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Cerebral Palsy – Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Palsy #cerebral #palsy, #ataxic


Cerebral Palsy – Topic Overview

What is cerebral palsy?

Cerebral palsy is a group of problems that affect body movement and posture. It is related to a brain injury or to problems with brain development. It is one of the most common causes of lasting disability in children.

Cerebral palsy causes reflex movements that a person can’t control and muscle tightness that may affect parts or all of the body. These problems can range from mild to severe. Intellectual disability. seizures. and vision and hearing problems can occur.

What causes cerebral palsy?

Cerebral palsy is caused by a brain injury or problem that occurs during pregnancy or birth or within the first 2 to 3 years of a child’s life. It can be caused by:

  • Problems from being born too early (premature birth).
  • Not getting enough blood. oxygen, or other nutrients before or during birth.
  • A serious head injury .
  • A serious infection that can affect the brain. such as meningitis .
  • Some problems passed from parent to child (genetic conditions ) that affect brain development.

In many cases, the exact cause of cerebral palsy is not known.

What are the symptoms?

Everyone with cerebral palsy has problems with body movement and posture. But the physical problems are worse for some people than for others.

Some people who have cerebral palsy have a slight limp or a hard time walking. Other people have little or no control over their arms and legs or other parts of the body, such as the mouth and tongue. which can cause problems with eating and speaking. People who have severe forms of cerebral palsy are more likely to have other problems, such as seizures or intellectual disability.

Babies with severe cerebral palsy often have problems with their posture. Their bodies may be either very floppy or very stiff. Birth defects sometimes occur along with cerebral palsy. Examples of birth defects include a spine that doesn’t have the normal shape, a small jawbone, or a small head.

The brain injury or problem that causes cerebral palsy doesn’t get worse over time. But new symptoms may appear, or symptoms may change or get worse as your child gets older. This is why some babies born with cerebral palsy don’t show clear signs of it right away.


How is cerebral palsy diagnosed?

Your child’s doctor will do a physical exam and ask you about your child’s medical history. He or she will ask about your child’s growth and about any problems you may have noticed. The doctor may also ask about your child’s development.

Tests, such as a CT scan or an MRI of your child’s head, may also be done. Or the doctor may look at ultrasound pictures of the brain. These tests can sometimes help the doctor find the cause of cerebral palsy.

If your child has a severe form of cerebral palsy, a doctor may be able to pinpoint the problem within the first few weeks of your child’s life. But parents are often the first to notice that their baby does not have the abilities and skills that are common in other children in the same age group. These developmental delays can be early signs of cerebral palsy.

Even when the condition is present at birth, the signs of cerebral palsy may not be noticed until a child is 1 to 3 years old.

How is it treated?

Even though cerebral palsy can’t be cured, you and your child can do things to help deal with symptoms, prevent problems, and make the most of your child’s abilities. Physical therapy is one of the most important treatments. Medicines, surgery, and special equipment such as a walker can also help.

What can you do to cope?

Meeting the daily needs of a family member with cerebral palsy isn’t easy. If your child has cerebral palsy, seek family and community support. It may help to join a support group or talk with other parents who have a child with special needs, so you don’t feel alone.

You may also find counseling useful. It may help you understand and deal with the wide range of emotions you may feel. Your child will need help too. Providing emotional support for your child can help him or her cope with having cerebral palsy.

Learning that your child has cerebral palsy isn’t easy, and raising a child who has it can be hard. But the more you know, the better you can care for and provide for your child.


Frequently Asked Questions

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Total Return Swap (TRS) #swap, #swaps, #total #return #swap, #trs, #asset #swap, #bond #swap,


Total Return Swap (TRS)

A Total Return Swap (TRS) is a bilateral financial transaction where the counterparties swap the total return of a single asset or basket of assets in exchange for periodic cash flows, typically a floating rate such as LIBOR +/- a basis point spread and a guarantee against any capital losses. A TRS is similar to a plain vanilla swap except the deal is structured such that the total return (cash flows plus capital appreciation/depreciation) is exchanged, rather than just the cash flows.

A key feature of a TRS is that the parties do not transfer actual ownership of the assets. as occurs in a repo transaction. This allows greater flexibility and reduced up-front capital to execute a valuable trade. This also means Total Return Swaps can be more highly leveraged, making them a favorite of hedge funds.

Total Return Swaps (TRS) are also known as Total Rate of Return Swaps (TROR).

The Total Return Swap market is strictly institutional over the counter (OTC). Market participants include investment banks (Goldman Sachs, JPMorganChase), commercial banks (Bank of America, Sumitomo), mutual funds (Prudential, Merrill Lynch Asset Management), hedge funds, funds of funds, private equity funds, pension funds (CalPers), university endowments (Harvard, University of California), credit card lenders (American Express, MBNA/Bank of America), insurance companies (AIG, State Farm), governments, non-governmental (NGO) organizations (World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank), home loan banks (FHLB, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac), and the Treasury departments of large multinational corporations (Wal-Mart, British Petroleum). A variety of special purpose vehicles (SPVs) such as CDOs and real estate investment trusts (REITs) also participate in the TRS market.

The TRS market was traditionally between commercial banks where one party (Bank A) had exceeded its balance sheet limits, and the other (Bank B) had balance sheet capacity available. Bank A could shift assets off its balance sheet synthetically and gain additional income with less risk. Bank B could “lease” the assets of Bank A by paying some regular cash flows and offering a guarantee against any capital losses.

In the last 10 years, hedge funds and special purpose vehicles have become a major force in the TRS market. Now the most common use of a TRS is for “leveraged balance sheet arbitrage”, whereby a hedge fund lacking a large balance sheet and seeking leveraged exposure to particular assets pays for that exposure by “leasing” the assets from a major bank, mutual fund, or securities dealer. The hedge fund hopes to generate high asset returns without having to tie up its capital by buying those assets for its own account. The bank, fund, or dealer hopes to generate additional cash flow by charging a spread over and above the market returns it receives from lending or other activities, and receiving a guarantee against depreciation of the assets.

A TRS can be structured on any type of reference asset. including single equities, indexes, leases, oil-backed credit obligations, baskets of corporate bonds, mortgages, municipal bonds, other swaps or derivatives, real property, credit card ABS, residential MBS, CDO notes, investment grade convertible bonds, etc. This makes the range of potential market participants extremely broad.

TRS Transaction Structure

A TRS is made up of two legs, the Return Leg (or Total Return Leg) and the Funding Leg. The reference asset or basket of assets exists on the Return Leg. The cash flow payment stream exists on the Funding Leg.

The Return Leg is generally made up of two components: cash flows and capital appreciation of the reference asset(s). The Funding Leg also has two components: floating coupons based on LIBOR +/- a spread and payments to offset any capital depreciation of the reference asset(s).

Additional legs may be structured to account for reinvestment of returns, interest payments on collateral / haircuts, multi-currency flows, or differing payment schedules. Fees, spreads, principal payments, etc. may be added in a customized structure.

The Return Leg counterparty is called the Total Return Payer, Swap Seller, Buyer of protection, or Beneficiary. Here, we will use the term Total Return Payer or TRP. The TRP (typically a bank, fund, or dealer) has a long position in the reference asset or basket of assets, holding them on its balance sheet. The TRP “buys protection” on these asset returns by agreeing to pay all of the future returns of the reference asset(s) in exchange for a floating stream of payments, usually LIBOR +/- a spread, plus a guaranteed offset of any capital losses incurred by the reference asset(s). The TRP gives up one set of expected future returns (capital appreciation, coupons, fees, dividends, etc.) in exchange for another set of future returns (LIBOR coupons +/- a spread) and capital loss insurance. This allows the TRP to lock in the value of its asset(s) and receive additional income.

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SGG – iPath® Bloomberg Sugar Subindex Total Return(SM) ETN ETF Quote #total #return


iPath® Bloomberg Sugar Subindex Total Return(SM) ETN (SGG)

Investment Objective

The investment seeks to provide investors with exposure to the Dow Jones-UBS Sugar Subindex Total ReturnService Mark. The Dow Jones-UBS Sugar Subindex Total ReturnService Mark (the “index”) reflects the returns that are potentially available through an unleveraged investment in the futures contracts on sugar. The index currently consists of one futures contract on the commodity of sugar which is included in the Dow Jones-UBS Commodity Index Total ReturnService Mark.

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Data through 06/10/2017

Quote Details

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30.55 30.95

Net asset value (NAV)

Average volume (3 months)

Data as of 7:59pm ET, 06/09/2017

Peer Comparison vs. Commodities agriculture ETFs

Performance 5-yr return

Expense Gross exp ratio

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UAG UBS ETRACS CMCI Agriculture Total Return.


FUE ELEMENTS Linked to the MLCX Biofuels Ind.


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Return On Investment (ROI) #total #return #on #investment


Return On Investment – ROI

BREAKING DOWN ‘Return On Investment – ROI’

Return on investment is a very popular metric because of its versatility and simplicity. Essentially, return on investment can be used as a rudimentary gauge of an investment’s profitability. ROI can be very easy to calculate and to interpret and can apply to a wide variety of kinds of investments. That is, if an investment does not have a positive ROI, or if an investor has other opportunities available with a higher ROI, then these ROI values can instruct him or her as to which investments are preferable to others.

For example, suppose Joe invested $1,000 in Slice Pizza Corp. in 2010 and sold his shares for a total of $1,200 a year later. To calculate the return on his investment, he would divide his profits ($1,200 – $1,000 = $200) by the investment cost ($1,000), for a ROI of $200/$1,000, or 20%.

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With this information, he could compare the profitability of his investment in Slice Pizza with that of other investments. Suppose Joe also invested $2,000 in Big-Sale Stores Inc. in 2011 and sold his shares for a total of $2,800 in 2014. The ROI on Joe’s holdings in Big-Sale would be $800/$2,000, or 40%. Using ROI, Joe can easily compare the profitability of these two investments. Joe’s 40% ROI from his Big-Sale holdings is twice as large as his 20% ROI from his Slice holdings, so it would appear that his investment in Big-Sale was the wiser move.

Limitations of ROI

Yet, examples like Joe’s reveal one of several limitations of using ROI, particularly when comparing investments. While the ROI of Joe’s second investment was twice that of his first investment, the time between Joe’s purchase and sale was one year for his first investment and three years for his second. Joe’s ROI for his first investment was 20% in one year and his ROI for his second investment was 40% over three. If one considers that the duration of Joe’s second investment was three times as long as that of his first, it becomes apparent that Joe should have questioned his conclusion that his second investment was the more profitable one. When comparing these two investments on an annual basis, Joe needed to adjust the ROI of his multi-year investment accordingly. Since his total ROI was 40%, to obtain his average annual ROI he would need to divide his ROI by the duration of his investment. Since 40% divided by 3 is 13.33%, it appears that his previous conclusion was incorrect. While Joe’s second investment earned him more profit than did the first, his first investment was actually the more profitable choice since its annual ROI was higher.

Examples like Joe’s indicate how a cursory comparison of investments using ROI can lead one to make incorrect conclusions about their profitability. Given that ROI does not inherently account for the amount of time during which the investment in question is taking place, this metric can often be used in conjunction with Rate of Return. which necessarily pertains to a specified period of time, unlike ROI. One may also incorporate Net Present Value (NPV). which accounts for differences in the value of money over time due to inflation, for even more precise ROI calculations. The application of NPV when calculating rate of return is often called the Real Rate of Return .

Keep in mind that the means of calculating a return on investment and, therefore, its definition as well, can be modified to suit the situation. it all depends on what one includes as returns and costs. The definition of the term in the broadest sense simply attempts to measure the profitability of an investment and, as such, there is no one “right” calculation.

For example, a marketer may compare two different products by dividing the gross profit that each product has generated by its associated marketing expenses. A financial analyst, however, may compare the same two products using an entirely different ROI calculation, perhaps by dividing the net income of an investment by the total value of all resources that have been employed to make and sell the product. When using ROI to assess real estate investments. one might use the initial purchase price of a property as the “Cost of Investment” and the ultimate sale price as the “Gain from Investment,” though this fails to account for all of the intermediary costs, like renovations, property taxes and real estate agent fees.

This flexibility, then, reveals another limitation of using ROI, as ROI calculations can be easily manipulated to suit the user’s purposes, and the results can be expressed in many different ways. As such, when using this metric, the savvy investor would do well to make sure he or she understands which inputs are being used. A return on investment ratio alone can paint a picture that looks quite different from what one might call an “accurate” ROI calculation—one incorporating every relevant expense that has gone into the maintenance and development of an investment over the period of time in question—and investors should always be sure to consider the bigger picture.

Developments in ROI

Recently, certain investors and businesses have taken an interest in the development of a new form of the ROI metric, called “Social Return on Investment ,” or SROI. SROI was initially developed in the early 00’s and takes into account social impacts of projects and strives to include those affected by these decisions in the planning of allocation of capital and other resources.

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