How to Write a Business Report for English Learners
By Kenneth Beare. English as 2nd Language Expert
Kenneth is an ESL teacher, trainer, and content developer. He provides consulting services for English language learning projects through Englishfeed. You can follow Kenneth on Twitter. on his Google profile: Kenneth Beare. or on Facebook to stay up to date on his latest English learning materials.
Updated July 28, 2015.
If you would like to learn how to write a business report in English follow these tips and use the example report as a template on which to base your own business report. First of all, business reports provide important information for management that is timely and factual. English learners writing business reports need to make sure that the language is precise and concise. The writing style used for business reports should present information without strong opinions, but rather as direct and accurately as possible.
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Linking language should be used to connect ideas and sections of the business report. This example business report presents the four essentials that every business report should include:
Terms of reference refer to the terms on which the business report is written.
The procedure describe the method that was used to collect data for the report.
The findings describe the data or other important information the report produced.
Conclusions are drawn on the findings which provide reasons for recommendations.
The recommendations are specific suggestions made based on the conclusions of the report.
Read the short example business report and follow the tips below. Teachers can print this examples for use in class in lessons using sound teaching writing strategies .
Reports: Example Report
Margaret Anderson, Director of Personnel has requested this report on employee benefits satisfaction. The report was to be submitted to her by 28 June.
A representative selection of 15% of all employees were interviewed in the period between April 1st and April 15th concerning:
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- Overall satisfaction with our current benefits package
- Problems encountered when dealing with the personnel department
- Suggestions for the improvement of communication policies
- Problems encountered when dealing with our HMO
- Employees were generally satisfied with the current benefits package.
- Some problems were encountered when requesting vacation due to what is perceived as long approval waiting periods.
- Older employees repeatedly had problems with HMO prescription drugs procedures.
- Employees between the ages of 22 and 30 report few problems with HMO.
- Most employees complain about the lack of dental insurance in our benefits package.
- The most common suggestion for improvement was for the ability to process benefits requests online.
- Older employees, those over 50, are having serious problems with our HMO s ability to provide prescription drugs.
- Our benefits request system needs to be revised as most complaints concerning in-house processing.
- Improvements need to take place in personnel department response time.
- Information technology improvements should be considered as employees become more technologically savvy.
- Meet with HMO representatives to discuss the serious nature of complaints concerning prescription drug benefits for older employees.
- Give priority to vacation request response time as employees need faster approval in order to be able to plan their vacations.
- Take no special actions for the benefits package of younger employees.
- Discuss the possibility of adding an online benefits requests system to our company Intranet.
Important Points to Remember
- A report is divided into four areas:
- Terms of Reference – This section gives background information on the reason for the report. It usually includes the person requesting the report.
- Procedure – The procedure provides the exact steps taken and methods used for the report.
- Findings – The findings point out discoveries made during the course of the report investigation.
- Conclusions – The conclusions provide logical conclusions based on the findings.
- Recommendations – The recommendations state actions that the writer of the report feels need to be taken based on the findings and conclusions.
- Reports should be concise and factual. Opinions are given in the conclusions section. However, these opinions should be based on facts presented in the findings .
- Use simple tenses (usually the present simple) to express facts.
- Use the imperative form (Discuss the possibility. Give priority. etc.) in the recommendations section as these apply to the company as a whole.
Continue learning about other types of business documents using these resources:
10 Influential Business Books You Need To Read To Be Successful
10 Influential Business Books You Need To Read To Be Successful
Take a minute and think about some of the most successful people you know.
I d bet they re great with people, are super-productive, and think differently than most. After all, that s how they got to be where they are today.
Jealous of them? You don t have to be. You can learn these same skills by studying some of the best business books that can help you take your game to the next level. Here s 10 of my favorites.
1. How to Win Friends and Influence People by Dale Carnegie
Dale Carnegie s best-selling book that helped to launch a personal growth empire should be required reading for everyone who wants to learn how to build and nurture relationships for a lifetime. Read this book and you ll learn some simple advice than can help you build popularity points within your current network and just as important, expand it to others.
2. Focal Point by Brian Tracy
Got a lot on your to-do list? Of course you do. But what separates productive people from others is their ability to focus on a singular task at a time, and getting it done before moving on to the next one.
Sounds simple in theory, but this can be extremely difficult in practice. In Focal Point Brian Tracy offers tips to help build discipline and organization into your day so you can get more stuff done.
3. Purple Cow by Seth Godin
Creating a me-too product can be easy at the start but can doom you to business failure. That s why marketing maverick Seth Godin recommends creating a product that is truly different from anything already available in the marketplace.
In essence by making the product different you ll be building the marketing into the actual product development which just makes your actual marketing a helluva lot easier.
4. Magic of Thinking Big by David Schwartz
If you ve struggled with procrastination or small thinking, this is the book for you. In it Schwartz offers practical advice that can help you get inspired and motivated to create a bigger life for yourself. And with it can be a more lucrative and rewarding career.
5. Man s Search for Meaning by Viktor Frankel
It can be difficult for lots of people to keep things in perspective, especially when working on high priority and urgent projects at work. Man s Search for Meaning can be a life-changing book in the sense that it can open your eyes to a first-hand experience of one of the greatest atrocities in the history of mankind, while also teaching a valuable lesson about having purpose.
6. 4 Hour Work Week by Tim Ferriss
Solo-entrepreneurs can learn a ton from the guy who made lifestyle design popular. But guess what? The 4HWW isn t just for guys and girls who want to start a small online business.
Smart moves like outsourcing, following the 80/20 rule, and automating processes should be made by entry-level workers and established executives alike.
7. Think and Grow Rich by Napoleon Hill
I remember sitting on a couch and opening this book on a Saturday morning, thinking I d get through a chapter and then get on with my day. Instead, about 12 hours later, I was finished with the book. The concepts in it were mind-blowing to me.
To think that thoughts can create your reality sounded a little far-fetched at first. But after going through the book and understanding that your thoughts create your beliefs, which lead to actions, which then lead to habits .well you can get where I m going with this.
If you focus your thoughts on success, achieving it will be much more likely than thinking about obstacles, failures and everything else that can get in your way.
8. One Minute Manager by Kenneth Blanchard
If you re going to read one management book in your life, this should be it. It s simple. You can read it in an afternoon. And the advice works.
9. Lean Start-Up by Eric Ries
Before you create any sort of business you ll want to give Lean Start-Up a read through. Doing so can save you money, time and other resources you could have potentially wasted otherwise.
10. The Monk and the Riddle by Randy Komisar
The story Randy Komisar shares in the Monk and the Riddle offers advice about not just about how you need to think when starting a new business, but also about how to build a life you re passionate about.
Understanding the technical aspects of launching a start-up is great, but if you don t have the staying power to stick with it when the going gets tough then it s not likely to work. This book can help you understand this lesson before you spend blood, sweat and tears on a project that you re heart isn t into.
Set a Goal For Yourself
#business first louisville
Louisville Business First: 20 People to Know: Trey Riddle
Favorite way to spend time away from work:
Describe your company:
Sunstrand is a manufacturer and supplier of biomaterials for a variety of technical and industrial applications. Our focus markets are polymer composites, plastics and technical nonwovens. Basically, we take raw agricultural feedstocks (bamboo, kenaf, flax, hemp) and manufacture our products that take the form of fibers and fillers (particulates).
Our customers (upstream manufacturers) then incorporate these materials into their products. Ultimately, our materials will be used in a variety of applications, including consumer goods, automotive, building materials and sporting goods.
What is the biggest hurdle for entrepreneurs in the area?
Acquisition of capital is probably the No. 1 most challenging issue facing startups in the area. The community has done a really good job of highlighting some of the bigger names in local investment, but that is just the tip of the iceberg, so to speak.
How do we get below the water line? Additionally, there are way more companies needing capital than investors, and that breeds deal partiality.
What is some advice for people who want to start a company?
Seek out help. I have found that people are generally willing to have open discussions with you about a variety of business-related topics if you just ask nicely. The key in those situation is to not push product, but rather reach out for advice. Be dedicated and stay vigilant — there will be ups and downs. It is not all about the money. If you are not passionate about the business, don’t even think about starting it.
What’s the most interesting question a potential investor has ever asked you?
What is your plan? Not what is the business plan, but where do I see myself personally in 10 years. I think the key here was that the potential investor was interested in my personal goals because he knew that it would affect the business in the long run.
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HOW TO BUILD BUSINESS CREDIT & IMPROVE CREDIT RATING
Building Business Credit
Business credit scores help lenders, suppliers and other creditors quickly evaluate whether a business will pay its bills on time. Get your Experian Credit Score report today.
How to Improve Your Business Credit Score
Credit scores are complex statistical models for predicting credit risk. While there is no guaranteed way to improve a business credit score, here are a few steps you can take to ensure that your business credit report reflects the best scores possible for your situation.
- Check your business credit report regularly and verify that the information in it is accurate and up-to-date.
- Establish business credit with companies that report trades. Remember, not all business creditors report their trade information.
- Pay your creditors on time. Historical payment behavior with previous creditors plays a major role in calculating your business credit score.
Building Business Credit: How Business Credit Scores are Calculated
Business credit scores range from 0 to 100, with 0 representing a high risk and 100 representing a low risk. Scores are based on a number of factors contained in your business credit report.
- Number of trade experiences
- Outstanding balances
- Payment habits
- Credit utilization
- Trends over time
- Public record recency, frequency and dollar amount
- Demographics such as years on file, Standard Industrial Classification codes and business size
Build business credit and improve your business credit rating.
Experian requires minimum information to generate a score. So if a business doesn’t meet these requirements, a score is not generated. Minimum information is at least one tradeline and/or one demographic element.
#business to business
Business To Business – B To B
What does ‘Business To Business – B To B’ mean
Business to business, also called B to B or B2B, is a type of transaction that exists between businesses, such as one involving a manufacturer and wholesaler, or a wholesaler and a retailer. Business to business refers to business that is conducted between companies, rather than between a company and individual consumers. Business to business stands in contrast to business to consumer (B2C) and business to government (B2G) transactions.
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BREAKING DOWN ‘Business To Business – B To B’
A typical supply chain involves multiple business to business transactions, as companies purchase components and products such as other raw materials for use in the manufacturing processes. Finished products can then be sold to individuals via business to consumer transactions. In the context of communication, business to business refers to methods by which employees from different companies can connect with one another, such as through social media. This type of communication between the employees of two or more companies is called B2B communication.
B2B Relationship Development
Business to business transactions require planning to be successful. Such transactions rely on a company’s account management personnel to establish business client relationships. Business to business relationships also must be nurtured, typically through professional interactions prior to sales, for successful transactions to take place. Traditional marketing practices also help businesses connect with business clients. Trade publications aid in this effort, offering businesses opportunities to advertise in print and online. A business’s presence at conferences and trade shows also builds awareness of the products and services it provides to other businesses.
The internet provides a robust environment in which businesses can find out about products and services and lay the groundwork for future business to business transactions. Company websites allow interested parties to learn about a business’s products and services and initiate contact. Online product and supply exchange websites allow businesses to search for products and services and initiate procurement through e-procurement interfaces. Specialized online directories providing information about particular industries, companies and the products and services they provide also facilitate business to business transactions.
Business to business transactions are the backbone of the automobile industry. Many vehicle components are manufactured independently and auto manufacturers purchase these parts to assemble automobiles. Tires, batteries, electronics, hoses and door locks, for example, usually are manufactured by various companies and sold directly to automobile manufacturers. Service providers also engage in business to business transactions. Companies specializing in property management, housekeeping and industrial cleanup, for example, often sell these services exclusively to other businesses, rather than individual consumers.
#import export business
If you wish YOU CAN WIN
So you want to sell to the world? Thanks to the Internet, setting up an import/export business can be ridiculously simple and very profitable.
• Pick a product to import or export.
When it comes to importing and exporting, you cannot be all things to all customers. Decide on something and stick with it.
You have two viable reasons for choosing a product to import or export: you know it will sell or you like it. Hopefully, you can meet both criteria.
• Find the right market.
You’ve selected a product, now you must look for someplace to sell it! Do the homework and research the market beforehand to locate the best potential foreign market for your product or service. Use import export data to check market trends. These resources are helpful for determining where in the world products and services are moving to and from, and why and how to get in on the action.
• Source a supplier. Check here
- Finalize the relationship and seal the deal
If you are an importer, you must seal the deal before your goods will be shipped to you. If you are an exporter, you must agree with the buyer and provide the goods upon receiving the money.
After signing an agreement with the supplier or manufacturer (as drawn by your attorney ), you will be granted the right to import the goods into your country or export from your country; as one of their designated import / export partners. The manufacturer will pay you the specific commission quoted to the distributors on top of the price of the goods. And you will be given catalogs and samples for your use in distribution.
#hot shot business
How to Start a Hot Shot Trucking Business
If you own a small rig and are looking for a way to bring in more income, learning how to start a hot shot trucking business may be the answer.
Hot Shot Trucking
The term “hot shot trucking” is applied to truckers who drive rigs smaller than the standard semi-truck and trailer. It also refers to moving less than a truckload or LTL. Unlike hauling conventional cargo that can be scheduled regularly, hot shot cargo is often time sensitive in nature. Hot shot loads vary and will depend on the type of rig you operate. Items hauled cmay include things like a trailer full of urgently needed parts, hauling fresh flowers, or something as small as delivering one envelop for a same day delivery.
How to Start a Hot Shot Trucking Business
If you’re seriously thinking of starting a hot shot trucking business, before you buy your rig think through what type of hauling and deliveries you want to make. Another consideration will be whether or not you plan to build your own customer base as an owner operator. This takes time, and time is money when it comes to hauling loads, especially when you have truck payments to make. If you already have connections to get you started, though, you can build your hot shot trucking business into an independent and profitable venture.
The quicker route to getting your business going is to lease your services or sign on with a trucking company looking for hot shot truckers. This option not only takes the pressure off for finding loads to haul, but it also removes the responsibility of paperwork and billing from your shoulders. Typically the trucking company finds the loads to haul for a fee. Generally this arrangement puts about 75% of the freight charge into the pocket of the trucker, and the other 25% goes to the trucking company.
To sign on with a trucking company, you’ll have to get in touch with the terminal manager to learn what steps need to be taken to submit your application. To get accepted, you’ll have to pass a drug test and a DOT physical.
LTL Job Resources
If you decide you want to operate independently as an owner operator, the Internet provides resources to help truckers secure less than a load hauling jobs. This short list of resources can be used to initiate you to the world of hot shot trucking job banks, how to navigate them and to learn what they have to offer.
- FindFreightLoads.com. This site conveniently lists jobs by state, so whether you want to drive loads locally, or state-to-state, options exist. Truckers can also register and be added to the pool of available drivers.
- uShip. This site provides thousands of hot shot job possibilities. Truckers bid for the chance to haul specific loads. Registration is free and the forum boards open an avenue of communication with other hot shot truckers.
- TruckDriverJobs.co m. This resource provides all kinds of trucking opportunities including expediate, hot shot trucking and LTL.
Buying Your Truck
If you don’t already own a rig and your want to start a hot shot trucking business, it is best to buy a used truck to get started. Buying used over new will save you thousands in start up costs. Sites like TruckerToTrucker.com offer a large inventory of previously owned hot shot trucks. However, a word of caution must be extended with buying a used truck. Take the time to research manufacturers and models. Learn what’s dependable and look for a truck that can be flexible in regards to what type of load it can carry. The most common features for trucks used in hot shot trucking include:
- Dual tire
- Tandem axle
- 24,000 lb gross weight rating
Disadvantages to Hot Shot Trucking
Figuring out how to start a hot shot trucking business isn’t too hard. It’s building the business and keeping up the chaotic pace that’s difficult. Hot shot hauling is demanding, and generally doesn’t allow for breaks between pick-up and delivery because of the time sensitive nature of the cargo. This kind of schedule can take its toll on truckers physically, mentally and can create a challenging life on the home front. Before you start your hot shot trucking business, be sure your family understands the demands it will make on family life.
#women in business
7 Ways For Women to Win and Succeed in Business
EHStock via Getty Images
1.You Can’t Do Or Have It. One of the downfall of many business and professional women is the “Superwoman Complex.” Once you hang up the Superwoman cape and the Wonderwoman belt and recognize and accept this fact, your job will get a whole lot easier. Every successful person needs a dedicated support team or at the very least a wing man or woman. You don’t have to do everything yourself! Trust your team to do the work, after all that’s what you hired them to do. If you are an entrepreneur or small business owner, a great way to expand your staff is by engaging college students as interns. They can provide that extra help when you need it. Additionally, don’t rule out family and friends. And do not wait until a project is in jeopardy or you are on the verge of being burned out or a nervous breakdown. Remember that delegating empowers others and allows you to focus on the future as well as the big pictures.
2. Positive, Positive, Positive. A negative attitude will never yield positive results. Having a positive attitude helps you to succeed. Surround yourself with positive people who will encourage, inspire, support and motivate you. They will carry you through the tough days and cheer you on when you feel like giving up.
3. Add Humor To Your Work Research shows that laughter affects health, creativity, relationships and the quality of life. Poke fun at yourself, not at others. When your day gets too high-stress, lighten up! Lightening up the workplace reduces conflicts and stress and builds teamwork and productivity. Not to mention it’s great for morale. Converting your staff and customers from unhappy to happy is good for business.
4. Keep Up With Current Events And News. Staying informed about what is happening in the world and in your local community is critical to your personal and professional development. No matter what business you are in, current events have an impact on your industry and your clients. Do not be caught off guard because you haven’t taken ten minutes to read the morning paper. Daily papers are good sources of industry and corporate news, as well as contacts.
5. Be Generous To Your Community, Your Staff, And Yourself Reward yourself and your employees for hard work and success. Take time to give back to your community through volunteer work and charitable contributions. Let this quote by Winston Churchill you — “you make a living by what you do, but you make a life by what you give. Keep a brave heart and a beautiful spirit.
6 Become A Life-Long-Learner Learning and growing both personally and professionally is a lifelong process that drives our creativity, intelligence and ambition. Make it a priority to take courses and adopt new techniques that help you and your staff think out of the box. Innovation and reinvention are the order of the day. Set aside time for brainstorming and idea sharing. Most important, don’t be afraid to try new things and introduce yourself to new people. When you forego investments in yourself and your staff, you run the risk of allowing complacency to take root. How many times have you found yourself staring at the messy piles of paper in your office? Make sure to invest in an organizer to help clean your space. You will find this will lead to greater efficiency. Check out Napo.net (National Association of Professional Organizers). They offer a list of certified and reputable organizers like Hub Neat Organizer and Charles River Organizers both of whom are in my hometown. I am using them to help me better organize my office and my home.
7. Stop And Smell The Roses Take a minute for yourself every day. Get some exercise, read a good book, take a hot bath or socialize with friends and family. Your work is important, but it is not everything in life. Appreciate all that life has to offer, and your energy will radiate at work, at home and through everything you do.
Stocks Basics: What Causes Stock Prices To Change?
Stock prices change every day as a result of market forces. By this we mean that share prices change because of supply and demand. If more people want to buy a stock (demand) than sell it (supply), then the price moves up. Conversely, if more people wanted to sell a stock than buy it, there would be greater supply than demand, and the price would fall.
Understanding supply and demand is easy. What is difficult to comprehend is what makes people like a particular stock and dislike another stock. This comes down to figuring out what news is positive for a company and what news is negative. There are many answers to this problem and just about any investor you ask has their own ideas and strategies.
That being said, the principal theory is that the price movement of a stock indicates what investors feel a company is worth. Don’t equate a company’s value with the stock price. The value of a company is its market capitalization. which is the stock price multiplied by the number of shares outstanding. For example, a company that trades at $100 per share and has 1 million shares outstanding has a lesser value than a company that trades at $50 that has 5 million shares outstanding ($100 x 1 million = $100 million while $50 x 5 million = $250 million). To further complicate things, the price of a stock doesn’t only reflect a company’s current value, it also reflects the growth that investors expect in the future.
The most important factor that affects the value of a company is its earnings. Earnings are the profit a company makes, and in the long run no company can survive without them. It makes sense when you think about it. If a company never makes money, it isn’t going to stay in business. Public companies are required to report their earnings four times a year (once each quarter). Wall Street watches with rabid attention at these times, which are referred to as earnings seasons. The reason behind this is that analysts base their future value of a company on their earnings projection. If a company’s results surprise (are better than expected), the price jumps up. If a company’s results disappoint (are worse than expected), then the price will fall.
Of course, it’s not just earnings that can change the sentiment towards a stock (which, in turn, changes its price). It would be a rather simple world if this were the case! During the dotcom bubble, for example, dozens of internet companies rose to have market capitalizations in the billions of dollars without ever making even the smallest profit. As we all know, these valuations did not hold, and most internet companies saw their values shrink to a fraction of their highs. Still, the fact that prices did move that much demonstrates that there are factors other than current earnings that influence stocks. Investors have developed literally hundreds of these variables, ratios and indicators. Some you may have already heard of, such as the price/earnings ratio. while others are extremely complicated and obscure with names like Chaikin oscillator or moving average convergence divergence .
So, why do stock prices change? The best answer is that nobody really knows for sure. Some believe that it isn’t possible to predict how stock prices will change, while others think that by drawing charts and looking at past price movements, you can determine when to buy and sell. The only thing we do know is that stocks are volatile and can change in price extremely rapidly.
The important things to grasp about this subject are the following:
1. At the most fundamental level, supply and demand in the market determines stock price.
2. Price times the number of shares outstanding (market capitalization) is the value of a company. Comparing just the share price of two companies is meaningless.
3. Theoretically, earnings are what affect investors’ valuation of a company, but there are other indicators that investors use to predict stock price. Remember, it is investors’ sentiments, attitudes and expectations that ultimately affect stock prices.
4. There are many theories that try to explain the way stock prices move the way they do. Unfortunately, there is no one theory that can explain everything.
80% Stock Market Crash To Strike in 2016, Economist Warns – The Sovereign Investor #what #is #the #stock #market
80% Stock Market Crash To Strike in 2016, Economist Warns
Several noted economists and distinguished investors are warning of a stock market crash.
Jim Rogers, who founded the Quantum Fund with George Soros, went apocalyptic when he said, “A $68 trillion ‘Biblical’ collapse is poised to wipe out millions of Americans.”
Mark Faber, Dr. Doom himself, recently told CNBC that “investors are on the Titanic” and stocks are about to “endure a gut-wrenching drop that would rival the greatest crashes in stock market history.”
And the prophetic economist Andrew Smithers warns, “U.S. stocks are now about 80% overvalued.”
Smithers backs up his prediction using a ratio which proves that the only time in history stocks were this risky was 1929 and 1999. And we all know what happened next. Stocks fell by 89% and 50%, respectively.
Even the Royal Bank of Scotland says the markets are flashing stress alerts akin to the 2008 crisis. They told their clients to Sell Everything because in a crowded hall, the exit doors are small.
Blue chip stocks like Apple, Microsoft, and IBM will plunge.
But there is one distinct warning that should send chills down your spine … that of James Dale Davidson. Davidson is the famed economist who correctly predicted the collapse of 1999 and 2007.
Davidson now warns, “There are three key economic indicators screaming SELL. They don’t imply that a 50% collapse is looming it’s already at our doorstep.”
And if Davidson calls for a 50% market correction, one should pay heed.
Editor s Note: American seniors have been worried about our nation s ability to continue to pay out Social Security. Leaked Reports.
Indeed, his predictions have been so accurate, he’s been invited to shake hands and counsel the likes of former presidents Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton — and he’s had the good fortune to befriend and convene with George Bush Sr. Steve Forbes, Donald Trump, Margaret Thatcher, Sir Roger Douglas and even Boris Yeltsin.
They know that when Davidson makes a prediction, he backs it up. True to form, in a new controversial video, Davidson uses 20 unquestionable charts to prove his point that a 50% stock market crash is here.
Most alarming of all, is what Davidson says will cause the collapse. It has nothing to do with the China meltdown, Wall Street speculation or even the presidential election. Instead, it is linked back to a little-known economic “curse” that our Founding Fathers warned our elected officials about … a curse that was recently triggered.
And although our future may seem bleak, as Davidson says, “There is no need to fall victim to the future. If you are on the right side of what’s ahead, you could seize opportunities that come along once, maybe twice, in a lifetime.”
Perhaps most importantly, in this new video presentation, Davidson reveals what he and his family are doing to prepare right now. (It’s unconventional and even controversial, but proven to work.)
While Davidson intended the video for a private audience only, original viewers leaked it out and now thousands view this video every day.
One anonymous viewer wrote: “Davidson uses clear evidence that spells out the looming collapse, and he does it in a simple language that anyone can understand.” (Indeed, Davidson uses a sandcastle, a $5 bill, and straightforward analogies to prove his points.)
With his permission, I reposted the video on a private website. Click here to watch it now