Tag: surface

Yes, We ve Seen the Surface of Venus #pictures #of #venus #surface


Yes, We ve Seen the Surface of Venus

Venera was a series of satellites launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s and 1980s to study Venus’ environment. It was also the program aimed at returning the first images of the surface of another planet. Over the course of the program, thirteen probes successfully reached Venus and transmitted data about out planetary neighbour, eight landed successfully on the surface, and four returned pretty outstanding images.

Venera 7, the first orbiter spacecraft with a lander in tow, launched on August 17, 1970. After a four month transit to Venus, the landing probe separated the orbiter on December 15 and plunged into Venus’ thick atmosphere. After a period of aerodynamic braking, the upper hatch and heat shield released, exposing the spacecraft the elements and releasing the parachute that slowed the lander. The chute was released six minutes later; Venus’ dense atmosphere was enough to slow the lander for the final 29 minutes of its descent. It landed successfully, Data was transmitted from the surface for one second before the signal failed, but post-flight analysis of the recorded radio signal reveled that the probe had actually transmitted data for 23 minutes before succumbing to Venus’ environment. Venera 8 followed, launching on March 27, 1972. It reached Venus on July 22, 1972, and once it reached the surface it sent back data for 63 minutes.

Venera 9, which launched on June 8, 1975, was the first mission to attempt a photograph of Venus’ surface. Though the probe landed in good health on October 22, only one of the lens caps on the two cameras separate. What was planned as a 360-degree panorama around the lander became a 180 degree image. Venera 10 followed in Venera 9’s footsteps, reaching the surface on October 25. Again, only one of the lens caps separated properly returning a 180-degree panoramic image before going silent after 65 minutes on the surface. (Venera 9’s panorama is the upper image and Venera 10’s is the lower image.)

The view from Veneras 9 and 10

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Guam Transportation Program #surface #transportation #program


H fa Adai!

The Guam Department of Public Works is pleased to provide you with your connection to Guam’s routed roadways from Andersen to Umatac and everywhere in between. With support from the Federal Highway Administration, this website has been developed to:

  • Provide the public with information on the Guam Transportation program and the 2030 Guam Transportation Plan;
  • Provide regular updates on roadway improvement projects designed to make our roads safer and easier to navigate;
  • Provide interested contractors, designers and vendors with information on upcoming solicitations and pending projects; and,
  • Provide the public with an opportunity to provide comments, suggestions or ask questions about our roadways and surface transportation issues on our island.

We encourage you to visit this site often and to register for our email updates to keep you informed on our progress as we pave the way forward for our island!

The vision of the Guam Transportation Program is to provide a safe, efficient and sustainable transportation system for our residents, visitors and military personnel that will support economic diversification, resource conservation and an exceptional quality of life.

GTIP Update Public Meeting Presentation

GTIP FY 2012 – 2015 Amendment No. 3

Tiyan Parkway Environmental Assessment

File an Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Report

With your help, we can make it easier for persons with disabilities to get around Guam.

Visit the Governor of Guam Website

Learn about the Office of the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, their programs and the initiatives addressed to the island of Guam.

Meet the leaders of Guam Department of Public Works

Glenn Leon Guerrero

Felix Benavente
Deputy Director

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Online Course: Chemistry 101 – Learn the Fundamentals #online #college #chemistry, #online #course #class


Online Class: Chemistry 101

Course Description

At a minimum, a basic understanding of chemistry is needed for it offers a foundation for comprehending the inner workings of biology (how cells function and the behavior of organisms), as well as, the ecological relationships that exist between organisms and their environment.

In short, chemistry offers us a way of understanding the world in which we live.

Chemistry provides us with insights into how our bodies function; the ingredients that are contained within the foods we eat; the reason cars, planes and trains are able to run as efficiently as they do; the manner in which computers are built and operate; and the materials used to construct our homes and buildings within our communities.

Basically, chemistry is a part of almost everything we do for everything is comprised of chemical compounds. The claim that chemistry is everywhere is, thus, entirely accurate.

Chemistry encompasses a multitude of specialized sub-disciplines which have proven highly useful to chemistry as they have provided for the following: the production and testing of stronger materials, creation of pharmaceuticals to treat disease, and the study of life processes.

Lesson 1. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

The ordination of who was the true “father” of modern chemistry is a disputed point.

  • Lesson 2. Chemical Foundations

    In chemistry the accepted measurement system for mass (m) or volume (v) is the metric system, also known as the System International (SI) system.

  • Lesson 3. Stoichiometry

    Stoichiometry is the field of chemistry used to determine the quantities both for the required reactants of a chemical reaction and the predicted product of said reactions.

  • Lesson 4. Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

    Most chemical reactions require a catalyst, a certain condition external to the reactants themselves that facilitates or causes the molecules to react with one another.

  • Lesson 5. Gases

    Matter in gaseous form does not have an absolute density. In order to determine the density of any volume of gas, we must first determine the pressure under which the gas is being held.

  • Lesson 6. Thermochemistry

    There are two types of energy, potential (the amount of energy possible given a certain circumstance) and kinetic (the amount of energy being expended).

  • Lesson 7. Atomic Structure and Periodicity

    Electromagnetic radiation refers to the wavelengths on which energy travels through the Universe.

  • Lesson 8. Bonding. General Concepts

    Hydrogen bonds are the bonds established between hydrogen and elements with a high level of electronegativity.

  • Lesson 9. Valence Bond Theory

    Atoms form a bond when both of these two conditions occur 1) There is an “orbital overlap” between two atoms and 2) only two electrons, both of opposite spin, are present in the overlap.

  • Lesson 10. Properties and Solutions

    Solutions are a combination of solutes and solvents, which are not necessarily composed of the same forms of matter.

  • Lesson 11. Chemical Kinetics

    Chemical kinetics is concerned with the rates of chemical reactions.

  • Lesson 12. Chemical Equilibrium

    The first thing to understand about equilibrium in chemistry is that it is a dynamic state.

  • Lesson 13. Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy

    Spontaneous processes occur without outside intervention. Some of these occur very quickly, such as combustion, whereas others like the formation of diamonds occur very slowly over millions if not billions of years.

  • Lesson 14. The Nucleus, A Chemist’s View

    The nucleus of an atom is not always stable.

  • Lesson 15. Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry

    Many transition metals commonly form more than one form of oxidized compound depending on the conditions of formation.

  • Lesson 16. Organic Chemistry

    Organic chemistry is the study of carbon based chemistry in the realm of living things.

  • Additional Course Information

    • Document Your Lifelong Learning Achievements
    • Earn an Official Certificate Documenting Course Hours and CEUs
    • Verify Your Certificate with a Unique Serial Number Online
    • View and Share Your Certificate Online or Download/Print as PDF
    • Display Your Certificate on Your Resume and Promote Your Achievements Using Social Media

    Course Title: Chemistry 101

    Course Number: 8900109

    Learning Outcomes

    By successfully completing this course, students will be able to:

    • Define atoms, molecules, and ions.
    • Describe chemical foundations and stoichiometry.
    • Identify gases and thermochemistry.
    • Describe atomic structure and periodicity.
    • Describe bonding and the Valence Bond Theory.
    • Know properties and solutions.
    • Describe chemical equilibrium.
    • Know spontaneity, entropy, and free energy.
    • Know the nucleus, a chemist’s view.
    • Know transition metals and coordination chemistry.
    • Know organic chemistry, and
    • Demonstrate mastery of lesson content at levels of 70% or higher.

    Student Testimonials

    • “I am satisfied with the course I want to continue on.” — Viera V.
    • “She was prompt with all grading and any questions I had. It was a 101 course and offered a well rounded experience. It gave me more background on how I was using chem. in my wastewater, water operations.” — Tim M.
    • “The instructor was very helpful and available. She is very knowledgeable. This was an EXCELLENT course.” — Donna N.

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