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Alcohol Intoxication Causes, Symptoms, Treatment – Alcohol Intoxication Signs and Symptoms #alcohol #intoxication #treatment


Alcohol Intoxication Signs and Symptoms

The effects of alcohol vary widely from person to person. Several factors can account for obvious differences in how certain amounts of alcohol can affect one person more than another. These factors also affect the particular signs and symptoms the person may exhibit to indicate alcohol intoxication.

Major factors accounting for this variation in signs and symptoms:

  • Prior experience with alcohol. A longtime, heavy drinker may achieve blood alcohol concentration levels that would kill the average casual drinker. Conversely, a novice drinker may have severe symptoms with the ingestion of a moderate amount of alcohol. As a person s drinking increases, his/her liver will increase its capacity to metabolize alcohol. In addition, the brain of a heavy drinker becomes used to frequent, even constant, high blood alcohol concentrations. This habituation in a heavy drinker can backfire if this person suddenly stops drinking. The person may go into alcohol withdrawal and develop seizures or a condition called delirium tremens (DTs).
  • Taking medications. The effects of alcohol are enhanced if a person is taking other prescription medications. especially those of the sedative class such as sleeping pills or anti-anxiety medications. A person who is not habituated to either alcohol or sedatives may experience serious harm, or even death, if taking prescribed doses. Together, they can be a deadly combination. A person may be taking medications prescribed by a doctor or over-the-counter medications, and may not know about these unintended consequences.
  • Medical conditions. The presence of a wide variety of medical conditions may affect how a person reacts to alcohol.
  • Smell of alcohol on the breath: There is a very poor correlation between the strength of the smell of alcohol on the breath and the blood alcohol concentration. Pure alcohol has very little smell. It is the metabolism of other substances in alcoholic beverages that produces most of the smell. This explains why a person who drinks large amounts of high-proof vodka (a more pure form of alcohol) may have only a faint smell of alcohol on the breath. On the other hand, a person who drinks a modest amount of beer may have a strong smell of alcohol on the breath.
  • Scale of effects. In the average social drinker (defined as someone who drinks no more than two standard drinks per day), there is a rough correlation between blood alcohol concentration and how the person acts.
  • Blood alcohol concentration. Blood alcohol concentration commonly is expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Using this measure, 100 mg/dL roughly is equal to one part alcohol in 1000 parts of water (or blood). Consequently, 100 mg/dL would be equal to a 0.1% concentration. In most states, 100 mg/dL represents the threshold concentration above which a person is legally intoxicated when operating a motor vehicle.
    • To find out more about blood alcohol concentration and how it affects a person, go to the Blood Alcohol Educator Web site of the Century Council and the University of Illinois.
    • TThe following scale details the expected effects of alcohol at various blood alcohol concentrations. There is a tremendous variation from person to person, and not all people exhibit all the effects. This scale would apply to a typical social drinker:
      • 50 mg/dL: Loss of emotional restraint, vivaciousness, feeling of warmth, flushing of skin, mild impairment of judgment
      • 100 mg/dL: Slight slurring of speech, loss of control of fine motor movements (such as writing), confusion when faced with tasks requiring thinking, emotionally unstable, inappropriate laughter
      • 200 mg/dL: Very slurred speech, staggering gait, double vision, lethargic but able to be aroused by voice, difficulty sitting upright in a chair, memory loss
      • 300 mg/dL: Stuporous, able to be aroused only briefly by strong physical stimulus (such as a face slap or deep pinch), deep snoring
      • 400 mg/dL: Comatose, not able to be aroused, incontinent (wets self), low blood pressure. irregular breathing
      • 500 mg/dL: Death possible, either from cessation of breathing, excessively low blood pressure. or vomit entering the lungs without the presence of the protective reflex to cough it out
  • Other conditions that look like alcohol intoxication. It is important to recognize the symptoms of alcohol intoxication not only to confirm the presence and severity of the alcohol effect, but also to be able to differentiate the symptoms from other conditions that may coexist, mimic, or mask the symptoms of alcohol intoxication.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 5/17/2016

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ROSWELL Treatment Center #roswell #rehabilitation #center, #roswell #alcohol #and #drug #treatment #center


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(678) 680-3179

ROSWELL Treatment Center offers only the best in alcohol and drug rehabilitation. Substance abuse can prevent you from living the life you want. Since our founding, we’ve been dedicated to every patient’s recovery from substance abuse. Through years of experience and the latest in addiction recovery science, we provide individualized treatment directed toward your struggles. The experience of substance abuse recovery is something you will not go through alone. ROSWELL Treatment Center is waiting to help with your drug and alcohol treatment. We will be with you every step of the way!

Drug Programs

Our team understands the power of drugs in your life. Cocaine, heroin, methamphetamines, and prescription painkillers can all be addressed by the medical professionals at the ROSWELL Treatment Center. We are standing by to help!

Alcohol Programs

Alcohol dependence is a devastating addiction. The dedicated team at the ROSWELL Treatment Center works hand in hand with every patient to develop treatment and rehab plan. Call today to find out more!

Dual Dependency Programs

Have alcohol and drugs both caused a dramatic downturn in your quality of life? Our dual diagnosis treatment professionals at the ROSWELL Treatment Center can offer you the best care when you face difficult times. We are waiting to hear from you!

Let us help you find the old you.

Haven’t been yourself for a while?
Through the latest in rehab and treatment, our medical professionals can help guide you during your addiction recovery. Your addiction is personal. The ROSWELL Treatment Center can assist with:

ROSWELL Treatment Center Mission

The ROSWELL Treatment Center offers only the best in alcohol and drug rehabilitation. Since our founding, we’ve been dedicated to every patient’s recovery from substance abuse. Through years of experience and the latest in addiction recovery science, we provide individualized treatment directed toward your struggles. The experience of substance abuse recovery is something you will not go through alone. We will be with you every step of the way!
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At ROSWELL Treatment Center We Can Help!

We understand the power of addiction to drugs and alcohol. Methamphetamines and prescription painkillers can destroy a once-promising career. Heroin and cocaine can end the longest of friendships. Alcohol can devastate the strongest of families. The ROSWELL Treatment Center knows the power of substance abuse and the possibility of recovery. We offer the best in alcohol and drug rehabilitation customized specifically for you. Please call (678) 680-3179 today.
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9 Home Remedies For Muscle Pain – Natural Treatments & Cure For Muscle Pain


9 Home Remedies For Muscle Pain

Muscle pain is not that serious, but is really uncomfortable, and needs to be treated as soon as the symptoms are noticed. There are several home remedies which can be of immense assistance in dealing with muscle cramps and muscle pain.

There is no need to take medical advice in the first instance. Home remedies for muscle pain would definitely provide great relief. If home remedies do not help you, then you can seek medical help. In this article, we shall give you a few effective tips to get rid of muscle pain .

Home Remedies For Muscle Pain

Oil Massage

Massaging the affected area with an essential oil works as a very effective home remedy for muscle pain. A mixture of almond oil, ginger oil, clove oil and nutmeg oil works as a very effective home remedy for muscle pain.

The muscles are toned quite effectively with the help of warm essential oil massage. This mixed oil massage also works very effectively in relieving the pain in muscles after daily workout.


In case of extreme muscle soreness, application of ice on the affected area works as a very good home remedy. The pain and soreness in the muscles would be released, and you would feel quite relaxed after implementing this home remedy.


It is suggested to go for regular yoga sessions to improve the flexibility of muscles, and to avoid and treat muscle cramps and pain .

Worth Buying

Yoga is beneficial for overall well being and health. and should be made a regular routine activity.

Muscle Relaxation

Muscle relaxation is very important in order to get rid of muscle pain and muscle cramps after a workout. Calf muscles should be definitely relaxed after every workout to get rid of the strain and pain in them. Even the foot muscles need to be relaxed by holding the toes and moving the foot in a gentle manner owards knee.

Stretching Exercises

Doing stretching exercises after every workout is a very important activity to reduce and avoid pain in the muscles.

Also Read

Treatments For Joint Muscle Pain
Relief From Muscle Pain
Ways To Get Rid Of Muscle Pain

Steam Therapy

Steam therapy also works quite effectively in releasing muscle pain and tension. You can either take a steam bath at home or go to a gym or spa for a sauna. This would definitely keep you and your muscles relaxed.


Garlic works wonderfully with respect to treating muscle pain. Garlic is enriched with anti inflammatory properties which help in getting rid of muscle pain in an amazing way.

Pepper Powder

One of the amazing home remedies for muscle pain is application of pepper powder seared in sesame oil on the affected muscle area.


Apart from the home remedies for muscle pain as discussed above, it is also suggested to include certain vitamin and mineral supplements in regular routine.

Deficiency of magnesium and calcium in the body can cause muscle pain. So, including magnesium and calcium supplements in regular diet would help in easing muscle pain and strain.

Another important supplement that should be taken along with these mineral supplements is vitamin E supplement. The cramps and pain in the muscles due to regular workout would be reduced with the help of consumption of vitamin E supplement.

Bible Based Christian

Yoga should come with a warning! Yoga is a spiritual practice that has been taken from a wicked pagan religion. You get a free demon crawling up your spine if you do the wrong yoga. With drugs, you know you could get some bad stuff but who would have ever thought Yoga could lead you into a dance with the devil? It is totally true! Stay far from this new age spiritual practice sold as a harmless exercise or you will get a spirit that becomes your new tagalong.

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  • Substance abuse treatment plan sample #substance #abuse #treatment #plan #sample


    Poverty and Substance Abuse

    Defining Poverty

    People who suffer from inequalities due to economic and social standing are those who are considered to be in poverty. The term technically refers to the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material resources. It is used as a way to identify those who do not have the sufficient resources to live in a standard of living that is considered appropriate in society. Someone who is suffering from poverty may have to live in cramped, inadequate dwellings or could live on the streets. They may not have the finances to afford transportation, to go to school or to receive adequate health care or have access to sanitary living conditions. Extreme poverty includes not having enough clean and nutritious food to eat or water to drink.

    The term poor refers to those who are in a state of poverty or impoverished. These people are categorized by their relative social standing which may or may not be an adequate identification. Those who are unemployed or in intermittent employment, hold low skill jobs, unstable family life, broken relationships, low involvement in the community, low aspirations, high levels of high school drop out rates, poor physical health or suffer from a high incidence of mental disorders are those considered to be poor. These characteristics, however, do not determine a persons intelligence, behaviors, attitudes or compassion.

    Poverty and Substance Abuse

    Research suggests that there is a strong association between poverty, social exclusion and problematic drug use. Those who are unemployed, particularly long term unemployed, in poor or insecure housing and are early school leavers have a higher rate of substance abuse than those who do not fit into these categories. It should be noted, however, that these risk factors do not determine whether a person abuses drugs or alcohol.

    There are many risk factors associated with drug and alcohol abuse. These include childhood experiences, genes, mental illness and psychological factors. In some cases, people who are poor also are in high risk factors. But people who are not suffering from poverty also may embody these risk factors. Unfortunately, many people who are poor become entrenched in the lifestyle that often includes incarceration, exposure to law enforcement, poor health outcomes and homelessness. Because of these issues, surveys and research often focuses on these communities and the result is an over-representation in public health reporting. The research that suggests that poor people abuse drugs and alcohol is potentially biased because of this reporting.

    Access to Rehab

    One of the most significant risk factors for people who suffer the effects of poverty and substance abuse is access to appropriate health services. For people with adequate money or health insurance, and time available, there are a multitude of private drug and alcohol treatment centers that can be afforded. For those who do not have the resources available to them, treatments and detoxification can be difficult to find and to utilize. Public health services are often at capacity with long waiting times for treatment. Additionally, family responsibilities may mean that they are unable to attend a treatment facility because they are unable to afford care for children, parents or other relatives.

    Quality Issues with Poverty and Substance Abuse

    For some people, the quality of a substance is more important that how much they consume with regard to health risks. This is particularly the case for people not suffering from poverty. A person who has money and social standing can afford to make particular choices with regard to their substance addiction. They can afford to buy alcohol that is higher quality or drugs that are more pure than their impoverished counterparts. Additionally, they will have access to clean needles and other drug equipment and reduce their risk of infection or disease as a result. Those who are poor often do not have these choices. They will consume low quality alcohol that may have health consequences. The drugs that they can afford to purchase may be cut with dangerous adulterants or be toxic.

    Cycle of Poverty and Addiction

    The cycle of poverty is a phenomenon where people become entrenched into poverty due to a number of different factors. Family experience, lack of education, limited access to employment and health care all contribute to this destructive cycle. Poverty may commence in generations before the existing one and the role models set up people to continue to live in this way. Without outside intervention to give people access to education and employment, the cycle may continue for generations.

    With regard to addiction, there is some evidence to suggest that those in the cycle of poverty who also suffer from substance abuse problems have a significantly more difficult time breaking the cycle and removing themselves from this harmful life than those who are not poor. Additionally, if parents suffer from addiction to drugs or alcohol, their children may have a higher risk of also suffering from this disease.

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    Pine ridge treatment center #pine #ridge #treatment #center


    Finding a Rehab Program
    for Addiction

    Individuals who seek treatment are looking to break free of the bonds of addiction and improve their quality of life. Rehabilitation has become a broad spectrum of mental health resources that is available to anyone seeking to make a positive change in their life.

    “Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry. Dysfunction in these circuits leads to characteristic biological, psychological, social and spiritual manifestations. This is reflected in the individual pursuing reward and/or relief by substance use and other behaviors.”

    Treatment for addiction is not limited to substance abuse; over the years treatment has become popular for several behavioral addictions such as shopping, gambling and sex addiction. Individuals suffering from mental disorders may also seek help for their ailments.

    Addiction and Mental Health Disorders

    Addiction and mental health disorders can drastically affect the ability to live a positive, happy lifestyle. Substance abuse and behavioral addictions destroy relationships and prevent an individual from being present for their family members and loved ones. Addiction and mental health disorders affect employment opportunities, advancements in education, financial stability and emotional health.

    Treatment for addiction and mental health disorders allows an individual to learn the tools necessary to work on themselves from the inside out. They may deal with issues that have been suppressed for many years and have caused pain and resentment. Treatment educates an addict on how to live a positive meaningful way of life and what they can do to remain abstinent from drugs and other addictive behaviors.

    Take Action

    The first step for an individual to get into treatment is admitting they have a problem and committing to receiving professional help. Most individuals need help when confronting an addiction or mental health issue. In most cases, the behavior is beyond their control and the only choice for recovery and progress lies in some form of treatment.

    People with these afflictions are often unwilling to seek help or are blind to the damage being done. An Interventionist is an addiction treatment professional whom organizes loved ones to help get the individual into treatment. An intervention can be influential when trying to admit someone into rehabilitation that is not willing or is still in stages of denial. Interventions help them to see the entire family’s point of view and recognize how their behaviors are affecting everyone around them.

    Types of Treatment

    There are numerous types of treatment programs and several different levels of care. Determining what type of treatment is necessary depends on what substances are being used, behavioral addiction, mental illness or disorders, religious background and financial situation.

    • Long-term Inpatient Rehabilitation : 3 or more moths at an inpatient treatment facility
    • Inpatient Rehabilitation : 30 to 60 days at an inpatient treatment facility
    • Wilderness Treatment : Staff recommended time length based on personal needs, character building activities, life-skills, and nature based therapy
    • Sober Living/Recovery House : Time length based on individual needs and financial situations. No limitation on length of stay at sober livings or recovery houses. Transitional living facilities where individuals work back into the normal flow of life, usually after completing inpatient treatment
    • Partial Hospitalization Outpatient Treatment : 5-8 hours a day of group sessions, therapy and one-on-one counseling
    • Intensive Outpatient Treatment : 3 hours a day, 3-5 times a week of group sessions, therapy and on-on-one counseling
    • Part-time Outpatient Treatment : At least one hour a day, 1-3 times a week. Additional support gained through small groups and counseling. Usually after an individual has completed other forms of treatment and has achieved some length of sobriety

    Individual issues and personal needs will help to determine which treatment center and level of care is the right fit. Addiction treatment centers and facilities have representatives that can explain the program and recommend the right level of care. Treatment is the only way for most addicts and alcoholics to separate themselves from a life of depression and pain. Recovery is a gift, and treatment is the first step to getting on the path to reaping the benefits of sobriety. When an addict gets sober it reconnects them with their inner self and helps to mend broken relationships with family members and loved ones.

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    The Laser Clinic – Laser Hair Removal Toronto – Total Beauty Solutions #laser #hair


    Your Clinic Your Results

    Laser hair removal has changed my life. My self esteem was low before knowing I had facial hair. I am now hair free thanks to Jessica and The Laser Clinic . It is a great feeling.

    Before coming to the laser clinic I was unsuccessful with almost 2 years of treatments (at another clinic). After 6 treatments I have seen a dramatic improvement. Not only have my treatments been successful, but the staff is very friendly and truly care about their clients .

    Hi Jessica,
    I just wanted to drop you a short note to let you know how much I enjoyed my last facial. My face looks fresh and clean. I can’t wait for my next facial! Also thanks for being so thorough and attentive and for taking the time to have the doctor take a look at my skin. I can always rely on your exceptional service and professionalism.
    Thanks again,

    I had an operation to remove a pre-cancerous growth from my left cheek. The operation left me with a large scar and numerous visible blood vessels, which were brought to the surface by the operation, further accentuating the scar. I knew absolutely nothing about laser treatments but an employee highly recommended a visit to Jessica. After only one visit Jessica had eliminated most of the blood vessels and made the scar considerably less noticeable. After 3 visits all of the offending blood vessels have been removed and the results have been amazing. All my friends now think I m a fast healer but the real secret was Jessica and her vast skill and knowledge of laser and it s effects on skin. THANK YOU JESSICA.

    THE LASER CLINIC services Toronto, Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) including Mississauga, Brampton, Woodbridge, Vaughan, Etobicoke, Kleinberg, Richmond Hill, Thornhill, and Markham.

    We offer the Ultimate Med Spa Experience specializing in Laser Hair Removal and other permanent hair removal methods such as Electrolysis with a Carl Zeiss microscope. Looking and Feeling your Best in your own skin is achievable with our non invasive anti-aging Skin Rejuvenating treatments. Our goal with every client is courteous, professional care and effective results.

    THE LASER CLINIC is the solution between Spa and Plastic Surgery. This is a professional laser clinic within the comfort of a medical environment which makes it suitable for both our male and female clients. We are passionate about our work and specialize in Full Laser and Medical Aesthetic services.

    Laser Hair Removal Toronto . This is a service that we offer for all areas of the body and on all skin tones. We have multiple lasers to chose from and will treat hair for both men and women on the face, neck, chest, back, legs, and bikini, including the popular Brazilian style which will remove hair in the pubic area. Our clinic has been sought after, even by other laser clinics, because of our ability and technology to safely treat dark skin and sun-tanned clients. See our affordable Laser Hair Removal prices and costs.

    Laser Vein Removal : With ease we are able to treat facial redness, broken capillaries, cherry angiomas, blood blisters, rosacea, thread veins, veins on the nose and cheeks, spider veins and the reticular leg veins that feed them.

    Laser Facial Genesis : With no down time this procedure will stimulate larger fibroblast of collagen, tighten pores, reduce and diffuse redness, improve rosacea, complexion blending, and also improve fine lines and wrinkles. We have had success improving some cases of melasma and scar tissue. Stretch marks are also greatly reduced or minimized with this wonderful treatment.

    Photofacial IPL: This treatment will improve with Complexion Blending, Brown Spots, Pigmented Lesions, Liver Spots, Photo Damage, Sun Damage, and Age Spots. It will also stimulate new Collagen to improve Fine Lines and Wrinkles.

    Blue Light Acne Therapy: This is a system we use for the treatment of acne. It is a wonderful treatment which helps combat the P. acnis bacteria that causes acne. This treatment is often used in conjunction with Chemical Peels, Genesis and Photofacials.

    Skin Tightening : Turn back the clock with our Skin Tightening Treatment. Improve lines, wrinkles and texture with our award winning technology. It truly works to stimulate your own natural elastin and collagen fibres leaving your skin looking naturally vibrant. This is achieved by heating the subcutaneous tissue this causes contraction of the water molecules and stimulates collagen synthesis in the targeted tissue. The gentle tightening of this procedure compliments the laser light therapy delivered from Genesis or Photofacials.

    Electrolysis – Permanent Hair Removal : With the use of a Carl Zeiss Microscope we are able to treat the finest of hairs with great accuracy. A new disposable needle is used with each treatment. We do offer gold needles for clients with allergies to stainless steel.

    CHEMICAL PEEL : We implement a series of AHA and BHA acids peels to improve dry, dull or acneic skin. Skin texture becomes visibly smoother. The chemical peel’s gentle complexion blending allows for better product penetration and new collagen synthesis for a fresher and more vibrant appearance.

    Permanent Make Up : We call Pierre Ly, our Permanent Makeup Specialist, The Picasso of Toronto . His experience in creating natural looking brows, eyes and lips gives clients the look that they desire, and prove that this is what our specialist does best.

    We are a full service aesthetic clinic also offering Luxury Signature Facials . We perform a variety of facials to meet all of our clients’ needs. We provide everything from whitehead extractions to beautiful Casmara Masks. It is recommended that a facial or peel be done at least once a month. Body Waxing and Professional Brow Shaping are other services that we are pleased to offer.

    Hours of Operation. Monday – Saturday
    Kindly schedule in advance so we may meet your request

    Mon. – Thurs. 9 am – 7 pm
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    24 hour cancellation notice is required to avoid charges
    All no shows will be charged 50% of the scheduled treatment

    Skin Rejuvenation and Skin Tightening performed together at the same time is a perfect marriage. We all wish to look naturally younger and more vibrant. There are several choices that can bring about that result but today I am going to talk to you about one that is truly exciting. It has won awards for it s innovation. What makes it something to consider is the minimal downtime, its ability to treat the dreaded crows feet and the photodamaged skin that leads to wrinkles on the face and neck. It is also very successful in treating scar tissue and achieving an over all brighter healthier complexion.

    The new advanced AFFIRM Multiplex technology is so advanced that great results can be achieved with less pain and in a fraction of the time. The award winning treatment of the AFFIRM has the ability to deliver not just one but two different wavelengths to target the layers of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue at the same time. The 1440-nm targets the superficial photodamaged layers of the skin while the 1320-nm wavelength targets the deep layers of collagen tissue for skin laxity and skin tightening.

    Client s discomfort is decreased while the healing process is accelerated without compromising the effectiveness of the treatment. This superior technology optimizes collagen production by distributing multiple wavelengths simultaneously through a specialized 14 mm optical lens that redistributes 2000 calumniated beams of laser energy to varied levels of heat intensities into the skin.

    This particular treatment can be used on nearly all skin types all year long, it is not as sun sensitive as some of the other laser skin rejuvenating treatments. Absolutely regular sun protection is encouraged before and after the treatment. The wave lengths of the AFFIRM are not color sensitive therefore we can laser over the eye brows safely. Fine lines are smoothed and rejuvenated through a periocular treatment.

    For more information and a consultation please call the clinic 905 850 7546

    AFFIRM services are available everyday to improve elasticity, wrinkles, stretch marks and scar tissue.

    Laser Hair Removal Toronto, Spider Vein Removal Toronto, Skin Rejuvenation Toronto, Botox Toronto, Permanent Hair Removal,
    Electrolysis, Laser Clinic Toronto

    Copyright 2003-2017 THE LASER CLINIC INC. All Rights Reserved.

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    Outer Banks – Albemarle Termite – Pest Control – Elizabeth City, NC – Pest


    Albemarle Termite Pest Control

    Ask About Integrated Pest Management, Beg Bug Control, History & More, Locally Owned & Operated, of Experience Serving the Albemarle Area, Professional Technicians With Years, Proactive Protection, Residential & Commercial, Retail, Schedule Appointme.

    Albemarle Termite & Pest Control – Outer Banks in Elizabeth City, NC – Pasquotank County is a business with Technicians on staff and specialized in Ants, Restaurants, Government, Cockroaches, Earwigs, Termites, Industrial, New Homes, Residence and Vermin. Albemarle Termite & Pest Control is listed in the categories Pest Control Services, Moisture & Vapor Control, Moisture Control and Pest & Termite Control and offers New Construction, Residential, FAST RESPONSE & GREAT CUSTOMER SERVICE IS OUR GUARANTEE. SPECIALIZING IN. Termite Control, CONVENTIONAL TREATMENTS, Environmentally Safe Termite Baiting Systems etc. If you did business with Albemarle Termite & Pest Control, please leave a review and help us improve and help other people. Also, don’t forget to mention Hubbiz.

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    Cervical Cancer Treatment Regimens – Cancer Therapy Advisor #haymarket #treatment #center


    Cervical Cancer Treatment Regimens

    Clinical Trials: The NCCN recommends cancer patient participation in clinical trials as the gold standard for treatment.

    Cancer therapy selection, dosing, administration, and the management of related adverse events can be a complex process that should be handled by an experienced healthcare team. Clinicians must choose and verify treatment options based on the individual patient; drug dose modifications and supportive care interventions should be administered accordingly. The cervical cancer treatment regimens below may include both U.S. Food and Drug Administration -approved and unapproved indications/regimens. These cervical cancer treatment regimens are only provided to supplement the latest treatment strategies.

    These Cancer Treatment Guidelines are a work in progress that may be refined as often as new significant data becomes available. The NCCN Guidelines® are a consensus statement of its authors regarding their views of currently accepted approaches to treatment. Any clinician seeking to apply or consult any NCCN Guidelines® is expected to use independent medical judgment in the context of individual clinical circumstances to determine any patient’s care or treatment. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network makes no warranties of any kind whatsoever regarding their content, use, or application and disclaims any responsibility for their application or use in any way.

    Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer 1a

    Days 1 and 8: Vinorelbine 30mg/m 2 ; dose omitted on day 8 for grade 3 or 4 neutropenia OR reduced to 20 mg/m 2 for grade 2 neutropenia.

    Repeat cycle every 3 weeks.

    a Includes patients with stage 2B to 4A disease, but can be extended to include patients with 1B2 and 2A2 disease in the advanced disease category.

    b Given concurrently with pelvic radiotherapy and brachytherapy; category 1 for patients without nodal disease or with disease
    limited to the pelvis as determined through surgical staging. In patients with positive para-aortic and pelvic lymph nodes on
    imaging studies, extraperitoneal lymph node dissection should be considered, followed by extended-field radiotherapy, concurrent cisplatin-containing chemotherapy, and brachytherapy.

    c Cisplatin, carboplatin, docetaxel, and paclitaxel may cause drug reactions, which can be managed following recommendations
    in NCCN Guidelines for Ovarian Cancer—Management of Drug Reaction [OV-C].

    d Cost and toxicity should be carefully considered when selecting an appropriate regimen for treatment.

    e Although topotecan + paclitaxel was not shown to be superior to cisplatin + paclitaxel, it may be considered an alternative
    in patients who are not candidates for cisplatin.

    1. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology™. Cervical Cancer. v 1.2016. Available at: http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/cervical.pdf. Accessed March 21, 2016.

    2. Keys HM, Bundy BN, Stehman FB, et al. Cisplatin, radiation, and adjuvant hysterectomy compared with radiation and adjuvant hysterectomy for bulky stage IB cervical carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(15):1154–1161. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 1999;341(9):708.

    3. Rose PG, Bundy BN, Watkins EB, et al. Concurrent cisplatin-based radiotherapy and chemotherapy for advanced cervical cancer. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(15):1144–1153. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 1999;341(9):708.

    4. Morris M, Eifel PF, Lu J, et al. Pelvic radiation with concurrent chemotherapy compared with pelvic and para-aortic radiation for high-risk cervical cancer. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(15):1137–1143.

    5. Whitney CW, Sause W, Bundy BN, et al. Randomized comparison of fluorouracil plus cisplatin versus hydroxyurea as an adjunct to radiation therapy in stage IIB-IVA carcinoma of the cervix with negative para-aortic lymph nodes: a Gynecologic Oncology Group and Southwest Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17(5):1339–1348.

    6. Tewari KS1, Sill MW, Long HJ 3rd, et al. Improved survival with bevacizumab in advanced cervical cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(8):734–43.

    7. Monk BJ, Sill MW, McMeekin DS, et al. Phase III trial of four cisplatin-containing doublet combinations in stage IVB, recurrent, or persistent cervical carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(28):4649–4655.

    8. Moore DH, Blessing JA, McQuellon RP, et al. Phase III study of cisplatin with or without paclitaxel in stage IVB, recurrent, or persistent squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a gynecologic oncology group study. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22(15):3113–3119.

    9. Moore KN, Herzog TJ, Lewin S, et al. A comparison of cisplatin/paclitaxel and carboplatin/paclitaxel in stage IVB, recurrent or persistent cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;105(2):299–303.

    10. Kitagawa R, Katsumata N, Shibata T, et al. Paclitaxel plus ­carboplatin versus paclitaxel plus cisplatin in metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer: the open-label randomized phase iii trial JCOG0505. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(19):2129–2135.

    11. Long HJ 3rd, Bundy BN, Grendys EC Jr, et al; Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Randomized phase III trial of cisplatin with or without topotecan in carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(21):4626–4633.

    12. Brewer CA, Blessing JA, Nagourney RA, et al. Cisplatin plus gemcitabine in previously treated squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a phase II study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;100(2):385–388.

    13. Weiss GR, Green S, Hannigan EV, et al. A phase II trial of carboplatin for recurrent or metastatic squamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a Southwest Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol. 1990;39(3):332–336.

    14. Kudelka AP, Winn R, Edwards CL, et al. An update of a phase II study of paclitaxel in advanced or recurrent squamous cell cancer of the cervix. Anticancer Drugs. 1997;8(7):657–661.

    15. Monk BJ, Sill MW, Burger RA, et al. Phase II trial of beva­cizumab in the treatment of persistent or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a gynecologic oncology group study. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(7):1069–1074.

    16. Alberts DS, Blessing JA, Landrum LM, et al. Phase II trial of nab-paclitaxel in the treatment of recurrent or persistent advanced cervix cancer: a gynecologic oncology group study. Gynecol Oncol. 2012;127(3):451–455.

    17. Garcia AA, Blessing JA, Vaccarello L, et al. Phase II clinical trial of docetaxel in refractory squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Am J Clin Oncol. 2007;30(4):428–431.

    18. Look KY, Blessing JA, Gallup DG, Lentz SS. A phase II trial of 5-fluorouracil and high-dose leucovorin in patients with ­recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Am J Clin Oncol. 96;19(5):439–441.

    19. Schilder RJ, Blessing J, Cohn DE. Evaluation of gemcitabine in previously treated patients with non-squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a phase II study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;96(1):103–107.

    20. Coleman RE, Harper PG, Gallagher C, et al. A phase II study of ifosfamide in advanced and relapsed carcinoma of the cervix. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1986;18(3):280–283.

    21. Sutton GP, Blessing JA, McGuire WP, Patton T, Look KY. Phase II trial of ifosfamide and mesna in patients with advanced or recurrent squamous carcinoma of the cervix who had never received chemotherapy: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993;168(3 Pt 1):805–807.

    22. Verschraegen CF, Levy T, Kudelka AP, et al. Phase II study of irinotecan in prior chemotherapy-treated squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. J Clin Oncol. 1997;15(2):625–631.

    23. Wagenaar HC, Pecorelli S, Mangioni C, et al. Phase II study of mitomycin-C and cisplatin in disseminated, squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. A European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Gynecological Cancer Group study. Eur J Cancer. 2001;37(13):1624–1628.

    24. Miller DS, Blessing JA, Bodurka DC, Bonebrake AJ, Schorge JO; Gynecologic Oncology Group. Evaluation of pemetrexed (Alimta, LY231514) as second line chemotherapy in persistent or recurrent carcinoma of the cervix: a phase II study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;110(1):65–70.

    25. Bookman MA, Blessing JA, Hanjani P, Herzog TJ, Andersen WA. Topotecan in squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a phase II study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Gynecol Oncol. 2000;77(3):446–449.

    26. Muderspach LI, Blessing JA, Levenback C, Moore JL Jr. A phase II study of topotecan in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a gynecologic oncology group study. Gynecol Oncol. 2001;81(2):213–215.

    27. Muggia FM, Blessing JA, Method M, et al; Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Evaluation of vinorelbine in persistent or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;92(2):639–643.

    Gynecological Cancer Drug Monographs

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    Alcoholism & Drug Addiction Rehab and Recovery: Treatment Centers, Rehabilitation Programs, Eating Disorders, Alcohol


    Addiction Treatment Forum. An educational site focusing on addiction issues, especially opiate addiction and treatment.

    American Council on Alcoholism. Dedicated to educating the public about the effects of alcohol, alcoholism and treatment.

    Do It Now Foundation Publisher of prevention literature

    Dual Diagnosis Website Mental Illness, Drug Addiction and Alcoholism, MIDAA(R), MICA

    Focus Adolescent Services Internet Clearinghouse of resources, support and information

    Institute of Alcohol Studies. Information on alcohol and the social and health consequences of its misuse.

    Join Together Online. A collaboration of the Boston University School of Public Health and The Partnership at Drugfree.org, delivering substance abuse and addiction news.

    Learn-About-Alcoholism.com. Educational resource covering all aspects of alcoholism.

    Mental Health Matters Directory of mental health resources.

    Methadone Anonymous. Website that answers questions about methadone and has Methadone Anonymous support.

    National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA). Information on the cost of substance abuse throughout society and its impact on our lives.

    National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, Inc. (NCADD). Provides education, information, help and hope in the fight against substance abuse.

    National Inhalant Prevention Coalition (NIPC). A resource for parents, educators and professionals on inhalant abuse.

    Recovery Connection. A website and that helps people locate addiction treatment centers and drug rehabilitation programs.

    StrugglingTeens.com. Woodbury Reports presents resources for parents and professionals trying to help at-risk teenagers.

    Teen Drug Abuse. Educational site about why teens begin using, what they are using, and how those drugs are affecting teens physically, socially, and mentally.

    Web of Addictions. Provides accurate information about alcohol and other drug addictions. Resource for anyone needing factual information about abused drugs. Top

    Eating Disorders Resources
    Academy for Eating Disorders (AED). Multidisciplinary association of academic and clinical professionals with demonstrated interest and expertise in the field of eating disorders.

    The Alliance for Eating Disorders Awareness. Aim is to disseminate educational information to parents and caregivers about warning signs, dangers and consequences of anorexia, bulimia and other related eating disorders.

    The American Anorexia Bulimia Association, Inc. (AABA). The AABA works to increase the public’s consciousness of Eating Disorders – their prevalence, the early warning signs and symptoms.

    Anorexia Nervosa & Related Eating Disorders, Inc.. Provides information about eating and exercise disorders – general information, warning signs and details about recovery and prevention.

    Eating Disorders Referral and Information Center Information and treatment resources for all forms of Eating Disorders.

    National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA). Dedicated to expanding public understanding of eating disorders and promoting access to quality treatment for those affected along with support for their families through education, advocacy and research.

    National Council on Problem Gambling. Provides information regarding problem and pathological(compulsive) gambling.

    North American Training Institute. Information regarding compulsive gambling prevention and treatment.

    Responsible Gambling Council (Ontario). Helps individuals and communities address gambling in a responsible way, through information, awareness/prevention, professional development and research. Top

    Government Resources
    The National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI). Comprehensive source of information and searchable databases on substance abuse prevention.

    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism(NIAAA). Supports and conducts research on causes, consequences, treatment and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol related problems.

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA). Assures that quality substance abuse and mental health services are available to people in need and strives to ensure that prevention and treatment knowledge is used more effectively in the general health care system. Top

    Self-Help Resources
    AA Meetings Online. Directory of AA meetings on the Internet.

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    Crack Cocaine Usage Statistics – Crack Use & Crime Rates – Drug-Free World #crack


    In US Federal courts in 2007, 5,477 individuals were found guilty of crack cocaine-related crimes. More than 95% of these offenders had been involved in crack cocaine trafficking.

    The situation is different in Europe. The European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction reports abuse of crack cocaine is commonly restricted to minority communities in large cities with high levels of unemployment and poor living conditions. In 2006, 20 European countries reported that crack cocaine abusers represented only 2% of all drug users entering substance abuse treatment, and most of them were reported by the United Kingdom.

    Crack Crime

    11.6% of those arrested used crack in the previous week.
    Honolulu, Hawaii

    49.8% of those arrested used crack in the past.
    Atlanta, Georgia

    The 2006 US National Survey on Drug Use and Health shows that 8.6 million Americans aged 12 and older reported having used crack. Among those 18 to 25, 6.9% of those surveyed said they had used cocaine (including crack) within the last year. The 2007 US Government’s Monitoring the Future survey found that among high-school students, 3.2% of twelfth graders had used crack cocaine at some point in their lives.

    In the United States, crack cocaine was the primary drug of abuse in 178,475 admissions to treatment in 2006. This represented 71% of all primary cocaine admissions to treatment that year.

    “It’s a totally selfish drug, this crack. It takes over your life. Crack grabs ahold quickly. It doesn’t take long at all. The cravings it produces are massive. And you end up using it more frequently because the high is short-lasting.”Peter

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