IARC – INTERNATIONAL AGENCY FOR RESEARCH ON CANCER #iarc, #cancer #epidemiology, #cancer #registries, #statistics,
30/05/2017 Today, governments from around the world adopted a new cancer resolution at the Seventieth World Health Assembly, in Geneva, Switzerland. This resolution complements the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases 2013�2020. It points to many cancer control measures, including health promotion, reducing exposure to cancer risk factors, and improving access to early diagnosis and treatment. Prevention and early detection have a key role to play, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. Read more. Read statement
29/05/2017 The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is saddened by the passing of Jane Mitchell, a long-time IARC staff member, who died on Wednesday 24 May 2017. Our deepest sympathy is with Jane�s family.
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19/05/2017 The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is pleased to announce the signature of a new Memorandum of Understanding with the National Cancer Center Japan to further promote collaboration on cancer research and control in the region. The agreement falls within IARC’s Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development (GICR), to establish an IARC/GICR Collaborating Centre with a specific focus on supporting the development of analytical capacity and descriptive epidemiological research using population-based cancer registry data in East Asia.
Visit the GICR website. Visit the National Cancer Center Japan website
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Visit the GICR website. Visit the National Cancer Center Japan website
Multiple Myeloma Symptoms, Treatments, and Survival Rates #multiple #myeloma, #multiple #myeloma #symptoms, #multiple #myeloma
Multiple myeloma is a blood cancer related to lymphoma and leukemia. Though it can’t usually be cured, there are treatments that slow down its spread.
What Is Multiple Myeloma?
In multiple myeloma, a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell multiplies unusually. Normally, they make antibodies that fight infections. But in multiple myeloma, they release too much protein (called immunoglobulin) into your bones and blood. It builds up throughout your body and causes organ damage.
The plasma cells also crowd normal blood cells in your bones. They release chemicals that dissolve bone. The weak areas of bone this creates are called lytic lesions.
As multiple myeloma gets worse, those plasma cells begin to spill out of your bone marrow and spread through your body. This causes more organ damage.
No one knows what causes multiple myeloma. But you’re more likely to get it if:
- You’re older than 65
- You’re African-American
- You have a family member with it
If you have one these other plasma cell diseases, you may be more likely to get multiple myeloma:
- Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)
- Solitary plasmacytoma
Early on, multiple myeloma may cause no symptoms. As time passes, you may have:
- Bone pain
- Weakness and fatigue
- Weight loss
In rare cases, plasma cells may form purplish lumps that you can see underneath your skin. Your doctor may call them extramedullary plasmacytomas.
Your doctor may test you for multiple myeloma if a blood test shows you have:
- Too much calcium in your blood (your doctor may call it hypercalcemia)
- Anemia (too few red blood cells)
- Kidney problems
- High protein levels in your blood combined with a low albumin level (your doctor may say you have a “globulin gap”)
If your doctor thinks you have multiple myeloma, he’ll test your blood, urine, and bones. Some tests he may order include:
- Electrophoresis, which measures immunoglobulin
- Blood urea nitrogen, also known as BUN, and creatinine. These check how well your kidneys are working.
- A CBC, which stands for complete blood count. It measures and counts the cells in your blood.
After your test results come in, your doctor may want to do a bone marrow biopsy. He’ll insert a needle into a bone, usually in your hip, to get a sample of bone marrow to check the number of plasma cells in it.
He may also want you to get X-rays. They can show spots of bone weakened by multiple myeloma. Sometimes you may also need a CT scan, MRI, or PET scan.
Several drugs and types of drugs are used to treat multiple myeloma.
Chemotherapy: You might get it alone or paired with another drug. The types of chemo most often used to treat multiple myeloma are:
- Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
- Doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
- Melphalan (Alkeran)
- Liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil)
- Panobinostat (Farydak)
Corticosteroids like dexamethasone or prednisone are often given with chemotherapy to reduce side effects.
Stem cell transplant: It won’t work for everyone, but if your doctor thinks you’re a good fit for it, they may start with a stem cell transplant. They will use a machine to remove some of your stem cells, then freeze and store them. Or they may use stem cells taken from a donor.
Next, you get high-dose chemotherapy. This will destroy almost all the cells in your bone marrow — both healthy cells and the plasma cells that cause the disease. Then the doctor will injects the stem cells into your veins. They travel to the bone marrow, where they multiply and make new, healthy blood cells.
Stem cell transplantation doesn’t cure multiple myeloma, but it often helps you live longer. It can also cause serious complications. For example, it can make you more likely to get infections.
These medications target proteins, genes, or tissues and prevent cancer from growing.
Immunomodulatory drugs strengthen your immune cells to help them attack cancer cells. They also help starve the myeloma cells in your bone marrow by preventing new blood vessels from forming:
- Lenalidomide (Revlimid)
- Pomalidomide (Pomalyst)
- Thalidomide (Thalomid)
Monoclonal antibodies help your immune system spot and destroy myeloma cells. You might hear your doctor call this immunotherapy:
- Daratumumab (Darzalex)
- Elotuzumab (Empliciti)
If you don’t have symptoms, your doctor might start you on one of these drugs to prevent myeloma from getting to a point where you need treatment.
Proteasome inhibitors stop the process that eats up extra proteins in cells. Myeloma cells make lots of proteins. When they build up, the cells die:
- Bortezomib (Velcade)
- Carfilzomib (Kyprolis)
- Ixazomib (Ninlaro)
Your Treatment Plan
If you don’t have symptoms, your doctor may choose to watch you closely rather than start treatment right away.
If you do have symptoms, your doctor will work with you to come up with a treatment plan. It will aim to improve your quality of life by easing your symptoms and helping you get good nutrition. Your plan will have three main phases:
- Induction therapy: Use medications to get quick control of the disease and its symptoms
- Post-induction therapy: Add treatments like chemotherapy or a stem cell transplant (your doctor might also call it consolidation therapy)
- Maintenance therapy: Keep your cancer at bay as long as possible
Which drugs your doctor chooses depends on your age and how aggressive your cancer is. Multiple myeloma cases are usually graded as high, intermediate, or standard risk. Most people start with a three-drug mix that combines a proteasome inhibitor, an immunomodulatory drug, and a corticosteroid. If you’re considered high risk, you might want to look into a clinical trial for an existing or new treatment. Research is ongoing, including clinical trials to identify more effective drugs and combinations.
Often multiple myeloma has no symptoms. But if yours causes painful bone damage, your doctor might suggest:
Bisphosphonates: These drugs treat bone damage. Your doctor may have you try:
- Pamidronate (Aredia)
- Zoledronic acid (Zometa)
Be especially thorough with your brushing and flossing while you take these medications. It’s rare, but these medicines can damage your jaw. Dental work makes this more likely.
Radiation therapy. The doctor will direct a beam from a machine to a bone or other affected body part. The beam kills plasma cells, which can ease your pain and strengthen weakened bones.
What to Expect
Multiple myeloma varies widely among people. Some will live for years with few symptoms. With others, the condition gets worse quickly. Identifying the forms of multiple myeloma is often challenging for doctors.
Doctors have systems that predict survival rates. The simplest and most common uses the blood levels of two substances: albumin and beta-2-microglobulin. A higher albumin level and a lower beta-2-microglobulin level suggest a better chance for longer survival.
Other systems use multiple lab or DNA tests in plasma cells.
Knowing how aggressive your multiple myeloma is can help you and your doctor find the best plan for you.
What Your Doctor Is Reading
If you are interested in more advanced reading on this topic, we’ve made content from our health professional site, Medscape, available to you on WebMD.
WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Neha Pathak, MD on July 20, 2017
Abeloff, M. Abeloff’s Clinical Oncology, 4th edition, Churchill Livingstone, 2008.
American Cancer Society: “Multiple Myeloma: Detailed Guide.”
UpToDate: “Overview of the management of multiple myeloma,” “Patient Education: Multiple Myeloma treatment (Beyond the Basics).”
American Society of Clinical Oncology: “Multiple Myeloma: Treatment Options.”
© 2017 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.
ON THIS PAGE. You will find information about how many people are diagnosed with this type of cancer each year. You will also learn some general information on surviving the disease. Remember, survival rates depend on several factors. To see other pages, use the menu.
This year, an estimated 53,070 adults (27,670 men and 25,400 women) in the United States will be diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.
It is estimated that 41,780 deaths (21,450 men and 20,330 women) from this disease will occur this year. Pancreatic cancer is the ninth most common cancer in women and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in men and women. As explained in the Introduction. most pancreatic cancers are exocrine adenocarcinoma, and these statistics are for that type of pancreatic cancer.
The 1-year survival rate tells you what percent of people live at least 1 year after the cancer is found. Percent means how many out of 100. The 1-year survival rate of people with pancreatic cancer who do not have surgery is 29%, and the 5-year survival rate is 7%. Survival rates are based on many factors, including the specific stage of disease when it is diagnosed.
Pancreatic cancer is often difficult to diagnose. This is because there are no specific, cost-effective screening tests that can easily and reliably find early-stage pancreatic cancer in people who have no symptoms. This means it is often not found until later stages when the cancer can no longer be removed with surgery and has spread from the pancreas to other parts of the body.
If the cancer is detected at an early stage when surgical removal of the tumor is possible, the 5-year survival rate is 27%. If the cancer has spread to surrounding tissues or organs and/or the regional lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate is 11%. If the cancer has spread to a distant part of the body, the 1-year survival rate is 15% and the 5-year survival rate is 2%.
It is important to remember that statistics on how many people survive this type of cancer are an estimate. The estimate comes from data based on thousands of people with this cancer in the United States each year. So, your own risk may be different. Doctors cannot say for sure how long anyone will live with pancreatic cancer. Also, experts measure the survival statistics yearly. This means that the estimate may not show the results of better diagnosis or treatment available over the past year. Learn more about understanding statistics .
Statistics adapted from the American Cancer Society’s publication, Cancer Facts Figures 2016.
Thenext section in this guide is Medical Illustrations . It offers drawings of body parts often affected by this disease. Or, use the menu to choose another section to continue reading this guide.