A Start-Up Slump Is a Drag on the Economy, how to start a business.#How
The New York Times
Graphic | A Long Start-Up Slump
September 20, 2017
Unemployment has fallen, and the stock market has soared. So why has the economic expansion since the recession been so tame, with sluggish productivity and, at least until recently, anemic wage growth?
Economists say the answer, to some degree, can be found in a start-up slump — a decline in the creation of new businesses — and a growing understanding of what’s behind it.
A total of 414,000 businesses were formed in 2015, the latest year surveyed, the Census Bureau reported Wednesday. It was a slight increase from the previous year, but well below the 558,000 companies given birth in 2006, the year before the recession set in.
“We’re still in a start-up funk,” said Robert Litan, an economist and antitrust lawyer who has studied the issue. “Obviously the recession had a lot to do with it, but then you’re left with the conundrum: Why hasn’t there been any recovery?”
Many economists say the answer could lie in the rising power of the biggest corporations, which they argue is stifling entrepreneurship by making it easier for incumbent businesses to swat away challengers — or else to swallow them before they become a serious threat.
“You’ve got rising market power,” said Marshall Steinbaum, an economist at the Roosevelt Institute, a liberal think tank. “In general, that makes it hard for new businesses to compete with incumbents. Market power is the story that explains everything.”
That argument comes at a potent political moment. Populists on both the left and right have responded to growing public unease about the corporate giants that increasingly dominate their online and offline lives. Polling data from Gallup and other organizations shows a long-running decline in confidence in banks and other big businesses — a concern not likely to abate after high-profile data breaches at Equifax and other companies.
The start-up slump has far-reaching implications. Small businesses in general are often cited as an exemplar of economic dynamism. But it is start-ups — and particularly the small subset of companies that grow quickly — that are key drivers of job creation and innovation, and have historically been a ladder into the middle class for less-educated workers and immigrants.
Perhaps most significant, start-ups play a critical role in making the economy as a whole more productive, as they invent new products and approaches, forcing existing businesses to compete or fall by the wayside.
“Across the decades, young companies are really the heavy hitters and the consistent hitters in terms of job creation,” said Arnobio Morelix, an economist at the Kauffman Foundation, a nonprofit in Kansas City, Mo., that studies and promotes entrepreneurship.
The start-up decline might defy expectations in the age of Uber and “Shark Tank.” But however counterintuitive, the trend is backed by multiple data sources and numerous economic studies.
In 1980, according to the Census Bureau data, roughly one in eight companies had been founded in the past year; by 2015, that ratio had fallen to fewer than one in 12. The downward trend cuts across regions and industries and, at least since 2000, includes even the beating heart of American entrepreneurship, high tech.
Although the overall slump dates back more than 30 years, economists are most concerned about a more recent trend. In the 1980s and 1990s, the entrepreneurial slowdown was concentrated in sectors such as retail, where corner stores and regional brands were being subsumed by national chains. That trend, though often painful for local communities, wasn’t necessarily a drag on productivity more generally.
Since about 2000, however, the slowdown has spread to parts of the economy more often associated with high-growth entrepreneurship, including the technology sector. That decline has coincided with a period of weak productivity growth in the United States as a whole, a trend that has in turn been implicated in the patterns of fitful wage gains and sluggish economic growth since the recession. Recent research has suggested that the decline in entrepreneurship, and in other measures of business dynamism, is one cause of the prolonged stagnation in productivity.
“We’ve got lots of pieces now that say dynamism has gone down a lot since 2000,” said John Haltiwanger, a University of Maryland economist who has done much of the pioneering work in the field. “Start-ups have gone down a lot since 2000, especially in the high-tech sectors, and there are increasingly strong links to productivity.”
What is behind the decline in entrepreneurship is less clear. Economists and other experts have pointed to a range of possible explanations: The aging of the baby-boom generation has left fewer Americans in their prime business-starting years. The decline of community banks and the collapse of the market for home-equity loans may have made it harder for would-be entrepreneurs to get access to capital. Increased regulation, at both the state and federal levels, may be particularly burdensome for new businesses that lack well-staffed compliance departments. Those and other factors could well play a role, but none can fully explain the decline.
More recently, economists — especially but not exclusively on the left — have begun pointing the finger at big business, and in particular at the handful of companies that increasingly dominate many industries.
Graphic | Big Business, Getting Bigger The share of employees working at large, medium and small companies in the United States.
The evidence is largely circumstantial: The slump in entrepreneurship has coincided with a period of increasing concentration in nearly every major industry. Research from Mr. Haltiwanger and several co-authors has found that the most productive companies are growing more slowly than in the past, a hint that competitive pressures aren’t forcing companies to react as quickly to new innovations.
A recent working paper from economists at Princeton and University College London found that American companies are increasingly able to demand prices well above their costs — which according to standard economic theory would lead new companies to enter the market. Yet that isn’t happening.
“If we’re in an era of excessive profits, in competitive markets we would see record firm entry, but we see the opposite,” said Ian Hathaway, an economist who has studied the issue. That, Mr. Hathaway said, suggests that the market is not truly competitive — that existing companies have found ways to block competitors.
Experts also point to anecdotal examples that suggest that the rise of big businesses could be squelching competition. YouTube, Instagram and hundreds of lower-profile start-ups chose to sell out to industry heavyweights like Google and Facebook rather than try to take them on directly. The tech giants have likewise been accused of using the power of their platforms to favor their own offerings over those of competitors.
Most recently, Amazon openly called for a bidding war among cities for its second headquarters — hardly the kind of demand a new start-up could make. Mr. Morelix said the Amazon example was particularly striking.
“We’re saying that it’s O.K. that they shape how a city charges taxes?” Mr. Morelix said. “And what kind of regulations they have? That should be terrifying to anyone that wants a free market.”
In Washington, where for years politicians have praised small businesses while catering to big ones, issues of competition and entrepreneurship are increasingly drawing bipartisan attention. Several Republican presidential candidates referred to the start-up slump during last year’s primary campaign. Progressive Democrats such as Senators Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts and Amy Klobuchar of Minnesota have pushed for stricter enforcement of antitrust rules. In a speech in March, Ms. Klobuchar explicitly tied the struggles of entrepreneurs to rising corporate concentration.
In July, entrepreneurs achieved a mark of political relevance: their own advocacy group. The newly formed Center for American Entrepreneurship will conduct research on the importance of new businesses to the economy and push for policies aimed at improving the start-up rate. Its founding president, John Dearie, comes from big business — he was most recently the acting head of the Financial Services Forum, which represents big financial institutions.
“Everybody loves entrepreneurship, but they’re not aware it’s in trouble,” Mr. Dearie said. “If new businesses are the engine of net new job creation, and if new businesses are the engine of innovation, and new business creation is at 30-year lows, that’s a national emergency.”
Follow Ben Casselman on Twitter: @bencasselman
How to Start a Rice Dealership Business, Pinoy Bisnes Ideas, how to start a
How to Start a Rice Dealership Business
Rice is an important primary staple food in many Asian countries especially in the Philippines. Indicating the high demand for this commodity, planning to put up a rice dealership business in your area is a wise choice. There is already an assurance that this business will succeed because buyers are already there. Of course, in any kind of business, conducting a feasibility study is always a crucial step to take. This will assess the economic viability of your proposed business.
Here are some important questions to consider before plunging into this kind of business.
1. Do you have enough capital or budget for your rice dealership business? With at least P60,000 to P100,000 as a starting capital.
2. Do you want to operate as sole proprietorship or corporation? Business registration guide here.
3. Do you have a big and safe storage room for the sacks of rice that will be delivered to you?
4. Do you have a good location for your rice dealership business? Research the area of your target market, the flow of traffic and their buying habits.
5. Do you have lists of rice suppliers in your area? Make sure you have a lists of several suppliers and make a good relationship with them.
6. Do you have necessary equipments like calibrated weighing scales, rice sacks etc., and a service delivery (optional).
7. What varieties of rice do you intend to sell? Make sure to have several varieties of rice, so that your customers will have several options.
8. How will you market your business? This is also an important aspect especially you are new in this kind of business. Make a good marketing strategy and make your business known to your customers. Make a good deal with restaurant owners, hotels, resorts and small carenderias in your place to be their rice supplier.
Here are Some NFA Rice Dealership FAQ
Q: Who are required to secure license from NFA?
A: All persons, natural or juridical, that are engaging or intending to engage in the rice and/or corn business whether commercial or NFA rice/corn.
A: Before the start in any of the business activity enumerated above, the proprietor or operator should first secure a license from NFA. For those already license, businessmen should renew their annual license on any day within their scheduled month allotted by the NFA
A: Application may be filed at the NFA office that has jurisdiction over the location of the principal business of the applicant.
Q: In case we have more than one (1) store/establishment for Rice/Corn business, should all be licensed?
A: Yes, owner/operator should file a license for all outlets at the NFA office where his principal place of business is located. Additional outlets are treated as branches.
A: For new applicants, follow these procedures:
secure application form from the licensing officer upon payment of application fee;
accomplish and file application with complete requirements to the licensing officer who in turn checks the documents and determines corresponding license fee;
pay license fee to the cashier and get copy of official receipt;
prepare the facilities/equipment requirements for inspection by NFA Investigators;
after inspection of establishments, present notice of inspection to licensing officer, official receipt and proof of compliance with deficiencies, if any;
licensing officer issues license if application is found to be in order;
applicants display license in their establishments.
Procedures for renewal applicants:
secure application from licensing officer upon payment of application fee;
accomplish and file application with complete requirements together with previous year s license to the licensing officer;
licensing officer checks completeness of requirements and determines license fee to be paid;
pay license fee to the cashier and present the official receipt to licensing officer;
licensing officer issues renewal sticker and stick it to appropriate portion of the license if application is found to be in order;
applicants display licensing conspicuous place in their establishments.
Q: For New Applicants, how long do we have to wait for the Approval of our License Application?
A: The establishments and facility requirements of new applicants are inspected by NFA Investigators within 20 working days after the filling of their applications. Those inspected are given inspection notices stating the date when they can return to the NFA to show compliance with any deficiency, if any. Otherwise, their notices state the date they can get their license. In all these cases, it should not exceed 20 working days after inspection.
A: Application fee is P50.00 for a single line activity and P100.00 for two activities or more. License fees depend upon capacity of the post harvest equipment used.
A: Documentary and facility requirements depend upon the business activity.
Q: Does the NFA requires only Licensing on Rice/Corn Business Activities?
A: The NFA also require the registration of the following facilities aside from the license on the activities mentioned earlier list.
motor vehicles used or intended to be used in transport/hauling of palay/ rice/corn whether for exclusive use or for hire except public utility vehicles franchised by proper government agencies not principally used for transporting rice/palay/corn;
warehouses,threshers and sellers for own produce;
mechanical dryers for owner s/operators exclusive use;
packaging machines for owner s/operators exclusive use;
institutions/establishments securing their rice/corn requirements from the NFA;
poultry and hog raisers securing byproducts from the NFA;
manufacturers/importers/dealers and distributors of rice/corn post-harvest facilities;
non-operating mills and other post-harvest facilities. In this case, registration is done only once.
Registration is done at the office of the NFA that has jurisdiction over the location of the principal business of the applicant.
Registration fees see separate from that of the license fees.
Q: In the event that I discontinue my business, what should I do with my License/Registration Certificate?
A: Surrender your license/registration certificate to the NFA office that issued it together with a written notice of discontinuance.
Otherwise, in case you reapply, you would be charged with the fees for the entire period that you have not applied for renewal.
Q: What do you mean by Bonded Activities?
A: Bonded activities mean third party stocks are deposited in your facilities, for storage, milling, threshing, corn shelling or mechanical drying. Operators/owners of facilities accepting third party stocks are required to post a bond as well as fire insurance to safeguard the stocks of the third party.
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Best Blogger Templates, Responsive Themes, WordPress Themes, best business to start.#Best #business #to #start
best business to start
Jannah – WordPress Template
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R is a tool for statistics and data modeling. The R programming language is elegant, versatile, and has a highly expressive syntax designed around working with data. R is more than that, though it also includes extremely powerful graphics capabilities. If you want to easily manipulate your data and present it in compelling ways, R is the tool for you.
Table of Contents
- R Syntax: A gentle introduction to R expressions, variables, and functions
- Vectors: Grouping values into vectors, then doing arithmetic and graphs with them
- Matrices: Creating and graphing two-dimensional data sets
- Summary Statistics: Calculating and plotting some basic statistics: mean, median, and standard deviation
- Factors: Creating and plotting categorized data
- Data Frames: Organizing values into data frames, loading frames from files and merging them
- Working With Real-World Data: Testing for correlation between data sets, linear models and installing additional packages
introduction to business
A gentle introduction
Extreme Programming is successful because it stresses customer satisfaction. Instead of delivering everything you could possibly want on some date far in the future this process delivers the software you need as you need it. Extreme Programming empowers your developers to confidently respond to changing customer requirements, even late in the life cycle.
Extreme Programming emphasizes teamwork. Managers, customers, and developers are all equal partners in a collaborative team. Extreme Programming implements a simple, yet effective environment enabling teams to become highly productive. The team self-organizes around the problem to solve it as efficiently as possible.
Extreme Programming improves a software project in five essential ways; communication, simplicity, feedback, respect, and courage. Extreme Programmers constantly communicate with their customers and fellow programmers. They keep their design simple and clean. They get feedback by testing their software starting on day one. They deliver the system to the customers as early as possible and implement changes as suggested. Every small success deepens their respect for the unique contributions of each and every team member. With this foundation Extreme Programmers are able to courageously respond to changing requirements and technology.
The most surprising aspect of Extreme Programming is its simple rules. Extreme Programming is a lot like a jig saw puzzle. There are many small pieces. Individually the pieces
make no sense, but when combined together a complete picture can be seen. The rules may seem awkward and perhaps even naive at first, but are based on sound values and principles.
Our rules set expectations between team members but are not the end goal themselves. You will come to realize these rules define an environment that promotes team collaboration and empowerment, that is your goal. Once achieved productive teamwork will continue even as rules are changed to fit your company’s specific needs.
This flow chart shows how Extreme Programming’s rules work together. Customers enjoy being partners in the software process, developers actively contribute regardless of experience level, and managers concentrate on communication and relationships. Unproductive activities have been trimmed to reduce costs and frustration of everyone involved.
Take a guided tour of Extreme Programming by following the trail of littlebuttons, starting here.
Copyright (c) 1999, 2000, 2001, 2004, 2009 Don Wells. All Rights reserved.
The Best Business School in China, China Europe International Business School, introduction to business.#Introduction
introduction to business
Ding Yuan, vice president of China Europe International Business School, said that as the Davos Forum was held amid a rising tide of de-globalization and trade protectionism, China’s attitude toward globalization and free trade issues has attracte
So is there hope for foreign tech firms with aspirations to succeed in China? One tech company that appears to have made inroads into the China internet market as a niche player – and therefore suggests that it is not a lost cause – is InMobi.
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