Tag: problems

Is central air conditioning more energy-efficient than window units? #central #air #conditioning #problems


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Is central air conditioning more energy-efficient than window units?

Is central air conditioning more energy-efficient than window units?

Global Cooling

For many urbanites, summer means being constantly dripped on from the air conditioners that fill virtually every city window. These ubiquitous boxes must consume a tremendous amount of energy. From an environmental perspective, aren’t central air conditioners better?

Not necessarily. Air conditioning accounts for more than 15 percent of the energy use of the average home—somewhere around 183 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity in the United States per year, according to a 2001 analysis by the Energy Information Administration. Generating that much electricity creates about 119 million tons of carbon dioxide, or roughly the amount of CO2 spewed by 20 million cars each year. Remarkably, the percentage of homes with central air more than doubled. from 27 to 55 percent, between 1980 and 2001.

When deciding on how to air-condition your abode, you have two basic choices: single-room units or a centralized system. Anyone who’s been to a big-box hardware store has seen the single-room air conditioners. They’re heavy, steel boxes designed to wedge into a window and dangle precariously over passing pedestrians. (In case you were wondering: Yes, they do fall on people .) Inside, there’s a condenser, an evaporator, a thermostat, and a couple of fans .

Central air conditioners have a different structure altogether. The condenser typically sits on the roof or in the backyard. A set of pipes runs coolant from the condenser into an air handler, which is usually located near the home’s furnace. The air handler blows the cooled air through the home’s duct system and into individual rooms.

A central air system’s energy efficiency is measured two ways. The more basic rating is the energy efficiency ratio, or EER, which describes the unit’s energy consumption while cooling a prescribed volume of 95-degree air over the course of an hour in a specialized laboratory. The seasonal energy efficiency ratio, or SEER, is a bit more complicated and considers the average energy use at various temperatures and humidity levels.

Window units are rated only by EER, and lose out to central A/C by this metric. An Energy Star-certified central unit must have a minimum EER of 12. while window units only need to achieve between 9.4 and 10.7. depending on size, to be certified. (It’s possible to buy a window unit rated higher than this minimum, but the same goes for central units. Overall, the central units are still rated higher.)

One reason window air conditioners have lower ratings is that it’s impossible to fit much advanced hardware into that little box. While modern central air conditioners can work at a range of speeds, for example, the condensers in most window units only have two: on and off. (This is, incidentally, the primary reason window air conditioners don’t get SEER ratings.)

This can make a significant difference in energy use. Air conditioners not only lower air temperature; they also remove moisture. Just how much moisture is removed depends on how much air passes through the air conditioner. A machine that only works at full speed (or not at all) can drop a room’s temperature quickly by cooling just a small volume of air to an extremely cold state. In contrast, an air conditioner with variable speed settings can have the same effect by processing a larger volume of air, but cooling each unit volume by a smaller amount. The latter situation results in greater dehumidification because more air runs through the machine.

While this seems like a technical point, it’s quite significant, because it means users can set central air conditioners to a higher temperature and feel just as comfortable, because the air is less humid.

But the window units have their advantages, too. Central air conditioners suffer from “duct losses.” As cooled air passes through the system of ducts on its way to the rooms, it warms up and often leaks through the fittings. These losses can decrease an air conditioner’s energy efficiency by up to 30 percent.

Window units that block the sun from your room, buzz, and shake violently every time the condenser switches on are basically begging for attention—very few consumers walk out the door without remembering to shut off their window units. The quiet and unobtrusive functioning of central air conditioners, on the other hand, can lead to accidental overuse. Industry observers note that people tend to set their central air conditioner to a comfortable temperature and never change it.

Window units also offer room-by-room control. For singletons or couples who occupy only one bedroom at night, cooling a single room consumes a small fraction of the energy that a central air conditioner would.

Central air units are getting smarter, though, and accordingly more efficient. Programmable thermostats can make up for forgetful central A/C users by shutting the unit off when no one is home. Some central air systems even divide homes into separately controlled zones, so you don’t have to cool the kitchen at 3 a.m. just to keep your bedroom a sleepable temperature. And some new central air conditioners have an air handler in each room, skipping the ducts entirely, combining precise control with improved efficiency and less noise.

Because of the construction and behavioral variables, it’s impossible to pronounce a winner in this particular competition. As is often the case, the choice is often going to come down to each consumer’s behavior. Generally speaking, the newfangled ductless system is going to be the most efficient but priciest option upfront. If you’re choosing between an old-school central air system and window units, the latter could be better if you’re childless, live in a large home in a dry environment, or tend to be forgetful about adjusting your thermostat.

The Lantern thanks Jennifer Amann of the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy.

Click here to see a slide show of clever and humorous cooling systems.


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The Reality of Retainers #retainers, #teeth, #dentistry, #braces, #orthodontia, #orthodontists, #dentists, #gaps #in #teeth,

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The Reality of Retainers

You’ve probably seen a kid in the cafeteria take out his retainer before eating lunch. Carefully, he places it in a plastic container to make sure that it’s safe while he eats. You can tell that this small plastic and metal mouthpiece is important to him. You might wonder why. Let’s find out.

What’s a Retainer?

A retainer is a piece of plastic and metal that is custom-made for each individual kid who needs one. It fits the top of the teeth and mouth. No two retainers are alike, even though many look similar.

Retainers are really common. In fact, most people (kids and adults) who have braces have to wear a retainer for at least a little while after getting their braces taken off. Other people wear them to close gaps in their teeth, to help with speech problems, or to solve certain medical problems.

Why Do I Need to Wear a Retainer?

You might need a retainer for a few reasons. The most common reason is to help your teeth stay set in their new positions after wearing braces. It’s important to wear your retainer because as your body grows, your teeth do some shifting. The retainer helps to control this shifting, which occurs naturally.

After your braces are removed, your orthodontist (a special dentist who helps straighten teeth and correct jaw problems) will fit you for a retainer and tell you how long to wear it and when. For example, you might have to wear it all day for 3 months but then only at night after that. Some kids may wear their retainer only at night right from the start, but they may have to wear it for more than a year. The retainer keeps the teeth in line and you won’t even notice it while you’re sleeping!

Other kids may wear retainers to close a space between their teeth or just to move one tooth. In these cases, braces aren’t needed because retainers can do the job. Often, retainers will be worn for several years to close a space, for example, and then keep the gap closed by holding the teeth in place.

When you wear a retainer for any reason, certain teeth may feel pressure and might even feel sore for the first few days. If you experience this, don’t worry it’s completely normal.

Retainers can help many mouth problems besides shifting teeth. Sometimes they’re used to help a medical problem. For example, you may have a tongue thrust (a condition where your tongue sneaks through your teeth when you talk). Some retainers, known as a crib or tongue cage retainers, are designed with small metal bars that hang down from the roof of your mouth. These retainers keep your tongue from going forward in between your teeth when you speak. Your tongue is trained to go to the roof of your mouth instead of through your teeth. The length of time kids wear a tongue cage varies depending on the kid.

Another use for retainers is to help people with temporomandibular disorder(TMD). This disorder is usually a result of a bite problem (the teeth don’t meet together properly when the jaws are closed) called malocclusion (say: mal-uh-KLOO-zhun) or bruxism (say: BRUK-sih-zum), which is grinding your teeth while you sleep. Grinding stretches the muscles and joints in your mouth and jaws and sometimes can cause jaw pain or headaches. Retainers can help you by preventing your mouth from closing completely at night, which keeps you from grinding your teeth.

Getting Fitted for and Wearing a Retainer

This is the easy part. Your orthodontist will fit you for the retainer using a material known as alginate (say: AL-juh-nate). It’s a chewy, chalky kind of thick liquid that makes a mold of your teeth when you sink them into it. The fitting process is fast, painless, and doesn’t even taste bad and you can choose from different flavors.

Your finished retainer can be designed to express your style and likes. Sometimes you can have a picture such as Batman, Christmas trees, or Halloween bats on the plastic part of the retainer. Once you’ve been fitted for the retainer, you usually have to wait less than a week to get the real thing.

You may think your retainer feels weird at first. That’s normal. But see your orthodontist for an adjustment if the retainer causes pain or cuts or rubs against your gums.

At first, you’ll need to get used to talking with it in your mouth. Talking slowly at first is a good way to practice and eventually, you won’t even notice it’s there. Dentists advise reading aloud for several minutes each day. You may also notice an increased saliva flow (more spit in your mouth) in the first few days of wearing your new retainer, which is normal.

Caring for Your Retainer

Retainers live in your mouth along with bacteria, plaque, and leftover food particles. You should clean your retainer every day, but make sure to check with your orthodontist about how your type of retainer should be cleaned (some kinds shouldn’t be cleaned with toothpaste). You can also soak it in mouthwash or a denture-cleaning agent to freshen it up and kill germs .

Because the plastic of your retainer can crack if it gets too dry, you should always soak it when it isn’t in your mouth. Plastic can warp easily, so don’t put it in hot water or leave it near a heat source like on your radiator, for example. Finally, do not bend the wires. Flipping the retainer around in your mouth will cause the wires to bend.

One important way to take care of your retainer is not to lose it. They are expensive and your mom or dad might have to pay for lost or damaged retainers. Worse yet, they might ask you to help pay for a new one! So look before you dump your lunch tray and try to keep it in the same spot at home when you’re not wearing it. In other words, retain your retainer!

Date reviewed: February 2013


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Top Solutions for Phone Issues – Small Business Customer Service #phone #problems, #dial #tone,

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Phone

Follow the steps below to troubleshoot the dial tone problem on your phone.
  1. If no dial tone is present on your phone, check to make sure that all receivers are on the hook and the telephone line is plugged into the jack.
  2. If the problem is on one phone only, use a different phone. If you still do not have a dial tone, try a different phone jack to determine whether the issue is with the phone or the phone jack. If the issue is with the phone jack or is happening on all of your phones, contact Verizon Repair for assistance.
  3. If your problem is happening on all of your calls, go to each connected device (such as your phone, modem, and fax) and begin to disconnect them one at a time.
  4. After you disconnect a device, leave it disconnected. Wait 30 seconds, then go to the next device and check if it has a dial tone. If there is a dial tone, then the last device that was unplugged is the faulty device and should be replaced.
  5. Reconnect all other devices except the faulty device and check each for proper operation. If the faulty device now works, mark it and if the problem happens again you can check that device first.
Follow the steps below to troubleshoot the outgoing call problem on your phone.

If only one of your phones is causing the problem:

  1. Check to ensure that your phone is turned to touch tone (tt). This switch is usually located on the side or bottom of the telephone set.
  2. Press each button on the phone s number keypad to ensure that they are not sticking or making a dull sound instead of a clean tone.
  3. If you hearing a fast busy signal or a delayed dial tone there may be a surge in the phone line usage in your area.
  4. Try making your call later when phone lines are less busy.

If only one of your phones is causing the problem, check your phone equipment:

  1. Unplug the phone from its wall jack.
  2. Plug a working phone into the jack.
  3. Check to see if the problem persists.

If the problem continues

  • If the problem continues and you have a phone system or multi-line equipment, contact your vendor.
  • If the problem continues and you have a single line service such as a fax, modem or dedicated line, complete the Network Interface Device Network Interface Device Test Procedure to determine if the problem is with inside or outside wiring.
    Isolation tests on phone systems or multi-line equipment should be performed only by authorized or certified personnel to avoid damage to the equipment.

Other reasons that might prevent you from being able to call out include:

  • Stuck keypad: The most common cause of incomplete calls is that the keypad is stuck and may not be working correctly. Make sure you can hear each tone when you dial.
  • Verify the number you are dialing: Area codes are changing frequently and some numbers might now require 10-digit dialing.
  • Fast busy: Network problems (such as busy circuits) could cause this problem. Hang up and dial again.
Follow the steps below to troubleshoot the static problem on your phone.

If you are hearing static on your phone, check that the problem is not originating from your equipment.

If you are sure you are calling the correct number, check your phone equipment.

  1. Unplug the phone from its wall jack.
  2. Plug a working phone into the jack.
  3. Check to see if the problem persists.

If the problem no longer exists then there is an equipment problem with the first phone you were using.

Static on a cordless phone

If you are using a cordless phone, unplug the phone from the wall outlet and the jack.

If the problem is resolved by removing the phone, refer to the cordless phone owner s manual or replace the equipment.

If the problem continues

  • If the problem continues and you have a phone system or multi-line equipment, contact your vendor.
  • If the problem continues and you have a single line service such as a fax, modem or dedicated line, complete the Network Interface Device Network Interface Device Test Procedure to determine if the problem is with inside or outside wiring.
    Isolation tests on phone systems or multi-line equipment should be performed only by authorized or certified personnel to avoid damage to the equipment.

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Minor Use Crop and Pest Problems – Minor Use Pesticides Program – Agriculture and

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Minor Use Crop and Pest Problems

Grower-determined Crop/Pest Problems

During the winter months, growers and other stakeholders worked with provincial minor use coordinators to identify crop/pest problems and potential solutions for these problems. These problems are grouped into three disciplines: weeds and growth regulators, insects (entomology) and diseases (pathology). The provincial lists were compiled by the Pest Management Centre and integrated into a national priority list for each discipline that served as the working document for the Canadian Minor Use Pesticide Priority Setting Workshop that took place from March 21 to 23, 2017, in Gatineau, Quebec.

Selected National Priorities

During the 2017 Canadian Minor Use Pesticide Priority Setting Workshop, the national priorities were selected. Forty-one (41) “A” Priorities with potential solutions and two (2) “A” Priorities without solution (APWS) were determined in the following categories: entomology, pathology, weeds and growth regulators, regional upgrades and organic production. When determining the solutions for each pest problem, products which minimize the potential impacts on the environment and human health were considered. These selected priorities will become projects within the Minor Use Pesticides Program for the 2018 growing season.

2016 Priority Setting Workshop

Grower-determined Crop/Pest Problems

During the winter months, growers and other stakeholders worked with provincial minor use coordinators to identify crop/pest problems and potential solutions for these problems. These problems are grouped into three disciplines: weeds and growth regulators, insects (entomology) and diseases (pathology). The provincial lists were compiled by the Pest Management Centre and integrated into a national priority list for each discipline that served as the working document for the Canadian Minor Use Pesticide Priority Setting Workshop that took place from March 22 to 24, 2016, in Gatineau, Quebec.

Selected National Priorities

During the 2016 Canadian Minor Use Pesticide Priority Setting Workshop, the national priorities were selected. Thirty-four (34) A Priorities with potential solutions and five (5) A Priorities without solution (APWS) were determined in the following categories: entomology, pathology, weeds and growth regulators, regional upgrades and organic production. When determining the solutions for each pest problem, products which minimize the potential impacts on the environment and human health were considered. These selected priorities will become projects within the Minor Use Pesticides Program for the 2017 growing season.

2015 Priority Setting Workshop

Grower-determined Crop/Pest Problems

During the winter months, growers and other stakeholders worked with provincial minor use coordinators to identify crop/pest problems and potential solutions for these problems. These problems are grouped into three disciplines: weeds and growth regulators, insects (entomology) and diseases (pathology). The provincial lists were compiled by the Pest Management Centre and integrated into a national priority list for each discipline that served as the working document for the Canadian Minor Use Pesticide Priority Setting Workshop that took place from March 24 to 26, 2015, in Gatineau, Quebec.

Selected National Priorities

During the 2015 Canadian Minor Use Pesticide Priority Setting Workshop, the national priorities were selected. Thirty-four (34) “A” Priorities with potential solutions and eight (8) “A” Priorities without solution (APWS) were determined in the following categories: entomology, pathology, weeds and growth regulators, regional upgrades and organic production. When determining the solutions for each pest problem, products which minimize the potential impacts on the environment and human health were considered. These selected priorities will become projects within the Minor Use Pesticides Program for the 2016 growing season.


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VW diesel buyback program has rocky start – The Morning Call #vw, #diesel #buyback,

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VW diesel buyback program has rocky start

Volkswagen hoped that buying back vehicles sold under misleading clean-diesel claims would smooth hurt feelings, but some owners got more steamed when the road to a refund had a rocky start.

Customers waited on hold for hours, didn’t get questions answered and endured website crashes, according to a report by Ankura Consulting Group, an independent claims supervisor monitoring the compensation process.

While Volkswagen has made significant progress, there have been challenges at the outset of the claims program that have led to frustration among some consumers, the Nov. 25 report concludes.

Volkswagen did not respond to my call and email requesting comment.

Volkswagen, which also makes Audis, is buying back, terminating leases or repairing nearly 475,000 vehicles and making additional payments to partially resolve lawsuits by the Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Trade Commission and California authorities.

Some Volkswagen and Audi owners Tuesday objected to a $10 billion settlement floated by the automaker after it was found to be cheating on EPA emissions tests on its diesel engines. Why are they objecting? And what does the proposed settlement mean for Volkswagen and Audi owners? Here’s what you.

Some Volkswagen and Audi owners Tuesday objected to a $10 billion settlement floated by the automaker after it was found to be cheating on EPA emissions tests on its diesel engines. Why are they objecting? And what does the proposed settlement mean for Volkswagen and Audi owners? Here’s what you.

The cases alleged the automaker misled buyers about the environmental friendliness of some diesel vehicles, which were rigged to score well on emissions tests but released unlawful amounts of pollutants when driven on the open road.

The settlement covers Audi A3 from 2010-2013 and 2015; VW Beetle and Beetle convertible, 2013-2015; Golf two-door, 2010-2013; Golf four-door, 2010-2015; Golf SportWagen, 2015; Jetta, 2009-2015; Jetta SportWagen, 2009-2014; and Passat, 2012-2015.

Pennsylvania residents have been among the heaviest users of the program thus far.

Volkswagen owners entitled to compensation because they were misled into buying cars by false “clean diesel” claims must be careful not to be tricked again by dirty dealers or opportunistic vehicle flippers.

VW has agreed to buy back cars, terminate leases or repair nearly 475,000 vehicles — about.

Volkswagen owners entitled to compensation because they were misled into buying cars by false “clean diesel” claims must be careful not to be tricked again by dirty dealers or opportunistic vehicle flippers.

VW has agreed to buy back cars, terminate leases or repair nearly 475,000 vehicles — about.

As of Nov. 20, nearly 18,000 state residents registered, the fifth-most in the country. Nearly 8,000 completed claims and nearly 2,000 received compensation offers — the fourth-most in the country for both categories.

Donald Wayne Strout Sr.’s claim is being reviewed for eligibility but getting to that point wasn’t easy.

Strout, who used to live in Allentown and now lives in Spring Grove, York County, told me he got rid of his 2013 Beetle after the scandal broke.

I bought the car because I liked the concept of being economically and environmentally smart, Strout said. All of a sudden, because of the publicity, driving the car made you look environmentally and economically dumb. When I would walk out into the garage and see this car, it did nothing but annoy me.

Strout sold the car in May. Though he no longer owns it, he is eligible for compensation, as is the person who bought it. Strout expects to receive about $3,000.

He told me he registered on the settlement website, www.vwcourtsettlement.com. in August. He filed his claim in late November, submitting the vehicle title and driver’s licenses for him and his wife. A few days later, he got an email saying the documents were deficient because of a name mismatch.

Strout told me called the Volkswagen hotline (844-98-CLAIM) Nov. 30 and a representative could not explain the discrepancy. She suggested he resubmit his license. Strout did not believe that was the solution and was disconnected after asking to speak with a supervisor.

He said he called back and a second representative told him the name on the claim was Donald Wayne Strout 7S, which did not match his driver’s license name of Donald Wayne Strout Sr.

Strout said the rep told him he must have entered the information incorrectly. Strout pointed out that his name was correct on his profile page on the claim website, indicating he had entered it correctly when he registered. He said he was told the matter would be escalated and he would be contacted within three days.

Strout didn’t wait. He said he submitted a screenshot of his profile page through the claim website, showing his correct name was in Volkswagen’s system. The next day, he emailed a complaint to Ankura. About four hours later, Volkswagen emailed to say his application was complete and being reviewed for eligibility.

I’ve seldom seen more bureaucratic bumbling than what I’ve seen in this situation, Strout said. It just smells like a system designed to reduce or to discourage people from making a claim.

Ankura said in its report that Volkswagen made significant investments to set up the claims system but didn’t initially have adequate staffing and infrastructure in place.

On Nov. 14, Volkswagen received more than 10,000 calls.

Some consumers complained of wait times of several hours, and Volkswagen reported hang-up rates approaching 70 percent, Ankura said in its report. Some consumers also have expressed frustration with how calls have been handled, particularly highlighting instances where Volkswagen hotline agents did not have answers to consumer questions.

Wait times dropped to an average of eight minutes as staffing was increased over a few weeks, though some callers still waited up to an hour, Ankura said.

Former Volkswagen owners such as Strout had to register by Sept. 16. In the days before that deadline, there were reports that the claims website crashed numerous times, Ankura said. Volkswagen addressed the technical issues and accepted claims for an additional three days.

After a customer submits a claim, Volkswagen has 10 business days to determine whether it is complete. Ankura said Volkswagen has substantially satisfied that requirement, issuing timely decisions more than 95 percent of the time.

After a claim is deemed complete, Volkswagen has another 10 business days to issue a compensation offer, which comes after Ankura independently validates the claim and the settlement amount.

As of Nov. 20, Volkswagen issued timely decisions at that stage 52 percent of the time. Some delays were attributed to the need for Volkswagen to obtain loan payoff amounts from lenders.

Ankura said that overall, it appears Volkswagen has worked in good faith, has responded to challenges and is committed to making improvements in the process. Ankura will file more progress reports, which I will share with you as necessary.


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Texas A – M – Commerce (GMAT can be waived – it s AACSB-accredited)

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Thread: Texas A M – Commerce (GMAT can be waived it’s AACSB-accredited)

Teachers play an important role in fostering the intellectual and social development of children during their formative years. The education that students acquire is key to determining the future of those students. Whether in elementary or high schools or in private or public schools, teachers provide the tools and the environment for their students to develop into responsible adults.
Teachers act as facilitators or coaches, using classroom presentations or individual instruction to help students learn and apply concepts in subjects such as science, mathematics, and English. They plan, evaluate, and assign lessons; prepare, administer, and grade tests; listen to oral presentations; and maintain classroom discipline. Teachers observe and evaluate a student’s performance and potential. They are increasingly asked to use new assessment methods

�Public school teachers must be licensed, which typically requires a bachelor’s degree and the completion of an approved teacher education program; private school teachers do not have to be licensed but may still need a bachelor’s degree.
�Job prospects are best for teachers in high-demand fields, such as mathematics, science, and bilingual education, and in less desirable urban or rural school districts.
�Teachers must have the ability to communicate, inspire trust and confidence, and motivate students, as well as understand students’ educational and emotional needs.

Click Here
to find FREE information on schools offering this course of study.

Lewis offers the following online degrees: Bachelor�s Degree in Fire Service Administration; Certificates in Nursing Administration and Nursing Education; Master�s Degree in Organizational Leadership (Higher Education, Management, Not-For-Profit, Public Administration, and Training), Information Security (Managerial and Technical); and MSN in Nursing Administration and Nursing Education.

The school is regionally accredited, the most widely recognized accreditation.

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to receive FREE information on this school.

Colorado State University – Global Campus

Colorado State University – Global Campus

Colorado State University offers accredited Bachelor completion and Master programs in a variety of fields, including business management, organizational leadership, a Masters in Teaching and Learning, and a BS in Social Sciences (degree completion)

The school is regionally accredited, the most widely recognized accreditation.

Click Here
to receive FREE information on this school.

Last edited by dl_mba; 11-08-2011 at 05:15 AM.

Join Date Dec 2011 Posts 4

Hi! Has anyone on here heard anything about the MS in Accounting a TAMU-Commerce? I am interested in the program. Thanks!

Argosy offers online Bachelor’s, Master’s and Doctorate in Business Administration, psychology, and HR-related degrees, with many specialty degrees, including organizational psychology, exercise psychology, HR, public administration, higher education administration, and many more.

Argosy also offers the same degrees and more from 19 locations across the U.S. and is a leader in the distance/online education field.

Argosy has one of the largest graduate student communities in the nation, and is regionally accredited, the most widely recognized accreditation.

Click Here
to receive FREE information on this school.

Join Date Nov 2004 Posts 658

Hi! Has anyone on here heard anything about the MS in Accounting a TAMU-Commerce? I am interested in the program. Thanks!

There is already an active thread about this.


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Push Button Toilet Cistern #push #button #toilet #cistern #problems


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Push Button Toilet Cisterns – How to Solve Common Problems with European Toilet Cisterns

Summary: Push button cistern problems and solutions. How does a dual flush system work and how to cure common push button toilet cistern problems including problems with dual flush or European toilet cistern. This DIY guide includes a diagram of dual flush toilet cistern and a video on installing a close coupled flush valve.

Many people email Diydoctor asking how their push button cistern can be repaired. The diagrams and explanations below show how most common faults on a push button or “European” cistern are solved.

Many people have used our feedback button below to ask the question “How do I get the lid off my push button cistern”.

In most cases (and there are a few different types of push button cistern) it is a question of raising the lid as far as you can and reaching in to hold the bottom of the push button assembly. It is then possible to unscrew the button assembly from the top. Turn the push button anti-clockwise to unscrew it.

The small button operates the central flush unit by opening it a little way via a lever attached to the polystyrene float arm. The water flushes until the polystyrene float is lifted to the top which then closes the flush unit. The inlet valve lets in more water, as with a handle flush cistern ( See our project on cisterns, tanks and valves ) until the main closes the inlet valve. Push button cisterns are designed to use less water. On most push button cisterns the overflow is also internal (just below the number 2) and if the inlet valve fails for any reason, the water flows over the centre of the flush unit into the toilet bowl. This is obviously seen as constantly running water in your toilet bowl and should be addressed as soon as possible.

When water will not stop enetering the cistern it is because the cistern entry valve is faulty. This can be rectified by reading our project on cisterns, tanks and valves and scrolling down to the valves section.

Cross section of a toilet cistern

You might like to go to the video section on toilets to watch a film on how to fix a running toilet.


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Near sighted eyes #strabismus, #stabismus, #strabismis, #crossed #eyes, #cross-eyed, #cross #eye, #wandering #eye, #wander,

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Amblyopia

Amblyopia (am-blee-OH-pee-uh) or “lazy eye” is a condition in which the eye and brain don’t work together as they should. Kids who have it will develop good vision in one eye and poor vision in the other.

Kids often get used to this vision problem, and might not mention it to parents. As a result, their amblyopia might not be diagnosed for months or even years, while parents chalk up poor grades or clumsiness to a child not being academically or athletically gifted.

But sometimes the solution is as easy as visiting the eye doctor. Treatment for amblyopia can correct the way the eye and brain work together and strengthen vision. Early treatment is important waiting or not getting a proper diagnosis could lead to permanent vision loss later.

About Amblyopia

From birth until about age 8, a child’s eyes and brain form vital connections. Anything that blocks or blurs vision in one or both eyes can slow down or prevent these connections.

If that happens, the brain might not fully recognize the images seen by one or both eyes. Then, the brain begins to ignore the images seen by the otherwise healthy eye, and the eye becomes weaker, losing vision strength (acuity). This eye is then referred to as “amblyopic.”

Causes

A number of things can interfere with normal brain eye connections and lead to amblyopia.

One of the most common problems is strabismus . In this condition, one or both eyes wander in (“cross-eyed”), out, up, or down. When eyes don’t line up together, the straight or straighter eye becomes more dominant. The vision strength of the straight eye stays normal because the eye and its connection to the brain are working normally. The misaligned or weaker eye, though, doesn’t focus properly and the brain ignores its signal, eventually leading to amblyopia.

Not all kids with amblyopia will have crossed or wandering eyes in fact many have eyes that are perfectly straight. If so, amblyopia might be due to an anatomical or structural problem that interferes with or blocks vision, such as a droopy eyelid or a cataract .

Other causes of amblyopia are severe far-sightedness (hyperopia), near-sightedness (myopia), or astigmatism (a form of blurry vision). These problems make vision blurry, and it’s these blurry images that are sent to the brain. Over time, the brain begins to ignore these images, resulting in amblyopia in one or both eyes.

Sometimes, having different vision strengths in each eye known as anisometropia can cause amblyopia. When one eye sees more clearly than the other, the brain ignores the blurry eye.

Genetics play a role, too. Amblyopia tends to run in families. It’s also more common in children born prematurely or those with developmental delays.

Signs and Symptoms

Most children with amblyopia won’t complain of vision problems. Over time, they become used to having good vision in one eye and poor vision in the other.

Often, a parent or teacher might realize that a child is struggling with a vision problem maybe noticing crossed eyes, frequent squinting, or tilting the head to see better. Some kids have poor depth perception and trouble seeing in three dimensions.

Regular vision screenings by health care providers are an important part of finding any problems in kids.

Treatment

Treatment for amblyopia involves forcing the brain to pay attention to the images of the amblyopic or weaker eye so vision in that eye gets stronger. This is done with glasses, eye patches, eye drops, surgery, or a combination of these:

  • Glasses. Glasses are prescribed when amblyopia is caused by severe refractive errors and/or anisometropia (when one eye sees more clearly than the other). Glasses help send clear, focused images to the brain, which teach it to “switch on” the weaker eye. This allows the brain to use the eyes together and develop normal vision.
  • Eye patches. In many cases, kids with amblyopia must wear an eye patch over the stronger or unaffected eye. The patch is worn for 2 6 hours a day while the child is awake for several months or years, depending on the condition. There are two types of eye patches: one works like a band-aid and is placed directly over the eye; the other, designed for kids who wear glasses, is a cloth patch that fits securely over one lens.

Making sure a child wears the eye patch can be a challenge. But kids usually adapt well, and the patch simply becomes part of their day. In the meantime, distraction with a new or exciting toy, a trip to the park, or just playing outside can help kids forget they’re wearing an eye patch.

  • Atropine drops. Sometimes, despite parents’ best efforts, some kids won’t wear their eye patch. In these cases, atropine drops may be used. Just as a patch blocks the vision in the unaffected or straight eye, atropine drops will temporarily blur out the vision in the strong eye, forcing the brain to recognize the images seen by the weaker eye.
  • Surgery. If strabismus is causing amblyopia and treatment with glasses, patches, or drops doesn’t improve the alignment of the eyes, eye muscle surgery might be an option. Surgery also might be done if amblyopia is caused by a droopy eyelid or a cataract.

    Surgery involves loosening or tightening the muscles causing the eye to wander. This type of surgery usually doesn’t require an overnight hospital stay.

  • Eye Exams for Kids

    Kids reach “visual maturity” by about 8 years old; after that, vision problems can be harder to treat. The earlier amblyopia is diagnosed and treated, the better the chances to improve vision and avoid permanent vision loss.

    Sometimes there are no apparent signs of a vision problem, so it’s important for kids to have yearly vision screenings. These exams should begin in the toddler and preschool years so that problems are caught before a child reaches visual maturity.

    Most screenings are done at the pediatrician’s office or at school by the school nurse. If problems are found, your child will be referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist for further evaluation and treatment.

    Talk with your doctor if you have any questions about your child’s vision.

    Date reviewed: January 2017


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    Why You Bruise More Easily When You Drink Alcohol #alcohol, #drinking, #bruises, #skin #problems,

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    Why You Bruise More Easily When You Drink Alcohol

    That s because boozing can make you more susceptible to bruising.

    Related. The Better Man Project From Men s Health 2,000+ Awesome Tips on How to Live Your Healthiest Life

    Alcohol is a vasodilator, meaning it causes your blood vessels to temporarily relax and expand.

    This widening increases blood flow throughout your body, including near the surface of your skin, says Scott Swartzwelder, Ph.D. coauthor of Buzzed: The Straight Facts About the Most Used and Abused Drugs from Alcohol to Ecstasy .

    More blood flowing through your vessels means that more blood can escape if a blood vessel happens to get ruptured say, if your leg bumps the corner of a table, Swartzwelder says.

    And when the blood vessels underneath your skin break, it causes blood to leak out. That s the purplish-blue color you see with a bruise.

    So when you drink alcohol and injure yourself, you can be left with a bigger, more noticeable bruise than you might see while sober.

    It doesn t take a lot of alcohol for the effect to occur, either: Men may notice an increased risk of bruising after just a couple of drinks, Swartzwelder says.

    Plus, you re more susceptible to an accidental fall or bump after you ve been drinking, anyway.

    Alcohol impairs your cerebellum, the part of your brain that s responsible for coordinating your movements, Swartzwelder says. So after a few drinks, you start to become more clumsy.

    And your injury might not even hurt at the time.

    Booze has an analgesic effect, meaning that it dulls pain.

    So you might bump into the table and just brush it off, Swartzwelder says.

    Alcohol also impairs your memory, so you might forget about your accident altogether until you wake up the next morning wondering where that giant, painful bruise came from.

    For the average healthy guy (say, drinking one or two drinks per night, or fewer than 14 drinks per week) the alcohol-related effects on bruising are temporary, and no real cause for concern. They should dissipate after three or four days.

    If your bruise doesn t improve within two weeks, or if you start to notice frequent, unexplained bruises whether you re drunk or sober call your doctor.

    Bruises that take a long time to heal or getting bruised for no apparent cause could be signs of a bleeding disorder.


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    Tax Settlement Program – How To Fix Your Tax Problems Once And For All

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    Tax Settlement Program – How To Fix Your Tax Problems Once And For All

    Tax Settlement Program – How To Fix Your Tax Problems Once And For All US Tax Shield 2015-09-16T22:25:47+00:00

    A good tax settlement program can help you take control of your tax debt and get the IRS off your back. But with so many different types of programs and companies out there, how do you know which one is right for your situation?

    These days, there are numerous tax relief scams and questionable businesses that claim to be able to wipe out your tax debt with the virtual click of a button. The reality is: it s just not that simple.

    However, by seeking the expertise of a skilled tax professional, you may be able to effectively:

    Resolve your tax problems Stop the IRS from harassing you Reverse the IRS s collections methods Potentially reduce your tax debt Get your financial situation back on track

    So, how do you know which tax relief program is right for you? Here s what to look for as you begin comparing your options.

    What To Look For In A Tax Settlement Program

    Experienced tax professionals or enrolled agents Be suspicious of any tax settlement program that does not involve the assistance of professional tax attorneys or enrolled agents. These are the only two types of professionals who are authorized to negotiate with the IRS on your behalf.

    The expertise of these individuals is crucial to tackling your tax problems and finding a solution that fits your individual situations. Make sure the company you partner with has seasoned tax lawyers who can guide you to the tax relief program you need.

    A history of proven results Find out how long the tax relief company has been in business and how many other clients like you they ve helped. Ask them about specific situations that are similar to yours and what outcome was produced as a result of their tax settlement program (More Info ). Be wary of any company that is new to the industry or cannot prove that it had helped others relieve their tax debt.

    Customized solutions There are numerous factors that need to be considered when selecting the appropriate tax problem: how much debt you have, your current financial situation, how much interest and penalties you ve been charged, which IRS collection methods are being used against you and so on. Your unique situation will determine which steps need to be taken to help settle your debt. Look for companies that customize their services to the unique needs of every client.

    Proven Tax Settlement Programs At US Tax Shield

    At US Tax Shield, we have years of tax resolution experience and have helped thousands of clients solve their tax liability problems. Our seasoned tax attorneys and enrolled agents are dedicated to helping individuals, sole proprietors, partnerships, and corporations take control of their tax situations with a variety of tax relief solutions, including:

    Offers in compromise Installment agreement negotiations Release of wage and bank levies Innocent spouse relief Penalty abatements High dollar liabilities Foreign Bank Account Reporting issues Payroll tax resolution Audit appeals

    US Tax Shield is rated A+ by the Better Business Bureau and has seven offices across the United States.

    Call 877-829-3535 to get a free 15-minute consultation with one of our experienced tax advisors.


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