence tools include accelerating and improving decision-making, optimizing internal business processes, increasing operational efficiency, driving new revenues and gaining competitive advantage over business rivals. BI systems can also help companies identify market trends and spot business problems that need to be addressed.
BI data can include historical information stored in a data warehouse, as well as new data gathered from source systems as it is generated, enabling BI tools to support both strategic and tactical decision-making processes.
Initially, BI tools were primarily used by data analysts and other IT professionals who ran analyses and produced reports with query results for business users. Increasingly, however, business executives and workers are using BI platforms themselves, thanks partly to the development of self-service BI and data discovery tools and dashboards.
Types of BI tools
Business intelligence combines a broad set of data analysis applications, including ad hoc analytics and querying, enterprise reporting, online analytical processing (OLAP), mobile BI, real-time BI, operational BI, cloud and software-as-a-service BI, open source BI, collaborative BI, and location intelligence.
BI technology also includes data visualization software for designing charts and other infographics, as well as tools for building BI dashboards and performance scorecards that display visualized data on business metrics and key performance indicators in an easy-to-grasp way.
Data visualization tools have become the standard of modern BI in recent years. A couple leading vendors defined the technology early on, but more traditional BI vendors have followed in their path. Now, virtually every major BI tool incorporates features of visual data discovery.
BI programs may also incorporate forms of advanced analytics, such as data mining, predictive analytics, text mining, statistical analysis and big data analytics. In many cases, though, advanced analytics projects are conducted and managed by separate teams of data scientists, statisticians, predictive modelers and other skilled analytics professionals, while BI teams oversee more straightforward querying and analysis of business data.
Business intelligence data is typically stored in a data warehouse or in smaller data marts that hold subsets of a company’s information. In addition, Hadoop systems are increasingly being used within BI architectures as repositories or landing pads for BI and analytics data — especially for unstructured data, log files, sensor data and other types of big data.
Before it’s used in BI applications, raw data from different source systems must be integrated, consolidated and cleansed using data integration and data quality tools to ensure that users are analyzing accurate and consistent information.
In addition to BI managers, business intelligence teams generally include a mix of BI architects, BI developers, business analysts and data management professionals. Business users are also often included to represent the business side and make sure its needs are met in the BI development process.
To help with that, a growing number of organizations are replacing traditional waterfall development with Agile BI and data warehousing approaches that use Agile software development techniques to break up BI projects into small chunks and deliver new functionality to business analysts on an incremental and iterative basis. Doing so can enable companies to put BI features into use more quickly and to refine or modify development plans as business needs change or as new requirements emerge and take priority over earlier ones.
BI for big data
BI platforms are increasingly being used as front-end interfaces for big data systems. Modern BI software typically offers flexible back ends, enabling them to connect to a range of data sources. This, along with simple user interfaces, makes the tools a good fit for big data architectures. Users can connect to a range of data sources, including Hadoop systems, NoSQL databases, cloud platforms and more conventional data warehouses, and can develop a unified view of their diverse data.
Because the tools are typically fairly simple, using BI as a big data front end enables a broad number of potential users to get involved rather than the typical approach of highly specialized data architects being the only ones with visibility into data.
Learn how business intelligence and analytics tools can benefit corporate strategies and operations, and what you should know before buying them.
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Businesses can do much to prepare for the impact of the many hazards they face in today’s world including natural hazards like floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes and widespread serious illness such as the H1N1 flu virus pandemic. Human-caused hazards include accidents, acts of violence by people and acts of terrorism. Examples of technology-related hazards are the failure or malfunction of systems, equipment or software.
Ready Business will assist businesses in developing a preparedness program by providing tools to create a plan that addresses the impact of many hazards. This website and its tools utilize an “all hazards approach” and follows the program elements within National Fire Protection Association 1600, Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs. NFPA 1600 is an American National Standard and has been adopted by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
The five steps in developing a preparedness program are Program Management, Planning, Implementation, Testing and Exercises, and Program Improvement. Find out more about the five steps below.
- Organize, develop and administer your preparedness program
- Identify regulations that establish minimum requirements for your program
Find more information on Program Management here.
- Gather information about hazards and assess risks
- Conduct a business impact analysis (BIA)
- Examine ways to prevent hazards and reduce risks
Find more information on Planning here.
Write a preparedness plan addressing:
- Resource management
- Emergency response
- Crisis communications
- Business continuity
- Information technology
- Employee assistance
- Incident management
Find more information on Implemenation here.
Testing and Exercises
- Test and evaluate your plan
- Define different types of exercises
- Learn how to conduct exercises
- Use exercise results to evaluate the effectiveness of the plan
Find more information on Testing and Exercises here.
- Identify when the preparedness program needs to be reviewed
- Discover methods to evaluate the preparedness program
- Utilize the review to make necessary changes and plan improvements
Find more information on Program Improvement here.
What Is Common Stock and What Is Preferred Stock? Stock Types and Their Differences
#investing in stocks
What Is Common Stock and What Is Preferred Stock? Stock Types and Their Differences Explained
NEW YORK (TheStreet ) — When you step into the investing jungle, what will you find there? Lions (stocks) and tigers (bonds) and bears (cash), for sure. But they’re not as scary as you think.
These three are the main investment classes, but the one we’ll be tracking exclusively in this guide is the king of the jungle: stocks.
You may have heard stocks referred to as equities or securities. The reason they’re called equities is that you purchase an equity, or ownership, share of a company. Stock is also called a security for the same reason, because you’re securing a share of ownership in the company. That’s right; you’ll be a business owner just like you’ve always dreamed!
But, as you know from everyday life, there are terrifically run businesses and there are businesses that make you say, “I’ll never go back there again!” How do you know the difference before you buy the stock? That’s what this guided tour will be teaching you.
So when you buy stock, you become part owner of the company — maybe only a very small part, but still an owner. The size of the part you own, by the way, is irrelevant to your personal objectives.
We won’t cover bonds in this guide, but it’s important for you to know that they’re out there in the investing jungle. When you buy a bond, you don’t become part owner of a company — you’re the bank! You lend the company, or others, money. When companies, counties, municipalities or the U.S. government need to raise money, but not raise taxes or prices, they have bond offerings.
Bonds are loans, with a maturity date, and a percentage rate, promised to you, the Bank of I.O.U. The maturity date and set percentage rates can make bonds an attractive investment as part of a stabilizing influence in your investment portfolio. But you don’t want just bonds in your portfolio — over the long haul, stocks outperform bonds. If you want to purchase and own bonds, it’s very important to have quality bonds in your portfolio. If you want to continue to learn about bonds, see “Why Buy Bonds?”
When financial advisers suggest you diversify, or vary your investments, they’re advising you to spread out any potential risk, or decline, in your investment portfolio. Your investment portfolio is a collection of all of your investments, which could include assets from each of these three classes.
It’s like a nutritionist telling you to eat a little bit of each type of food to maximize your health. A balance of green vegetables, lean meats, dairy products and whole grain breads keep you physically and mentally healthy. Likewise, you want to invest your money in a variety of assets in your portfolio: stocks, bonds and cash products. Cash investments include products such as certificates of deposit (CDs) and money market mutual funds that keep you financially healthy.
Ready then? Get out your compass.
The Two Types of Investments You Can Make In a Small Business
Equity and Debt Are The Choices on the Small Business Investment Menu
When you make a small business investment, you have two choices: Do you take equity (an ownership stake) or debt (lend money in exchange for interest income and future repayment)? Both have their own advantages and disadvantages. Betsie Van Der Meer/Taxi/Getty Images
Updated August 22, 2016
Investing in a small business has always been, is currently, and most likely always will be one of the most popular ways individuals and families begin the journey to financial independence ; a way to create, nurture, and grow an asset that, when intelligently run under the right conditions, throws off surplus cash to provide not only a good standard of living, but to fund other investments. Still, it isn t uncommon, at least in nations with an entrepreneurial history such as the United States, for a small business owner to have never owned a publicly traded share of stock or a mutual fund. opting, instead, to put everything into their own restaurant, dry cleaning business, or sporting goods store.
Frequently, this small business grows to represent the most important financial resource the family owns, other than their primary residence.
In today s economic and political climate, these types of small business investments are often structured as either a limited liability company or a limited partnership. with the former being the most popular due to the fact it combines many of the best attributes of corporations and partnerships. In years past, sole proprietorships or general partnerships were more popular, which provide no protection for the owners personal assets outside of the company.
Whether you are considering investing in a small business by founding one from scratch or buying into an existing company, there are typically only two types of positions you can take: 1.) Equity, or 2.) Debt. Though there may be countless variations, all investments come back to those two foundations.
Equity Investments in Small Businesses
When you make an equity investment in a small business. you are buying an ownership stake. Equity investors provide capital, almost always in the form of cash, in exchange for a percentage of the profits and losses. The business can use this cash for a variety of things, including funding capital expenditures to expand, reducing debt, buying out other owners, building liquidity, or hiring new employees.
In some cases, the percentage of the business the investor receives is proportional to the total capital he or she provides. For example, if you kick in $100,000 in cash and other investors kick in $900,000, totaling $1,000,000, you might expect 10% of any profits or losses because you provided 1/10th of the total money. In other cases, especially when dealing with an established business or one put together by a key manager, this would not be the case. Consider the investment partnerships Warren Buffett ran in his 20 s and 30 s. He had limited partners contribute nearly all of the capital, but profits were split 75% to limited partners, in proportion to their overall share of the capital, and 25% to him as the general partner, despite having put up very little of his own money. The limited partners were fine with this arrangement because Buffett was providing expertise.
An equity investment in a small business can result in the biggest gains, as well as the most risk. If expenses run higher than sales, the losses get assigned to you.
A bad quarter, or year, and you might see the company fail or even go bankrupt. However, if things go well, your returns can be enormous. Virtually all of the research on millionaires in the United States shows that the single biggest classification of millionaires are self-made business owners. If you want to rank among the top 1% of wealth. owning a profitable business in a niche market that churns out dividends each year is your best chance, statistically.
Debt Investments in Small Businesses
When you make a debt investment in a small business, you loan it money in exchange for the promise of interest income and eventual repayment of the principal. Debt capital is most often provided either in the form of direct loans with regular amortization or the purchase of bonds issued by the business. which provide semi-annual interest payments mailed to the bondholder.
The biggest advantage of debt is that it has a privileged place in the capitalization structure. That means if the company goes bust, the debt has priority over the stockholders (the equity investors). Generally speaking, the highest level of debt is a first mortgage secured bond that has a lien on a specific piece of valuable property or an asset, such as a brand name. For example, if you loan money to an ice cream shop and are given a lien on the real estate and building, you can foreclose upon it in the event the company implodes. It may take time, effort, and money, but you should be able to recover whatever net proceeds you can get from the sale of the underlying property that you confiscate. The lowest level of debt is known as a debenture, which is a debt not secured by any specific asset but, rather, but the company s good name and credit.
Which Is Better: An Equity Investment or a Debt Investment?
There is no simple answer to this question. If you had been an early investor in McDonald s and bought equity, you d be rich. If you had bought bonds, making a debt investment, you would have earned a decent, but by no means spectacular, return on your money. On the other hand, if you buy into a business that fails, your best chance to escape unscathed is to own the debt, not the equity.
All of this is complicated by an observation that famed value investor Benjamin Graham made in his seminal work, Security Analysis. Namely, that equity in a business that is debt-free cannot pose any greater risk than a debt investment in the same firm because, in both cases, the person would be first in line in the capitalization structure.
The Preferred Equity Debt Hybrid
Sometimes, small business investments straddle the ground between equity investments and debt investments, modeling preferred stock. Far from offering the best of both worlds, preferred stock seems to combine the worst features of both equity and debt; namely, the limited upside potential of debt, with the lower capitalization rank of equity. There are always exceptions to the rule.
#most successful small businesses
The Most Profitable Types of Small Businesses
If you re aiming for a lucrative business idea, it may be time to brush up on your number-crunching skills.
Accounting services topped the list of the top 15 small-business sectors by net profit margin over the last 12 months, according to Sageworks. a financial information company. The list was compiled using a database of more than 1,000 financial statements from private companies with less than $10 million in annual revenues.
The Sageworks data found that accounting led the pack in delivering the best profit margins, but service-based businesses in health care and real estate dominated the rest of the list.
Sageworks analyst Jenna Weaver notes that a lot of these service sectors are consistently at the top of the most profitable list. Service-based industries often have very healthy bottom lines, she says. Their overhead and equipment costs are often relatively low, and much of the time, it doesn t take a lot of upfront investment to get started.
Weaver adds: Often times, in cases like consulting, accounting, and legal services, you can get started right inside of your house, without even worrying about renting a space.
Check out the top 15 industries with the best net profit margins during the 12-month period ending July 31, 2014. For aspiring entrepreneurs, this may be the best place to start when considering new business ideas. (Note: Net profit margin has been adjusted to exclude taxes and include owner compensation in excess of their market-rate salaries.)
Credit: Sageworks, a financial information company (www.sageworks.com )
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The Different Types of Mortgage Loans in 2017, Explained
What are the different types of mortgage loans available to home buyers in 2017, and what are the pros and cons of each? This is one of the most common questions we receive here at the Home Buying Institute. This page offers some basic information about the types of loans available in 2017. Follow the hyperlinks provided for even more information. And be sure to send us your questions!
Loan Reps Are Standing By
Did you know you can get free, no-obligation mortgage quotes online? It’s a great way to get the ball rolling.
If you already understand the basic types of home loans, and you’re ready to move forward with the process, use one of the links provided below. Otherwise, keep reading below to learn about the different financing options available in 2017. You can always come back to these links later on.
Types of Mortgages Available in 2017, Explained
There are many different types of mortgages available to home buyers. They are all thoroughly explained on this website. But here, for the sake of simplicity, we have boiled it all down to the following options and categories.
Option 1: Fixed vs. Adjustable Rate
As a borrower, one of your first choices is whether you want a fixed-rate or an adjustable-rate mortgage loan. All loans fit into one of these two categories, or a combination hybrid category. Here’s the primary difference between the two types:
- Fixed-rate mortgage loans have the same interest rate for the entire repayment term. Because of this, the size of your monthly payment will stay the same, month after month, and year after year. It will never change. This is true even for long-term financing options, such as the 30-year fixed-rate loan. It has the same interest rate, and the same monthly payment, for the entire term.
- Adjustable-rate mortgage loans (ARMs) have an interest rate that will change or adjust from time to time. Typically, the rate on an ARM will change every year after an initial period of remaining fixed. It is therefore referred to as a hybrid product. A hybrid ARM loan is one that starts off with a fixed or unchanging interest rate, before switching over to an adjustable rate. For instance, the 5/1 ARM loan carries a fixed rate of interest for the first five years, after which it begins to adjust every one year, or annually. That’s what the 5 and the 1 signify in the name.
As you might imagine, both of these types of mortgages have certain pros and cons associated with them. Use the link above for a side-by-side comparison of these pros and cons. Here they are in a nutshell: The ARM loan starts off with a lower rate than the fixed type of loan, but it has the uncertainty of adjustments later on. With an adjustable mortgage product, the rate and monthly payments can rise over time. The primary benefit of a fixed loan is that the rate and monthly payments never change. But you will pay for that stability through higher interest charges, when compared to the initial rate of an ARM.
Option 2: Government-Insured vs. Conventional Loans
So you’ll have to choose between a fixed and adjustable-rate type of mortgage, as explained in the previous section. But there are other choices as well. You’ll also have to decide whether you want to use a government-insured home loan (such as FHA or VA), or a conventional regular type of loan. The differences between these two mortgage types are covered below.
A conventional home loan is one that is not insured or guaranteed by the federal government in any way. This distinguishes it from the three government-backed mortgage types explained below (FHA, VA and USDA).
Government-insured home loans include the following:
The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) mortgage insurance program is managed by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), which is a department of the federal government. FHA loans are available to all types of borrowers, not just first-time buyers. The government insures the lender against losses that might result from borrower default. Advantage. This program allows you to make a down payment as low as 3.5% of the purchase price. Disadvantage. You’ll have to pay for mortgage insurance, which will increase the size of your monthly payments.
The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) offers a loan program to military service members and their families. Similar to the FHA program, these types of mortgages are guaranteed by the federal government. This means the VA will reimburse the lender for any losses that may result from borrower default. The primary advantage of this program (and it’s a big one) is that borrowers can receive 100% financing for the purchase of a home. That means no down payment whatsoever.
Learn more: VA loan eligibility requirements
USDA / RHS Loans
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) offers a loan program for rural borrowers who meet certain income requirements. The program is managed by the Rural Housing Service (RHS), which is part of the Department of Agriculture. This type of mortgage loan is offered to rural residents who have a steady, low or modest income, and yet are unable to obtain adequate housing through conventional financing. Income must be no higher than 115% of the adjusted area median income [AMI]. The AMI varies by county. See the link below for details.
Learn more: USDA borrower eligibility website
Combining. It’s important to note that borrowers can combine the types of mortgage types explained above. For example, you might choose an FHA loan with a fixed interest rate, or a conventional home loan with an adjustable rate (ARM).
Option 3: Jumbo vs. Conforming Loan
There is another distinction that needs to be made, and it’s based on the size of the loan. Depending on the amount you are trying to borrow, you might fall into either the jumbo or conforming category. Here’s the difference between these two mortgage types.
- A conforming loan is one that meets the underwriting guidelines of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, particularly where size is concerned. Fannie and Freddie are the two government-controlled corporations that purchase and sell mortgage-backed securities (MBS). Simply put, they buy loans from the lenders who generate them, and then sell them to investors via Wall Street. A conforming loan falls within their maximum size limits, and otherwise conforms to pre-established criteria.
- A jumbo loan. on the other hand, exceeds the conforming loan limits established by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. This type of mortgage represents a higher risk for the lender, mainly due to its size. As a result, jumbo borrowers typically must have excellent credit and larger down payments, when compared to conforming loans. Interest rates are generally higher with the jumbo products, as well.
This page explains the different types of mortgage loans available in 2017. But it only provides a brief overview of each type. Follow the hyperlinks provided above to learn more about each option. We also encourage you to continue your research beyond this website. Education is the key to making smart decisions, as a home buyer or mortgage shopper.
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Texas Theft Laws – Shoplifting Defenses in Texas – Criminal Defense Lawyers #types #of
Texas Theft/Shoplifting Laws: Criminal Charges and Penalties
Theft is a broad criminal charge in Texas that includes a range of offenses from shoplifting and larceny to bouncing checks to buying stolen property. The punishments generally depend on the value of the stolen item and can be as little as a fine or as serious as prison time in extreme cases.
The Texas Penal Code defines theft as taking someone else s property without consent, either by deception or by physically stealing it. You don t have to keep the property for it to be considered theft, but only long enough to deprive the owner of its value. And, if you take something, then return it for a reward, that is also theft under Texas law.
To charge you with theft, the police need to show that you acted with criminal intent. meaning you knew the property belonged to someone else and knew you didn t have their permission to take it, and that you actually have or had possession of the property. They can do by that using physical evidence, such as security camera video in a shoplifting case, or by statements from a witness, an accomplice, or you.
Types of Theft Under Texas Law
The four most common ways to commit misdemeanor theft or felony theft in Texas are these:
1. Shoplifting Taking items out of a store with the deliberate intention of not paying the store for the full value of the item. This includes taking, say, a shirt and leaving with it, or switching the tag on an expensive shirt with the tag on a less expensive one and paying the lower price at checkout.
2. Bad Checks Paying for an item on a closed account or an account that does not enough money to cover the amount of the check. If the check is written on a closed account. that alone is evidence of theft under Texas criminal law. If the check bounces. and you do not reimburse the merchant within 10 days of notification, then that is evidence of theft under the law.
3. General Theft Taking an item that belongs to someone else by any means when you do not have permission. Examples of this include taking a woman s purse from her shopping cart when her back is turned, stealing copper from a construction site, or stealing $20 from the cash register at work.
4. Buying/Accepting Stolen Property Taking possession of an item when you know the person selling or giving it to you is not the rightful owner. If you know a friend shoplifted an item from a store, then passed the item on to you, you have committed theft known as receiving stolen property by taking it, whether you paid for it or it was a gift.
Other common theft charges include embezzlement. and theft of services. which is the stealing of something that isn t a physical item. This charge also may be related to fraud or bad checks.
Penalties for Theft in Texas
The punishment for the criminal charge of theft in Texas is relative to the value of the item stolen. Obviously, the more value the item has the higher the penalty for taking it. And if it is more than one item, all the values are added together for the purposes of punishment.
For example, you may be charged with shoplifting five DVDs. Individually, they may be worth about $20 each. But added together, the total of the theft is $100, and that raises the seriousness of the punishment.
Penalties for Theft
5 to 99 years in a state prison and/or a fine of not more than $10,000
Those punishments can also be enhanced under certain conditions. For example, Class B and C misdemeanor theft charges increase one level if you have a previous theft conviction, and a Class A misdemeanor becomes a state jail felony if you have two previous theft convictions.
Also, the theft of some items such as firearms, or metals such as copper or aluminum are felonies, no matter the actual value of the items.
Shoplifting charges also automatically become more serious if you are caught using tools to defeat theft prevention devices, or if you are charged with organized retail theft. meaning you were working with others to steal items for profit.
However, in all likelihood, if you are charged with simple theft by shoplifting and are convicted or enter a plea, you probably will receive only community service and fines, as long as the value is low and it s a first or second offense. However, you are still stuck with a permanent criminal record which may never go away.
The fact of a permanent, public criminal record is the reason why most people hire a shoplifting defense attorney to fight the charges. Avoiding a criminal record in the internet age can save you tremendous headaches in the future. It could prevent you from getting a job, a scholarship or worse.
Civil Penalties for Shoplifting
The criminal shoplifting record for a conviction might not be the end of it, either.
A conviction for the criminal charge of theft frequently includes restitution to the victim, but Texas also has the Texas Theft Liability Act. This civil law allows the victims of theft to sue for damages and is separate from the criminal case.
The suits are typically used in shoplifting cases. The store will send you a letter demanding that you pay the value of the stolen item, as well as costs related to recovery. The law allows the victim to collect actual damages, plus up to $1,000 against an individual or actual damages, plus up to $5,000 against the parents or guardians if the accused shoplifter is a minor.
You should not try to face either the criminal charge of theft or a civil suit in a shoplifting case without consulting a Texas criminal defense lawyer who knows how to defend shoplifting/theft offenses. We can fight the case against you by challenging the reliability of eyewitness or accomplice testimony, and by questioning the legality of any searches by police or admissions you may have made to them.
Contact our attorneys for a free legal case evaluation on any criminal charge by calling:
Receive our free legal defense consultation and case evaluation. We’ll explain what you are facing in plain language, and tell you how we can help.
#types of business
Business Entity Types
To get the most out of your small business, choose the right structure. Selecting the right type of company or corporation for your new business helps maximize your chances of financial and operational success.
Common types of business structures and corporations include C corporations, limited liability companies (LLC), partnerships, S corporations, and sole proprietorships. Learn more about each type of business or corporation:
Limited Liability Companies (LLCs)
- Independent legal structures separate from their owners.
- Help separate your personal assets from your business debts.
- Taxed similarly to a sole proprietorship (if one owner) or a partnership (if multiple owners).
- No limit to the number of owners.
- Not required to hold annual meetings or record minutes.
- Governed by operating agreements.
- Independent legal and tax structures separate from their owners.
- Help separate your personal assets from your business debts.
- No limit to the number of shareholders.
- Taxed on corporate profits and shareholder dividends.
- Must hold annual meetings and record meeting minutes.
- Independent legal and tax structures separate from their owners.
- Help separate your personal assets from your business debts.
- Owners report their share of profit and loss in the company on their personal tax returns.
- Limits on number of shareholders, who must be U.S. citizens or residents.
- Must hold annual meetings and record meeting minutes.
- Partners remain personally liable for lawsuits filed against the business.
- Usually no state filing required to form a partnership.
- Easy to form and operate.
- Owners report their share of profit and loss in the company on their personal tax returns.
- Owner remains personally liable for lawsuits filed against the business.
- No state filing required to form a sole proprietorship.
- Easy to form and operate.
- Owner reports business profit and loss on their personal tax return.
Review our Business Comparison Chart for more details. Regardless of business structure you choose, incorporate.com can help you incorporate or form an LLC online or by phone for less than the cost of using an attorney.
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