A Career in Human Factors and Engineering Psychology #applied #psychology #positions, #professional #careers,,human #factors #psychologists, #engineering #psychologists, #career #paths,,safety, #design,
A Career in Human Factors Psychology
Human factors and engineering psychology focuses on improving and adapting technology, equipment and work environments to complement human behavior and capabilities.
All About Human Factors and Engineering
Is using a hands-free telephone to make a call while driving any less dangerous then making the call with a hand-held device? That’s one example of a research question that human factors and engineering psychologists are trying to answer.
Human factors and engineering psychologists use scientific research to improve technology, consumer products, energy systems, telecommunication, transportation, decision-making, work settings and living environments. The goal of their work is to bring a better understanding of what people expect and how people interact with these products and technologies to create safer, more effective and more reliable systems.
What You Can Do
Human factors and engineering psychology offers many career paths. If you break it down to the relationship between people and machines, people and tasks, and people and environments, the possibilities become clearer.
These psychologists study how humans interact with machines and technology. They also study human traits and capacities like vision, attention and decision-making to help design machines and systems people can use correctly, safely and comfortably.
Human factors and engineering psychologists consult with architects and designers of consumer products like telephones, cameras and home appliances to determine such features as the size and placement of operating buttons on these devices.
They also inform strategies for the design of tools and workplace environments that are critical to performance and in many cases, personal safety. For example, human factors psychologists contribute research that guides the design of health care equipment and the layout of operating rooms to minimize the risk of medical errors.
Human factors and engineering psychologists work in academia and within government agencies — such as the U.S. Department of Transportation, the Federal Highway Administration and NASA — although the private sector makes up one of their largest areas of employment. Regardless of the sector where you work, there are many areas within human factors and engineering psychology to focus on, ranging from designing or improving navigation systems to mobile phones, medical equipment, military equipment, aviation technology, traffic systems, motor vehicles and office technology.
Making It Happen
While there are some entry-level opportunities available to those with a bachelor’s degree, most careers in brain science and cognitive psychology begin with a master’s or doctoral degree.
For psychologists with a master’s degree, career options exist in human performance research, such as testing how well a person who has not slept for many hours can remember a short story. They may also work in industrial and organizational psychology, and some with master’s degrees may be hired for certain teaching positions. Most of the work of master’s level professionals will be supervised by a doctoral level psychologist.
Most psychologists with doctoral degrees in brain science and cognition teach and conduct research in academia.
What You Can Earn
According to the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society’s 2005 Salary and Compensation Survey, starting salaries for human factors and engineering psychologists ranged from $48,000 to $75,367 annually. Private consultants with doctoral-level degrees earned an average of $179,160 per year. Salaries are highest for those employed in the private sector.
Doctoral-level engineering psychologists working at for-profit businesses earned an average of $111,368 in 2005, while those in academia earned an average of $92,614 annually and those in government earned an average of $107,314 annually. Those with master’s degrees earned $90,164 annually in business settings, $75,150 annually in university positions and $90,500 annually in government.
APA’s Division 21: Applied Experimental and Engineering Psychology promotes the development and application of psychological principles, knowledge, and research to improve technology, consumer products, energy systems, communication and information, transportation, decision making, work settings and living environments.
Postgrad Growth Area: Engineering Psychology
A look at where the subfield of human factors and technology engineering is headed.
Promoting healthy minds
Making a difference in the lives of others
Advancing the study of mind and brain
Cutting edge research
Congratulations to Oliver John on receiving the Society for Personality and Social Psychology s 2017 Block Award!
The Block Award is SPSP’s senior career award for research accomplishment in personality psychology. It was named for Jack Block, who was known for his analytic and theoretical sophistication and depth, as well as for his broad interests. The.
More education linked to better cognitive functioning later in life
Higher levels of education are tied to later ages of peak cognitive functioning, according to new research published today in the journal PLoS One.
The study, led by UC Berkeley researchers, examined relationships between.
Congratulations to Christina Maslach on receiving the Society for Personality and Social Psychology s 2017 Application of Personality and Social Psychology Award!
“Few 20th-century, research-based psychological constructs have become so widely recognized that dictionaries date their etymology to around the time when they were coined in a professional publication. “Burnout” is one such construct. .
Congratulations to Fei Xu for being selected Fellow of the Cognitive Science Society
Congradulations to Fei Xu who has been elected as a Fellow of the Cognitive Science Society. This is a high honor that reflects her impact on the Cognitive Science community.
School Counselor #school #counselor, #school #counseling, #school #psychologist, #school #psychology, #guidance #counselor, #guidance #counseling
School and Guidance Counselors
The career and a brief history
The School and Guidance Counseling career came into existence at the turn of the 20th century at a time when there was a growing need for young Americans to have access to career information.
The development was successful in easing students’ transition from school to work. As acknowledgement of the facilitator’s value spread, school and guidance counselors began incorporating other student development procedures into their job duties.
There is a natural evolution within the field of education as the needs of our economy and the marketplace environment change. A gobalized economy alters the standards for student achievement and increases the scrutiny we apply to educational assessments.
What we are left with today is yet another hurdle in the process of distributing education. We must continue to better our delivery of education and produce more highly educated and capable citizens.
School and guidance counselors are an integral part of our country’s future. Today, we are seeing a shifting paradigm. School and guidance counselors’ expertise in facilitating personal growth, development of motivation, positive attitudes and confidence is the key to America’s future success.
The next level in education will be reached through applying enabling tactics, to break down learning barriers and create open minds. Today’s students must be able to make use of curriculum to gain the skills necessary to compete in tomorrow’s global economy.
Become a School or Guidance Counselor
Pick a state and learn how you can become a school or guidance counselor:
NYU Steinhardt’s accredited master of arts program in Counseling and Guidance: School and Bilingual School Counseling. Through this online program, you will gain the skills you need to become a professional Pre-K-12 school counselor, working with children and families in your community to foster academic achievement and success. Click here to contact New York University and request information about their programs.
Capella University offers four online CACREP-accredited Graduate Programs in Counseling: MS in Mental Health Counseling, MS in Marriage & Family Counseling/Therapy, MS in School Counseling, and PhD in Counselor Education and Supervision. Click here to contact Capella University and request information about their programs.
Vanderbilt University’s Peabody College offers an online Masters of Education in human development counseling with a specialization in school counseling. Click here to contact Vanderbilt University and request information about their programs.
School Counselor Basics
School Counseling Career Profiles
In literature, an archetype is a typical character. an action or a situation that seems to represent such universal patterns of human nature.
An archetype, also known as universal symbol. may be a character, a theme. a symbol or even a setting. Many literary critics are of the opinion that archetypes, which have a common and recurring representation in a particular human culture or entire human race, shape the structure and function of a literary work.
Carl Jung, Swiss psychologist, argued that the root of an archetype is in the “collective unconscious” of mankind. The phrase “collective unconscious” refers to experiences shared by a race or culture. This includes love, religion, death, birth, life, struggle, survival etc. These experiences exist in the subconscious of every individual and are recreated in literary works or in other forms of art.
Archetype Examples in Literature
Below is the analysis of common archetypes that exist in literature.
Archetypes in Characters
The Hero. He or she is a character who predominantly exhibits goodness and struggles against evil in order to restore harmony and justice to society e.g. Beowulf, Hercules, D’artagnan from The Three Musketeers etc.
The Mother Figure. Such a character may be represented as Fairy Mother who guides and directs a child, Mother Earth who contacts people and offers spiritual and emotional nourishment, and Stepmother who treats their stepchildren roughly.
Some examples are:
- In Literature: Lucy and Madame Defarge from Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities , Disely from Faulkner’s The sound and The Fury , Gladriel from Lord of the Rings , Glinda from the Wizard of Oz etc.
- In Fairy Tales: Characters such as the stepmother in Cinderella , fairy godmothers, Mother Goose, Little Red Riding Hood etc.
- In Mythology: The mythological figures of Persephone, Demeter, Hecate, Gorgon, Medusa
The Innocent Youth. He or she is inexperienced with many weaknesses and seeks safety with others but others like him/her because of the trust he or she shows in other people. Usually, the experience of coming of age comes in the later parts of the narratives such as Pip in Dickens’ Great Expectation , Nicholas in Dickens’ Nicholas Nickelby , Joseph from Fielding’s Joseph Andrews etc.
The Mentor. His or her task is to protect the main character. It is through the wise advice and training of a mentor that the main character achieves success in the world e.g. Gandalf in The Lords of Rings , Parson Adams in Fielding’s Joseph Andrews , and Senex in L’Engle’s A Wind in the Door etc.
Doppelganger . It is a duplicate or shadow of a character that represents the evil side of his personality. Examples are in popular literary works such as Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Poe’s William Wilson. Stevenson’s Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde etc.
The Scapegoat. A character that takes the blame of everything bad that happens e.g. Snowball in Orwell’s Animal Farm etc.
The Villain. A character whose main function is to go to any extent to oppose the hero or whom the hero must annihilate in order to bring justice e.g. Shere Khan from Kipling’s The Jungle Book stories, Long John Silver from Stevenson’s Treasure Island etc
Archetypes in Situations
The Journey. The main character takes a journey that may be physical or emotional to understand his or her personality and the nature of the world. For example, Dante’s The Divine Comedy , Fielding’s Joseph Andrews , Swift’s Gulliver’s Travel etc.
The Initiation. The main character undergoes experiences that lead him towards maturity. We find such archetypes in novels like Fielding‘s History of Tom Jones, a Foundling , Sterne‘s The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman , Voltaire’s Candide etc.
Good Versus Evil. It represents the clash of forces that represent goodness with those that represent evil. Examples of this archetype are in famous literary works like Shakespeare’s King Lear , Conrad’s Heart of Darkness etc.
The Fall. The main character falls from grace in consequence of his or her own action e.g. Oedipus from Sophocles Oedipus Rex , Lear from Shakespeare’s King Lear etc.
Function of Archetype
The use of archetypical characters and situations gives a literary work a universal acceptance, as readers identify the characters and situations in their social and cultural context. By using common archetype, the writers attempt to impart realism to their works, as the situations and characters are drawn from the experiences of the world.
Psychology (EN) – Bachelor – s degree programmes – Bachelor – s Degree Programmes, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam #what #to #do #with #a #bachelors #in #psychology
Behaviour and wellbeing
In the VU bachelor Psychology, you will learn how to use various scientific methods to study human behaviour and wellbeing. You will learn to understand behaviour—how we think, feel and act—and how those processes can go wrong. As a bachelor student you will acquire the methods and knowledge to address questions such as “What makes us who we are?” “What makes a person happy or depressed?”, “How do we learn? and “Why do some people have healthy lifestyles and others do not?”. You will learn that such questions are embedded in a broader context of how people develop over the lifespan, how people perceive and make decisions, what drives people, how genetic and environmental influences interact to make us who we are, and how and which interventions or therapies may help people with psychological problems.
The VU bachelor Psychology offers you courses in clinical psychology, neuro- and developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, biological psychology, and social and organizational psychology. In the first two years of the study, you will acquire a broad understanding of the field of psychology and its methodology, and of the various research questions that currently define the field. Following this broad introduction, you will – towards the end of the second year – specialise by choosing a subject of your interest. In the subsequent bachelor year, you will pursue your subject both by acquiring knowledge and methods specific to your interests, and by learning general research skills, such reporting and communicating research results.
Looking beyond the bachelor
New scientific developments are continually shaping the field. For instance, such developments enable the study of the influence of physical activity on brain function and genetic influences on diseases such as autism, and they also give rise to new subjects such as e-health (healthcare by electronic processes). Psychology is a broad, multi-faceted discipline within the VU-wide research theme Human Health and Life Sciences. As students of psychology you will acquire a broad perspective, while focusing on the various application areas such as clinical (neuro) psychology, work and organizational psychology, social psychology, and developmental psychology.
Intensive and active study
Studying psychology at VU Amsterdam calls for active interest and participation. We foster this in working groups, in which we supervise students in actively pursuing knowledge and learning. Students are expected to adopt an active learning attitude in general, to participate actively in group meetings and to prepare well for working groups and lectures.
By completing the bachelor psychology successfully you will acquire the title Bachelor of Science (BSc), and with this title, a solid understanding of the scientific foundations of psychology. Following the bachelor many students choose to pursue a Master of psychology. which is also offered by VU Amsterdam.
Your subsequent career depends on your exact Master program, on your subsequent training and experience. Given a clinical Master, you may become a clinical psychologist, a clinical neuropsychologist or a development psychologist in a hospital or in mental health care organisations. There you would be involved in the treatment or diagnosis of clients with mental disorders and psychosocial problems. You can also choose to specialize as a work and organizational psychologist. You may pursue a career as a human resource manager or consultant at the personnel or managerial department of a large company or institute. As a social psychologist, you may work in communication or advisory positions in commercial organisations and government.
VU Amsterdam also offers two-year Research Master programs which prepare student for an academic career in psychology. Having followed such programs, you may work as a junior researcher at a university or research institute, or you may continue your academic career by pursuing a PhD.
Admission criteria and application
Note that the initial application procedure is fully online and that scans of your relevant documents are required.
You start the application procedure through the Studielink.nl national application system. You will then receive an e-mail inviting you to complete your application in the VU student portal, where you will also be asked to submit all documentation needed for the admission procedure. You do not have to complete your application in one session; you can save it and come back to it as often as you want before completing and submitting it.
Required application documents:
- Copy of valid passport or ID (ID for EEA students only)
- Copy of your diploma (if obtained, can also be provided after conditional admission)
- Copy of your latest transcript of records (if you have not graduated yet, please send us an official transcript listing the marks you have received to date). For A-level and IB applicants: include predicted Grade transcript if available.
- Proof of sufficient English language test results (can also be provided after conditional admission)
A (to be obtained) secondary school diploma equivalent to the Dutch pre-university VWO is a primary admission criteria.
International students who require housing facilities, as well as all non-EEA students, must apply before 1 April 2017. EEA students who do not require housing facilities must apply before 1 May 2017. You will be informed about your admission within four weeks after the completion of your application (including all required documents).
The (non-refundable) application fee for all applicants is €100. Please read the application fee procedure carefully.
English language requirements
VU Amsterdam requires all applicants to take an English test and to submit their score as a part of the application before 1 August 2017.
- Exceptions are made for students who have completed their score as a part of the application before the given deadline.
- Exceptions are made for students who have completed their education in Canada, USA, UK, Ireland, New Zealand or Australia or who have obtained an International Baccalaureate or European Baccalaureate diploma (English taught).
The following tests and scores are accepted:
- IELTS 6.5
- TOEFL paper based test: 580
- TOEFL computer based test: 237
- TOEFL internet based test: 92
- Cambridge Advanced English score A, B or C, or equivalent
If you are already in the Netherlands, you can also register for a TOEFL test at VU Taalcentrum. Please note however that this test is only valid at VU Amsterdam. VU Amsterdam only accepts language tests that have been completed max. 2 years ago. The certificate of the test may not be older than 2 years, counted from the date you start the Psychology program at VU Amsterdam.
Applications to Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam are done completely online. You start the application procedure through the Studielink.nl national application system. You will then receive an e-mail inviting you to complete your application in the VU student portal, where you will also be asked to submit all documentation needed for the admission procedure. You do not have to complete your application in one session; you can save it and come back to it as often as you want before completing and submitting it.
Prepare documents and apply online. Please note that it is always possible to apply online, even if your English test results or your diploma are not yet available.
This is what you will be doing
This VU bachelor Psychology is a three-year program. The teaching includes lectures and tutorials. By means of the lectures, you will gain knowledge and insights from the literature. In the supervised workgroups you will extend your knowledge by assignments and discussions with fellow students. The study will require about 40 hours a week, and will include about 12 teaching hours a week at VU Amsterdam.
The aim of the first year is to impart basic knowledge of psychology, and its various subdisciplines. The first years includes a general introduction to psychology, and introductions to basic skills in methods, statistics, and diagnostics.
In the second year, the emphasis is on deepening the knowledge acquired in the first year. For instance this will include an introduction to neuropsychology. In neuropsychology you study the effect of brain damage on people’s behaviour (e.g. agnosia, aphasia, dementia). You also follow courses on Work and Organizational Psychology, Philosophy and Psychology, and the Interaction of Genes and Environment. Towards the end of the second year you may choose from three courses, reflecting the three third year specialisation tracks. This will help you decide on your minor track, which will determine the content of your third year.
During this so-called profiling year, you will immerse yourself into the minor track that you have chosen at the end of your second year. The Bachelor’s program is concluded with the Bachelor-thesis. Following the Bachelors program, students can pursue their education by enrolling in the master program, which in turn builds on the minor track followed in the third year.
More detailed information about the third year can be found in our study guide.
What is the Difference Between Organizational Psychology and General Psychology? #universities #that #specialize #in #psychology
What is the Difference Between Organizational Psychology and General Psychology?
The psychology field consists of a wide variety of specialty areas (i.e. geriatric, organizational, sports, health, family, individual, group, couples, spiritual, pediatric, etc.). In fact, most psychologists work with diverse populations (i.e. racial, religious, cultural, class, economic levels, personalities, etc.). Some psychologists work in organizations, while others work in private practices, skilled nursing facilities (nursing homes), social service agencies, and/or educational/research institutions.
Regardless of the specialty, all psychologists hold a doctorate (Ph.D. or Psy.D.) from a graduate school. They also have licenses and certifications in their chosen fields. Truth-be-told, with all of the variety, trying to understand the differences between the specialties can get quite confusing. Lucky for you, I am here to help you understand the mesmerizing, but overwhelming branches of psychology.
One of the main differences between organizational psychology and general psychology is that organizational psychology focuses on the workplace (organizations). It evaluates workplace practices and processes, employee work performances, and employee mental/emotional health. While general psychology primarily focuses on human thought processes and behaviors. Moreover, general psychologists treat a variety of psychological disorders and mental illnesses, while organizational psychologists provide counseling and coaching services to employees.
Organizational psychology, also referred to as industrial psychology, and industrial-organizational psychology. is the study of workplace practices. In other words, this type of psychology typically occurs in organizations (i.e. companies, agencies and businesses). Some organizations employ Employee Assistance Program Counselors (EAP), who counsel employees with issues that can affect their job performance and mental/emotional well-beings.
These mental health professionals also refer employees to outside services, if needed. Organizational psychologists. in general, focus on the emotional well-beings of employees. For instance, if an employee is experiencing problems at home that appear to be affecting his or her work performance, an organizational psychologist will meet with that individual, and help him or her resolve the issues, so that he or she can be more productive at work.
These psychologists help organizations achieve the following initiatives: improving workplace processes, increasing productivity and quality scores, ensuring fairness and equality in the workplace, strengthening upper management and employee relationships, and monitoring the psychological well-beings of company employees. Organizational psychologists may provide these services with individual employees, groups of employees, and/or with the organization, as a whole. These professionals use a variety of psychological strategies, approaches, techniques, and methods to implement changes within the organizations.
The primary tasks of an organizational psychologist are: assessing workplace practices, talking with employees, “diagnosing” workplace problems, developing solutions, and implementing those changes. It can take up to seven (7) years to complete a doctoral program in organizational psychology. It is important to note that some colleges/universities offer organizational psychology graduate programs (master’s programs), which is important because some organizations will hire individuals with just a master’s degree, and a license/certification. Once an individual has completed a doctoral program, and acquired the necessary licenses and certifications, he or she will be able to seek employment as organizational psychologist.
General psychology, on the other hand, is the study of human thought processes and behaviors. General psychologists provide counseling services to diverse populations with a variety of psychological and mental health issues (i.e. cognitive and behavioral problems and disorders). These mental health professionals usually do not specialize in a certain area of psychology; rather they examine, explore, evaluate, diagnosis, and treat a myriad of issues. A general psychologist uses many different psychological approaches, methods, and techniques (i.e. behavioral studies, psychological assessments, statistics) to research, evaluate, and treat clients.
Moreover, they venture into many areas of psychology like: cognitive psychology. child psychology. developmental psychology. experimental psychology. personality psychology. social psychology. health psychology. forensic psychology. environmental psychology, and psychopharmacology. It is important to note that many technical, community, and traditional colleges/universities also offer associate, bachelor and master degrees in general psychology. Also, even if an individual earns an associate’s degree, bachelor’s degree, or master’s degree in general psychology, it does not mean that he or she is qualified to call himself or herself a psychologist.
In fact, only an individual, who has earned a doctorate (i.e. Ph.D. or Psy.D.) in psychology, and acquired a license/certification in his or her chosen field, is allowed to provide psychological services to patients, and/or clients. A master’s degree and a license/certification in general psychology will allow an individual to call himself or herself a therapist, marriage and family therapist, or psychotherapist, while an associate’s or bachelor’s degree, and a license/certification in general psychology will only allow him or her to be referred to as a counselor. It typically takes 2 years to complete a general psychology associate’s program, 4 years to complete a bachelor’s program, 2.5 to 3 years to complete a graduate program (master’s program), and up to 7 years to complete a doctoral program.
Education and Salary Comparison
An organizational psychologist must earn at least a master’s degree in the field (although most employers prefer a doctorate). Also, he or she must have a license or certification in the field to provide counseling services to employees. On the other hand, a general psychologist can hold an associate’s, bachelor’s, and/or master’s degree in general psychology, although he or she will not be able to call himself or herself a general psychologist, without a doctorate and license/certification.
Altogether it can take up to 13.5 years (bachelor (4), master (2.5), and doctorate (7)) to become an organizational psychologist. Furthermore, organizational psychologists typically earn higher salaries than general psychologist or those with an associate’s, bachelor’s, or master’s degree in general psychology. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (2014), industrial-organizational psychologists typically earn between $50,000 and 140,000, per year, on average, while general psychologists typically earn between $43,000 and $117,000, per year, on average.
Organizational psychologists earn more because organizational psychology is considered a specialty field, while general psychology is not. On the other hand, because general psychology is more “general” in nature, there are more opportunities for employment. Why? Well, people with general psychology degrees are able to enter a variety of industries (i.e. social services, education, research, business, etc.) Organizational psychologist jobs, on the other hand, are often limited to organizations.
School of Psychology: University of Sussex #undergraduate, #psychology, #study, #postgraduate, #masters, #phd, #research
School of Psychology
We offer both undergraduate and postgraduate courses. By choosing Psychology at Sussex you will study in one of the largest psychology departments in the UK. Our research is ranked among the top 10 in the country [REF2014]. You will work alongside renowned researchers and on your own projects to help develop key skills to boost your employment prospects. Throughout your study, our staff will be on hand to offer support and guidance.
Why Psychology at Sussex?
People and Contacts
By choosing Sussex you will be studying at a university ranked in the Top 10 in the UK for Psychology research
The School of Psychology currently holds an Athena Swan Bronze Award
Excellence in Research
- Our research was ranked seventh in the UK for research impact and 10th overall in the country, in the Research Excellence Framework [REF2014].
- At Sussex you will be given the chance to work alongside world-renowned researchers.
- Psychology at Sussex was ranked 10th out of 82 submissions in the Research Excellence Framework 2014 (REF2014).
Excellence in Teaching
- We have one of the largest psychology departments in the UK and as a result of this, have specialists in every discipline.
- We have more than 50 teaching faculty, all of whom are actively engaged in research, so whatever your passion for psychology we have the expertise to support you.
- We offer British Psychological Society (BPS) accredited undergraduate degrees.
- We offer a range of masters and doctorate degrees.
Excellent league table rankings
We are ranked in the top 20 across all major league tables:
- 11th in the Complete University Guide 2018.
- 14th in the Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2017.
- 18th in the Guardian University Guide 2018.
Excellent career prospects
- We are ranked 1st in the UK for graduate prospects (Guardian University Guide 2018).
- You will get involved in research and be given the opportunity to take part in some of our research schemes, which will equip you with a range of skills for the work place. These skills include numeracy, critical thinking, problem solving, communication, working to deadlines and independent working.
- By studying at Sussex you will be given the opportunity to forge links with top employers on our student placements.
School of Psychology internal website
Information for current staff and students
Forensic Psychology Schools and Degree Programs #forensic #psychology #degree, #forensic #psychology #graduate #programs, #forensic #psychology #schools, #forensic #psychology #programs, #top #forensic #science #colleges
(found programs from 310 schools)
Welcome to the most complete directory on the Web of Forensic Psychologist programs. It contains all the nationally accredited programs, from 310 schools across the country.
Are you interested in learning what makes the human mind tick and using your knowledge to help investigators solve crimes? Forensic psychology could be the ideal career path for you. Forensic psychology is a hybrid field that combines the intensive knowledge of a criminal psychology degree with a complete understanding of laws and the legal process.
If you want to become a forensic psychologist, use our directory of criminal psychology schools to request more information today!
As with a criminal psychology degree, this job tends to come with a lot of responsibility, so you should be ready to defend your expertise and enhance your understanding at all times. Forensic psychologists are not like traditional psychologists, who aim to serve patients and help them enjoy fuller, more productive lives. Rather, forensic psychologists are dedicated to finding out the truth, whether or not the patient they’re speaking with provides it. As a result, forensic psychology professionals often use different techniques and strategies to glean information from interviewees.
Forensic psychologists are often used in courts of law. Your skills may be called upon to determine whether or not a patient is competent to stand trial and what their mental state was at the time of allegedly committing a crime. Using subtle psychological markers, you may be expected to figure out if a witness or suspect is telling the truth. The information provided by forensic psychologists is often used in jury deliberations, lawyer arguments, and sentencing decisions.
As you may have expected, forensic psychologists are required to meet a thorough set of educational requirements before beginning their careers.
Requirements for Becoming a Forensic Psychologist
If you’ve ever considered a career as a psychologist, you know that this career path is fairly demanding in its educational expectations. This is especially true for forensic psychologists, since they must have a deep knowledge of forensic science in addition to psychology.
For your criminal psychology major, you should consider first earning a Bachelor’s degree in criminal psychology. There are a few selected Bachelor’s degree programs in forensic psychology, but they are few and far between. Some Bachelor’s-level programs do allow you to choose a specialty, so you may be able to take courses in forensic psychology while earning your undergraduate degree. At this level, you may spend four years taking classes like Organizational Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, and the Psychology of Personality. Your time as a student isn’t done yet! You’ll need to find graduate programs in forensic psychology that lead to a Master’s of Science in Forensic Psychology. These forensic psychology Masters degree courses offer the training you need to effectively work with witnesses, victims, and criminals, while helping you learn the ins and outs of the American legal system. Core classes include Behavioral Interventions in Forensic Settings, Settings and Tools of Psychological and Violence Risk Assessment, and Ethical Concerns in Forensic Psychology. You may choose a specialization track that permits you to develop your knowledge base in one specific area. Popular specialization tracks include forensic psychology in the legal system and forensic psychology for mental health workers.
A PhD or PsyD will be required before you can get your state psychology license and begin working as a forensic psychologist. While a PhD allows you to pursue more academic endeavors, like teaching at a university, a PsyD is more focused on patient care. To earn a PhD, you may need to spend several years writing a thesis on a specific subject of forensic psychology. A PsyD will require lots of clinical work and supervised work.
Career Outlook and Salary Potential for Forensic/Criminal Psychologists
Across the United States, forensic psychologists can anticipate a fairly stable job outlook. O*Net expects job openings for clinical psychologists to increase by 8% to 14% between 2012 and 2022.
Salaries in this field vary widely. Generally, experience trumps all, as well as the criminal psychology major you’ve earned. As you prove yourself in a courtroom and demonstrate your expertise, you may be able to command higher salaries than earlier in your career. Per O*Net, the average salary for a clinical psychologist is $67,760 per year. In a low cost of living state like Florida, salaries may be lower. In Florida, the average salary is $66,200 per year (O*Net, 2013). Other states may have considerably higher salary ranges. The average salary for a New York clinical psychologist is $80,200 per year, nearly $13,000 higher than the national average (O*Net. 2013). Those who work in California claim a median income of $81,400 per year (O*Net, 2013).
Working as a Forensic Psychologist
It’s obvious that it takes a lot of work to become a criminal psychologist, but what is it like to work as a forensic psychologist? Your job duties may change from day to day, depending on which cases you’ve been assigned to and how full your caseload is. Part of your job duties rotates around questioning suspects. You may have to find out if they are mentally fit to stand trial and if they have enough mental competence to understand what is being asked of them. This also involves watching for signs of mental illness or for faked signs of mental illness. For those that have already been convicted or who are being tried for a crime, you may determine their risk for committing future crimes or their mental state at the time of committing a crime.
Forensic psychology is a highly specialized field; as a result, most psychologists do not work full-time on cases. In many cases, forensic psychologists are faculty members at a local university or college and work on cases when they are needed. The Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel reports on a case that involved the repeated stabbing of a 12-year-old girl by two of her friends. A forensic psychologist was called in to determine the girls’ mental state; the psychologist later found that one of the girls was incompetent to stand trial. Your expertise can make a difference on the lives of those who go through the criminal justice system. Contact the schools with forensic psychology Masters degree programs in our directory to learn more about criminal justice programs that can lead to a career as a forensic psychologist!
Featured Schools Accepting Students from Across the US:
Online programs may not be available in all areas
Top 10 Behavioral Economics Graduate Programs for the Cream of the Crop #top #graduate #programs #in #psychology
Top 10 Behavioral Economics Graduate Programs for the Cream of the Crop
Behavioral economics is a field in economics encompassing interdisciplinary areas with concerns about financial/monetary decisions created by people and groups that are different from what they have predicted. The degree program in this field is rare; however, behavioral economics graduate programs are mostly offered in the graduate level like in the master s degree and doctorate programs. Most of the time, behavioral economics is a specialized course under economics. Behavioral economics is closely related to behavioral finance and students taking this program will tackle in greater depth various subjects like the effects of cognitive, emotional and social factors with the economic decisions of people and groups of individuals. The consequences for resource allocation, market prices and returns are also studied.
Students will be focusing with the limits of rationality of economic means. The Behavioral models are usually the integrated insights from psychology with some approach of neo-classical economic theory.
10. University of Pittsburgh
The University of Pittsburgh has Ph.D. program in the area of Marketing and Business Economics with concentration in behavioral economics. This program prepares the graduate students in their contribution to the marketing field with the knowledge being discovered, developed and disseminated. As a student, you will be equipped with the necessary methodological skills plus theoretical background. The administration utilizes the apprenticeship model in their program because this is an effective approach for the Ph.D. training. The graduate program is under the helm of Joseph M. Katz Graduate School of Business and the College of Business Administration
9. Harvard Business School
The Harvard Business School or HBS is offering a joint degree (together with the Department of Economics in Faculty of Arts and Sciences) for the doctoral/Ph.D. in Business Economics in which behavioral economics is a minor concentration. This program integrates economic analysis and the practical side of business. The degree is designed to prepare professional and graduate students for advance careers in the area of research as well as teaching in economics and business administration. This program is different from the Ph.D. program in Economics of the Harvard University as this program focuses on the business side utilizing statistical methods and economic analysis in order to deal efficiently with various problems in management. This is also different from Doctor of Business Administration especially in the econometric analysis and economic theory focus.
8. University of Michigan
The University of Michigan only admits students in the graduate level to students who have the capacity to take advanced studies in economics. If you want to take behavioral economics here, you can be admitted even if you do not have major in economics in your undergraduate because it is not required; however, micro and macroeconomic courses are significant. The University offers grants to students who will conduct research about behavioral economics. This is provided under the Russell Sage Foundation.
7. Yale University
The Yale University has the faculty to provide students the necessary courses as well as seminars in the field of economics. If your interest in taking the graduate study here is the behavioral economics, you will find the right faculty to assist and guide your study. The faculty here is heterogeneous in the views as well as methodologies involved in the field of economics. As a graduate student, you will attain critical viewpoint on the approaches about behavioral economics. The neo-classical theory and public choice theory as well as externalities and the various market failures will shaped you to learn more about behavioral economics.
6. Harvard University
The Harvard University is offering graduate program in behavioral economics graduate programs under the Department of Economics. This is different from the Harvard Business School particularly in the approach of study. This program is designed to address to the graduate students the opportunity to engage in advance teaching and in conducting related researches. The admission to the said program is competitive and limited to students wanting to take Ph.D. degree. As a student, you should be devoted full-time to your study program.
5. Carnegie Mellon University
The Carnegie Mellon University or CMU is one of the highest ranked universities in the country. They offer a program in behavioral economics. This program is designed to help professionals or groups of people or institutions to create wiser choices and decision making so that they can achieve the potential results of big improvements without the limitation for the freedom of people in conducting what they please to do. The program is under the Tepper School of Business.
4. The University of Chicago Booth School of Business
The University of Chicago – Booth School of Business handles the behavioral economics concentration. The UCBCB teaches the students about monetary discipline as well as how the economics can become a powerful instrument in understanding the society today as well as maximizing the well-being of humans. As a student, you will have in-depth study of the microeconomics in which you will assess how individuals, firms or households thrive on this current economic situation. Macroeconomics courses are also included in the program in which students examine the larger system affecting individuals and how the companies decides and make choices by assessing the (national or international) economic structure, performance and policies.
3. California Institute of Technology
The California Institute of Technology or Cal Tech offers the behavioral economics concentration under the Social Science Faculty that is housed by the Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences. This program encompasses interdisciplinary studies. Cal Tech grants undergraduate degree in the field of in economics, political science and business economics and management.
2. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The MIT offers graduate program in behavioral economics to about 24 graduate students per academic year; hence, the program is highly competitive. This degree program is ranked as one of the best Ph.D. program in economics in the country. Graduate students will have to take the pre-requisites courses in the area of microeconomic and macroeconomics theories and econometrics.
1. University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley or Cal offers Ph.D. degree program to graduate students desiring to pursue advanced study and to conduct research in Economics such as in behavioral economics. The behavioral economics graduate program is given as part of the recognition of the students’ qualifications especially in the students’ ability in making scholarly contributions in their chosen field of specialization.
Rehabilitate or punish? #monitor #on #psychology, #psychologist #involvement,,rehabilitation, #prisoners, #prisons, #incarceration, #psychologists, #mental #health #services, #punishment, #mentally #ill #offenders,,
Rehabilitate or punish?
By ETIENNE BENSON
July/August 2003, Vol 34, No. 7
Print version: page 46
It’s not a very good time to be a prisoner in the United States.
Incarceration is not meant to be fun, of course. But a combination of strict sentencing guidelines, budget shortfalls and a punitive philosophy of corrections has made today’s prisons much more unpleasant–and much less likely to rehabilitate their inhabitants–than in the past, many researchers say.
What is the role for psychologists? First and foremost, they are providing mental health services to the prison population, which has rates of mental illness at least three times the national average.
More broadly, they are contributing a growing body of scientific evidence to political and philosophical discussions about the purpose of imprisonment, says Craig Haney, PhD, a psychologist at the University of California, Santa Cruz.
“Psychology as a discipline now has a tremendous amount of information about the origins of criminal behavior,” says Haney. “I think that it is important for psychologists to bring that information to bear in the debate on what kind of crime control policies we, as a society, should follow.”
Until the mid-1970s, rehabilitation was a key part of U.S. prison policy. Prisoners were encouraged to develop occupational skills and to resolve psychological problems–such as substance abuse or aggression–that might interfere with their reintegration into society. Indeed, many inmates received court sentences that mandated treatment for such problems.
Since then, however, rehabilitation has taken a back seat to a “get tough on crime” approach that sees punishment as prison’s main function, says Haney. The approach has created explosive growth in the prison population, while having at most a modest effect on crime rates.
As a result, the United States now has more than 2 million people in prisons or jails–the equivalent of one in every 142 U.S. residents–and another four to five million people on probation or parole. A higher percentage of the population is involved in the criminal justice system in the United States than in any other developed country.
Many inmates have serious mental illnesses. Starting in the late 1950s and 1960s, new psychotropic drugs and the community health movement dramatically reduced the number of people in state mental hospitals. But in the 1980s, many of the mentally ill who had left mental institutions in the previous two decades began entering the criminal justice system.
Today, somewhere between 15 and 20 percent of people in prison are mentally ill, according to U.S. Department of Justice estimates.
“Prisons have really become, in many ways, the de facto mental health hospitals,” says former prison psychologist Thomas Fagan, PhD. “But prisons weren’t built to deal with mentally ill people; they were built to deal with criminals doing time.”
The plight of the mentally ill in prisons was virtually ignored for many years, but in the past decade many prison systems have realized–sometimes with prodding from the courts–that providing mental health care is a necessity, not a luxury, says Fagan.
In many prison systems, psychologists are the primary mental health care providers, with psychiatrists contracted on a part-time basis. Psychologists provide services ranging from screening new inmates for mental illness to providing group therapy and crisis counseling.
They also provide rehabilitative services that are useful even for prisoners without serious mental illnesses, says Fagan. For example, a psychologist might develop special programs for substance abusers or help prisoners prepare for the transition back to the community.
But they often struggle to implement such programs while keeping up with their regular prison caseloads. “We’re focused so much on the basic mental health services that there’s not enough time or emphasis to devote to rehabilitative services,” says Robert Morgan, PhD, a psychologist at Texas Tech University who has worked in federal and state prisons and studies treatment methods for inmates.
Part of the problem is limited resources, says Morgan: There simply aren’t enough mental health professionals in most prisons. Haney agrees: “Many psychologists in the criminal justice system have enormous caseloads; they’re struggling not to be overwhelmed by the tide.”
Another constraint is the basic philosophical difference between psychology, which is rehabilitative at heart, and corrections, which is currently punishment-oriented.
“Right now there’s such a focus on punishment–most criminal justice or correctional systems are punitive in nature–that it’s hard to develop effective rehabilitative programs,” says Morgan.
To help shift the focus from punishment to rehabilitation, psychologists are doing research on the causes of crime and the psychological effects of incarceration.
In the 1970s, when major changes were being made to the U.S. prison system, psychologists had little hard data to contribute.
But in the past 25 years, says Haney, they have generated a massive literature documenting the importance of child abuse, poverty, early exposure to substance abuse and other risk factors for criminal behavior. The findings suggest that individual-centered approaches to crime prevention need to be complemented by community-based approaches.
Researchers have also found that the pessimistic “nothing works” attitude toward rehabilitation that helped justify punitive prison policies in the 1970s was overstated. When properly implemented, work programs, education and psychotherapy can ease prisoners’ transitions to the free world, says Haney.
Finally, researchers have demonstrated the power of the prison environment to shape behavior, often to the detriment of both prisoners and prison workers.
The Stanford Prison Experiment, which Haney co-authored in 1973 with Stanford University psychologist and APA Past-president Philip G. Zimbardo, PhD, is one example. It showed that psychologically healthy individuals could become sadistic or depressed when placed in a prison-like environment.
More recently, Haney has been studying so-called “supermax” prisons–high-security units in which prisoners spend as many as 23 hours per day in solitary confinement for years at a time.
Haney’s research has shown that many prisoners in supermax units experience extremely high levels of anxiety and other negative emotions. When released–often without any “decompression” period in lower-security facilities–they have few of the social or occupational skills necessary to succeed in the outside world.
Nonetheless, supermax facilities have become increasingly common over the past five to ten years.
“This is what prison systems do under emergency circumstances–they move to punitive social control mechanisms,” explains Haney. “[But] it’s a very short-term solution, and one that may do more long-term damage both to the system and to the individuals than it solves.”