Tag: Price

Buy Shadilal – Sons A Trade Game Business Deluxe India Online In India –

#business game


Shadilal Sons A Trade Game Business Deluxe India

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Put a price tag on your business: A guide to business valuation – Canada

#business valuation


Put a price tag on your business: A guide to business valuation

If you want to sell all or part of your business, you need to have an idea of its value. This information will help you understand the different approaches to business valuation, but you may want to seek professional guidance and advice. Prospective investors will also assess its value when they consider your proposal.

The process of determining the value is called valuation. You and the buyer or investor need to determine what you feel is an appropriate business valuation because it will be the basis for negotiating:

  • How much of your business the investor or buyer will purchase
  • How much the buyer or investor will pay (the price of the business or of its shares)
  • The return the buyer or investor can expect to earn

Ways of valuing a business

Valuation is not an exact science, and there are different ways of valuing a business. Each of these methods is based on different assumptions and financial information, which typically results in a different value for each method. For instance, you could base a valuation on the assets of a business (how much it owns) or by taking into account projected revenues or cash flows. Investors generally prefer methods based on cash flows. It s important to know about a variety of methods because they can be useful as benchmarks to check the validity of the value and the price you determine.

Earnings and cash flow-based methods:

  • Discounted cash flow
  • Going-concern value

Discounted cash flow

From the investor s perspective, this is usually the most accurate and effective way to estimate a business value because it is based on future cash flows. These cash flow figures reflect the amount of money that is estimated to come into the business and will ultimately determine the investor s return on investment. The discounted cash flow method is used to answer three critical questions:

  • Value: How much is your business worth today, based on what it will earn in the future?
  • Rate of return: What is the buyer s or investor s expected rate of return, given the amount invested and your business financial projections?
  • Equity share: How much equity will the buyer or investor receive for their investment?

The discounted-cash-flow method is often preferred because it can be more accurate than other methods. Its accuracy and complexity are due to the fact that it:

  • Uses cash flows: It takes into account the projected ups and downs of revenue over a period of time.
  • Discounts the cash flows: It adjusts the cash flows by a rate that is acceptable to the investor to account for risk and the time the investor must wait for a return.
How it works

In this method, cash flow predictions are discounted, or reduced, to adjust for the risk the investor faces and to make up for the fact that the investor could invest their money in something else.

Investors are looking to be compensated for their risk, and their benchmark rate or “discount rate” will adjust for the value of money over time. They will choose a discount rate and compare your proposal against that rate.

Advantages and disadvantages

The discounted cash flow method allows values to be estimated even when your cash flow is fluctuating. A start-up or new venture may expect to lose money in the first years and then make money in later years. These changes in cash flow are taken into account by the discounted cash flow method.

If you use this method, keep in mind that:

  • Its accuracy depends on the accuracy of your cash flow projections. That is why your financial data and assumptions are critical.
  • It is a complex process, so you may require professional guidance.
  • It can give you detailed estimates, but it is important to remember that business valuation is not an exact science your numbers will be based on assumptions and predictions of future performance.
Value: How much is your business worth today?

Let s say financiers are considering an investment in your business, but plan to take their money out in five years. To them, your business is worth today what it can earn during those five years, plus their share of the value of the business at the end of the five years. However, future cash flow numbers and the future value of the business are unknown. The discounted cash flow method applies adjustments or “discounts” to account for those unknowns.

Using this method, the value is the total of the cash flows, adjusted or discounted, plus the value remaining (or residual value), also discounted.

Rate of return: What rate of return will the investor expect?

Investors want to calculate their rate of return. To do that they must compare the amount of the investment to the amount they will earn at the end of the investment period. But how can they know what they will earn in the future? Again, they must use the discounted cash flow projections to estimate the future value of their investment. To do so, they will need to:

  • Estimate the cash flow in the final year
  • Estimate the value of the business based on the cash flow
  • Calculate the final value of their share in the business
  • Determine their rate of return
Value, return and exit strategy

The method used to calculate values and rates of return depends on the specific exit strategy used. Commonly-used methods include going-concern value, book value, and liquidation value.

Going-concern value

The going-concern value method calculates your business value based on its capacity to produce a stream of cash flow in the future. The greater the cash flow your business generates in the future, the higher your business value today.

How it works

The going concern value, like discounted cash flow, compares the current investment to the future receipts (cash inflows). This method uses the revenues of previous years to project future revenues, and it assumes those revenues will not change.

Book Value

This value is the net worth, or shareholders equity, of your business as shown in its financial statements. At its most simplified, subtracting your liabilities from your assets will give you your business net worth or book value. Book value can be described as the historical value of an asset that, at a given time (the day it was purchased), represented the economic or market value of the asset, less its accumulated depreciation.

How it works

To determine the book value, subtract your liabilities from the value of your assets. The difference gives you your net worth or shareholders equity. In practice, book value is seldom used in the process of securing venture capital, although it can be a realistic approach to measuring a small business net worth.

Liquidation value

A liquidation value is assigned to a business being sold in order to satisfy its creditors. Tangible assets, such as land, usually have a liquidation value close to their market value. Inventories and accounts receivable, on the other hand, are usually valued at less than what is shown in the books.

How it works

To determine the liquidation value, all assets are assigned distressed values, and all debts are totalled at book value. Most assets sold under duress are discounted from their fair market value. The difference between the distressed value of the assets and the actual or book value of the liabilities is referred to as the liquidation value.

The liquidation value doesn t reflect the real worth of an asset or a business; in most cases, it is substantially less than the market and book values. This method is typically used only if a business is in serious financial trouble.

Should I seek a financial advisor for help with valuation?

Business valuation is a complex task, and a financial advisor with experience in business valuation can be an invaluable asset.

A professional valuator can:

  • Provide the experience needed to accurately determine the value of your business
  • Offer an objective view of your business worth
  • Give investors more confidence in the credibility of your valuation


There is a saying in the venture capital industry: “The value of a business is only what someone is willing to pay for it.” In other words, the market, and your ability to attract investors and negotiate with them will determine the value or selling price.

Remember that many factors affect the value of your business. Seeking professional assistance can help you calculate an accurate value for your business.

Learn how to determine the value of your business and find ways to increase it.

What is a fair price to pay for a business? Read this article to learn how to estimate the value of a business.

Enlist the help of an expert who can quantify the worth of all, or part, of your business or its securities.

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San Diego Garage Door Installation – Garage Door Repair #price #of #new #garage #door


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We will Beat or Match any Price on Garage Door Repairs or New Installation.

Socal Garage Door has been serving the San Diego Area
with Awesome Service Since 2000

So Cal Garage Doors offer s the Best Selection of Steel Garage Doors and Custom Wood Garage Doors in San Diego. We Sell and Install all major Garage Door Brands. So you will Receive More Choices in Door Style and Pricing. We have garage doors to fit any budget from a standard steel sectional garage door to full custom wood garage doors. We sell, install and service all major garage door and opener brands such as C.H.I. Wayne Dalton, Clopay, First United Technologies, Amarr, Unique, Liftmaster, Stanley, Genie, Marantec, Craftsman, Chamberlain and more.

  • Same Day Service on Garage Door Repairs
  • New Garage Doors Installed within 2 Days (Standard Doors)
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  • Broken Cables
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  • Roller replacement
  • Opener Carriages
  • Remotes, External Receivers, Dual Frequency Receivers, Transmitters, Circuit Boards, Capacitors, Photo Eyes
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  • Bent Panels
  • Torque Master to Torsion Spring Conversions

SoCal Garage Doors San Diego is a Full Service Garage Door Company.
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Mitsubishi Mirage Reviews – Mitsubishi Mirage Price, Photos, and Specs – Car and Driver


Mitsubishi Mirage

Mitsubishi Mirage

This basic four-door hatchback comes with a good warranty and a maximum fuel-economy rating of 43 mpg highway. The lightweight Mirage is maneuverable, easy to throw around, and its controls are effortless. The five-speed manual helps wring what power there is from the 78-hp three-cylinder, but the fuel-saving CVT is better for traffic. Apple CarPlay and Android Auto are optional. Like fast food, it s inexpensive, doesn t pretend to be something it isn t, and gets the job done. Jump to First Drive Review 2017 Mitsubishi Mirage Hatchback

Rank in City Cars

First Drive Review

Car and Driver Car and Driver

2017 Mitsubishi Mirage Hatchback

It’s better looking but still anemic.

2017 Mitsubishi Mirage Mitsubishi Mirage 2017 1.0 1.0 5.0

You have to be pretty experienced to reminisce fondly about past versions of the Mitsubishi Mirage. but even the young soon will forget this latest iteration of Mitsubishi’s subcompact runabout, which returns for 2017 after sitting out the 2016 model year. Except, perhaps, for its particularly egregious abuse of the GT (for Grand Touring) label, which came about decades ago as a descriptor for fast, luxurious sports cars that made covering long distances a pleasure. We’re talking cars from the likes of Ferrari, Porsche, and Aston Martin, to name just a few prominent pedigrees. Sure, the term has been applied to lesser cars, but the 2017 Mitsubishi Mirage GT hatchback is a long way from that idea. A very long way.

The little commut-a-pod is almost as subcompact as subcompact gets among four-door hatchbacks (only the Chevy Spark is smaller). The little Mitsu is 10.3 inches shorter than the Ford Fiesta and 2.2 inches narrower; its 96.5-inch wheelbase is 1.5 inches shorter than the Ford’s.

Tepid Triple

We compare with the Fiesta, because that’s the only other car in this class offering a three-cylinder engine option, although there’s a big difference between Ford’s turbocharged EcoBoost 1.0-liter and Mitsubishi’s tepid 1.2-liter naturally aspirated triple: 123 horsepower and 125 lb-ft of torque for the former, 78 horses and 74 lb-ft for the Mirage. Other three-bangers in the U.S. market, from Mini and Smart and BMW, also are turbocharged.

Although Mitsubishi has managed to extract a little more power from the 2017 version of the Mirage—four horsepower, to be precise—the key to its performance, such as it is, lies in its modest mass. The Mitsubishi put on a little weight in its 2017 makeover, but even this GT, the Mirage hatchback’s top trim level among three, doesn’t weigh in far north of one ton—about 200 pounds lighter than the Spark and some 500 pounds less than the mass of the 1.0-liter Fiesta.

However, we don’t expect this will translate into lively acceleration when we get the Mirage to a test track. Like our 2017 test car, the last Mirage hatchback we tested was equipped with a continuously variable automatic transmission (CVT). That one took 10.9 seconds to reach 60 mph—more than two seconds slower than the Fiesta turbo triple and about the same as the Chevy Spark automatic. (Mitsubishi also added a sedan to the lineup for 2017, dubbed the Mirage G4. but it’s heavier and even slower.)

Slow is the right word here, but that doesn’t really describe all of what happens in the Mirage when the driver tramps on the throttle. The CVT (standard equipment in the GT trim level) is a device whose efforts to keep pace with the engine at full throttle are exceptionally annoying—and is at least a half-generation of development behind the CVTs offered by Nissan and Honda.


On the other hand, if you want the Mirage’s best fuel-economy ratings—37 mpg city, 43 highway—the CVT is the way to go. The EPA fuel-economy figures for the five-speed manual are lower by 4 mpg in the city and 2 mpg on the highway. It’s worth noting, too, that the three-cylinder Fiesta has a 41-mpg highway rating.

The GT label also seems exceptionally pretentious in reference to the Mirage’s dynamics. Relaxed roll stiffness allows body motions that are well outside a range that could reasonably be called sporty. In mitigation, it’s only fair to say that the comfort-oriented spring and damping rates conspire to provide smooth ride quality, and low curb weights allow reasonably brisk responses, the rocking and rolling notwithstanding. But the comfort quotient is tempered by rather high interior noise levels and the asthmatic powertrain protests that go with the CVT, as well as vibration at idle.

Mitsubishi invested a fair percentage of its Mirage-makeover money to improved styling, including new front and rear fascias, lights, and wheels. The interior gets a new instrument panel, a new steering wheel, upgraded connectivity (Apple CarPlay and Android Auto), a Rockford Fosgate audio option, and new upholstery. The new upholstery, though, still looks bargain-basement and covers seats that don’t provide much lateral support—certainly unworthy of that GT badge.

Improvements notwithstanding, the market viability of the Mirage lies in its cheap-as-it-gets pricing (from $13,830), its fuel economy, and its strong warranty (five years or 60,000 miles, and 10 years or 100,000 miles on the powertrain). It seems reasonable to predict that at least 95 percent of the Mirages sold—if not all of them—will never receive proper maintenance and cosmetic upkeep. Ever. Why? Because we bestow proper care on vehicles that we love. And it’s difficult to see this car as an object of anyone’s affection. There is basically nothing to make a driver happy to be at the helm of a Mirage, nothing to love.

What happened to Mitsubishi? This is the company that gave us the Mirage Turbo, a nifty little street fighter that won a 10Best Cars award in 1989. Not to mention the Lancer Evolution. better known as the Evo, a truly memorable example of rally-inspired go-faster technology. Maybe the company’s alliance with Renault-Nissan will give Mitsubishi a little more latitude to create something that’s beyond the realm of ho-hum. But for right now Mitsubishi has lost its mojo. The latest Mirage is yet more proof.

Highs and Lows


Cheap to acquire, cheap to own, cheap to operate, contemporary-ish styling.

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Answering Service Cost – How Much Should You Pay #answering #service #prices,answering #service #cost,price


How Much Do Answering Services Cost?

How Much Does a Telephone Answering Service Cost?

On average a live answering service is going cost a small business with normal usage times somewhere between $12 $43 a week. The real question is what determines the actual cost of an answering service and what can you do to control the price. There are two types of billing programs and those are pay per call and pay per minute. Pay per call answering services are just what they say they are, you pay a fixed rate for each call that the call center answers on your behalf. A per minute plan is billed according to the time that is spent with your customers and is generally billed in 12 second increments.

How Much Should You Pay For Answering Services? This is probably the best way to address the question of how much a telephone answering service will cost. Depending on your specific needs (and they vary greatly) on average you can expect to pay about $0.79 a minute. So if you have a plan where you pay per call then you should examine the average duration of those calls and determine if you’re getting the best rate available. In other words if you’re paying $1.80 per call but your average call length is only one minute and fifteen seconds then odds are you may be paying too much the service.

How Can I Get the Lowest Price on an Answering Service? Bottom line, make them fight for your business. When call centers service providers are bidding against each other for your business you can save as much as 25% off the cost of service. This also applies if you already have a service. When you have an existing service you can compare the prices of the competition and usually even enjoy a free trial. If you like the service you simply forward your line to the new number, or see if your existing provider will lower your rates to keep you from leaving them.

What Can Select Answering Service do to Lower my Cost? To help you get the best price on your answering service solution we offer a totally free service so you can get top companies to go head to head against each other for your business. In other words you’ll get their best price because they’ll know you are shopping through our system. We don’t think businesses should pay marked up prices for answering services and this free, no obligation system lets you use a single form to communicate your needs to up to 5 top companies that match your needs.

How Can I reduce the Cost of my Answering Service? There are a number ways to lower your answering service costs. The easiest way is to have the receptionist service only ask the questions that are required, which may be the callers name, telephone number, and a short message as to why they are calling. Also, if you’re paying for calls to be transferred but you are rarely able to answer those calls it’s a good idea to change your plan to just have messages sent by text, which can lower your bill by as much as 20%. Alternatively you have the ability to turn your service on and off at will. When you or your staff are in the office simple un-forward your lines, or your phone company can set up a “busy no answer” feature whereas the first 3 rings come into your office and if you’re busy and don’t answer then the call will be forwarded to the service.

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Honda CBR motorcycle Price List in the Philippines June 2017 #honda, #cbr #motorcycle, #price


Honda CBR motorcycle Price List in the Philippines June 2017

About Honda CBR

Honda CBR comes offering a stupendous lineup of motorcycles

Honda CBR is a lineup of sports oriented motorcycles featuring inline-4 engines and superb sense of styling. The main attraction of these bikes is their pocket friendly price despite of features that best fit into the description of Super bikes . There are many motorcycles in the lineup that have won many awards hosted in a global scale, not due to the brand name but because of its outstanding performance. With increasing number of people in Philippines opting out of their old rides, the CBR lineup offers a refreshing collection of models that has something for everyone.

History of Honda CBR

The CBR series has its roots etched to the time when it released as CBR125 in 2004. Taking place of Honda NSR125, this 125 cc bike with single cylinder, four-stoke liquid cooled technology earned the newfound affection of people throughout the Philippines. In the later years, Honda’s aggression only got more intensive as they made one good release after another. The CBR 125R received various modifications that increased its visual aesthetics as well as performance rating. The engine then featured black front-forks, new front-fairings and fresh new colours to the swing arm. To comply with EURO-3 regulations, Honda also introduced HEC3 oxygen sensor.

Features of Honda CBR

Honda CBR series has an impressive lineup of releases and modifications dating back to the year 1986, when the first model saw its release. However, the models that require discussion are the last four versions that are currently ruling the market in the Philippines.

2011: This is a year that is considered a landmark in the biking scenario because it was the first time when Honda brought its much acclaimed Repsol graphics to its commercial model. Considered to be the best starting bike for future motorists and racing enthusiasts the HONDA CBR 125R made waves across the motor world. It has a four-stroke liquid cooled engine with 2 valves per cylinder, 6 speed manual transmission and capability to go up to 14 horsepower. It also featured a 13 liter tank.

2012: This year, Honda CBR250 ABS saw its release and was marked with huge anticipation and overwhelmingly positive user response. This motorcycle withstood the test of time thanks to its features that best reflect the needs of racers worldwide. It has anti-locking brakes (ABS) that provides faster response and shorter stopping distances. Engine is same as before but paired with a 6 speed manual, this time around.

2013: Honda’s final bout in rise to fame arrived with the release of Honda CBR 600R in Philippines. It has 471 cc twin engines, 6-speed manual transmission; diamond shaped steel frame and 4.1 gallons of fuel capacity. It arrived in Jet Black colour that further lends it a muscular look.

Popularity in the Philippines

Honda’s popularity in the Filipino market outshines those of its competitors as the brand name itself carries a lot of weight in this part of the world. Mostly because of the company’s tireless efforts in serving their customers, they have gained critical acclaim as well as revenues that are well worth boasting. The Honda CBR series, despite being a relatively new entry in the world of motorcycles, has earned affection of riders who look for stylish, superior performing bikes at an affordable price tag. No doubt that Honda has many great years lined up ahead.

Honda Products Categories in the Philippines

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Current Price Definition #business #plans #samples

#current stock market


Current Price

What does ‘Current Price’ mean

The current price is the actual selling price of a security trading on an exchange, as well as the most recent price of a security listed in an investment portfolio. In the case of a bond, a bond’s current price will often be quoted as 10% of the par value of $1000. A bond that currently trades at $99 is really priced at $990. Current price also refers to the present price of a stock, currency, commodity, stamps or a precious metal.

BREAKING DOWN ‘Current Price’

Also known as the market value. the current price is the price at which goods are currently being sold in the market. Similar to market price. which is the price determined by buyers and sellers in an open market. the current price of a security is the price at which a security last traded. In that regard, the current price can function as a baseline when estimating the price a buyer would be willing to pay and the seller would be will to accept for a subsequent transaction involving the purchase and sale of the same security.

Current Price on Stock Exchanges

On a stock exchange, the current price of a security is determined by the last amount that was paid by an investor during a trade. The current price does not dictate the next sale price as changes to the supply and demand associated with the security will shift prices accordingly.

Often, the current price can be used as an indicator to approximate what would be considered a fair price in the open market, but this is not a guarantee that any subsequent transactions will be completed at that price.

Current Price in Over-the-Counter Trades

When a security is listed over the counter instead of on an exchange, the current price is based on the current bid price listed by buyers and the current ask price listed by sellers. Considered dynamic in nature, the current price fluctuates based on the principles of supply and demand.

Current Price in the Bond Market

A bond’s current price is determined by comparing the current interest rate to the interest rate associated with the bind. The face value is then adjusted based on the remaining interest payments due until the bond reaches maturity. The closer a bond is to maturity, the closer the current price will be to the face value listed on the bond.

Current Price in Retail Environment

Within a retail environment, the current price reflects the amount actively being charged to customers at that moment. This can be separate from the retail price, such as where an item is on sale, and can fluctuate depending on the store from which the item is purchased.

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Antique Rugs NYC, Tabriz Rugs, Tribal Rugs, Caucasian Rugs, Heriz Rugs for Sale, New


Welcome to A. Davoodzadeh & Son – Antique Rugs NYC.

We invite you to browse through our extensive inventory of primarily antique Persian, Caucasian, Turkish, and Chinese origin.

We are proud to have the opportunity to show you our collection of antique carpets and rugs predominantly from late nineteenth century to early twentieth century. A collection that includes one of a kind pieces from such renowned weaving areas as Heriz. Sultanabad. Southwest Persian tribal regions, Tabriz Rugs. Ferahan. Kerman. Kashan. as well as antique Caucasian and Kazak rugs, and antique Oushaks from Turkey.

Whether you need further information regarding any of our rugs, or in the event that you don’t find the piece that you are searching for, please contact us by e-mail or phone, and we will gladly assist you with your inquiry and make it a positive experience for you.

Here at Davoodzadeh Fine Antique and Decorative Rugs we don’t just have a fantastic selection of Antique Carpets and Rugs, we also offer professional cleaning and stain removal, as well as repair and maintenance. We can offer to our clients, long and short term storage and for all their needs as well we also offer rentals of our carpets.

Our selection of Antique Rugs NYC varies in size from 2 x 3 prayer rugs to large room rugs measuring greater than 20 feet by 30 feet. We also have a large array of runners for hall ways that can exceed 34 feet long.

Much of our inventory comes from estate sales and auctions (sometimes up to 90%), and we are able to purchase them at a reduced rate, and of course we pass these savings onto you. Our inventory changes often so keep a daily eye out for our New Arrivals.

For our professional clients, decorators, interior designers’, dealers and wholesalers we offer consignment sales and also a wide variety of commercial grade carpets.

Whatever your needs are we at Davoodzadeh Fine Antique and Decorative Rugs have the carpet to meet it. Come visit us either online or at 25 West 31st St. in New York, NY 10001.

Tags: antique rugs nyc, tabriz rugs, heriz rugs, serapi rugs

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Chevrolet Camaro Z #chevrolet #camaro #z/28 #review, #chevrolet #camaro #z/28, #chevrolet #camaro #z/28 #price,


Chevrolet Camaro Z/28

Chevrolet Camaro Z/28

From the May 2014 Issue of Car and Driver

“I told ’em on the radio that I was pulling over a Z/28. and they said they don’t make them no more,” the cop says with a drawl straight off the pages of Faulkner. “I told ’em, ‘Whatever it is, this is a bad-ass car.’ ”

This member of Alabama’s finest claims that Dick Knoll, Camaro lead integration engineer and driver of the Z/28 I’m riding in, put a wheel over the yellow line a mile back on Interstate 20. Knoll doesn’t dispute it because it’s already evident that no tickets will be written today. This is a fan-boy shakedown. The officer barely glances at Knoll’s driver’s license before collecting his take. Cell phone already in hand, his question is rhetorical: “Do you mind if I take a few pictures?”

Officer Instagram can’t be faulted. There’s been enough hype around the Camaro Z/28 revival to launch a dozen blogs. It is retro done right: the return of a storied name applied to a modern car crafted in the same spirit as the 1967 original. Like that first Z/28 that homologated Chevy’s Trans-Am racer, this new incarnation’s mission is to lay down fast laps on a road course. It was developed on the Nürburgring, Road Atlanta, Road America, and Virginia International Raceway, as well as at GM’s own Milford road course. Fittingly, our road test covered more distance on the 2.4-mile track at Barber Motorsports Park in Birmingham, Alabama, than on public streets.

The Z/28 is not the quickest, the fastest, or the most powerful Camaro, but it is the most expensive at $75,000, or more than three times the price of a six-cylinder model. Its only clear-cut competi­tor is the $49,990 Mustang Boss 302 Laguna Seca that Ford stopped building last year. And even then, the parallels exist in concept, not execution. With a 7.0-liter V-8, carbon-ceramic brakes, damper technology borrowed from Formula 1, and the widest front tires on a production car, Chevy’s Camaro Z/28 is a Boss 302 fighter raised on growth hormones and testosterone.

How to make a 7.0-liter V-8 look small? Put it in a Camaro. The cold-air intake is one of the few changes GM made in transplanting the LS7 engine from the outgoing Corvette Z06.

Plucked from GM’s last track-day ­special, the 2013 Corvette Z06. the Z/28’s port-injected LS7 V-8 is fortified with new pistons and titanium connecting rods whose bearing inserts are now spray-coated for improved durability. There are also a cold-air intake, revised exhaust headers, and a repackaged dry-sump oiling system, but there’s more hardware that’s carry-over than new under the hood. At 505 horsepower and 481 pound-feet of torque, the Z/28’s LS7 makes just six more pound-feet than when this engine made its debut eight years ago.

Just as it did back then, the LS7 oozes power whether the Z/28 is standing still or at speed. The car quakes under a loping idle as heat radiates from the carbon-fiber extractor and blurs the view through the windshield. Racing toward a 7000-rpm redline, the Z/28 smears Barber’s manicured landscaping as if it were a still-wet watercolor, while the exhaust’s raucous bawl ­rattles the cabin. Zero to 60 mph passes in 4.4 seconds, and the quarter-mile clears in 12.7, by which time you’re doing 116 mph. True, the Z/28 isn’t as quick as the ZL1 in a straight line, but that’s not the point.

The six-speed manual transmission shared with the Camaro SS 1LE is geared for road-course duty, with closer ratios passed through a shorter 3.91:1 final drive. Shifts are heavy and stiff, and the pedals are spaced a toe’s-width too far apart for easy heel-and-toe action. The substantial displacement of the naturally aspirated V-8 compensates with a low end that’s nearly as forceful as its top end is intense. We work over Barber using third and fourth gears and every rev between 3000 and 7000 rpm.

The Pirelli P Zero Trofeo Rs are essentially street-legal racing tires so tacky that, during development testing, they occasionally stuck to the pavement better than to the wheels they were mounted on. To keep the Pirellis from slipping around the rim, the wheels on production Z/28s are media-blasted to increase friction at the mating surface, a common practice in racing.

The massive front tires are the same size as the rears, a remedy first used on the 1LE to address the Camaro SS’s penchant for understeer. Here, though, the rubber is sized up to 305/30 and mounted on smaller, lighter 19-inch forged aluminum wheels. When warm, the tires stick to the pavement like four wads of melted Wrigley’s. In Barber’s long, mid-speed corners we saw as much as 1.06 g of lateral stick, despite a damp track and temperatures struggling to top 40 degrees. The Z/28 is neutral and responsive at the limits, and the Torsen-type limited-slip differential prudently doles out power on corner exit. The flat-bottom steering wheel has the same heft and on-center sharpness as the Camaro ZL1 ’s. Unfortunately, it lacks the stimulating feedback experienced in the best sports cars.

The cross-drilled carbon-ceramic brake discs are clamped by six-piston front and four-piston rear calipers that bite just as hard after 50 minutes of lapping as they do on the first laps. From 70 mph, they haul the Z/28 to a stop in 155 feet.

There are, of course, stiffer springs and bushings, and the downsized wheels allowed engineers to drop the center of gravity by 1.3 inches and use smaller and lighter anti-roll bars. The cornerstones of the suspension are four spool-valve dampers, a technology used by Red Bull Racing as it claimed four Formula 1 championships between 2010 and 2013. Until now, the closest these shocks have come to a production car is Aston Martin’s $1.8-million One-77.

Spool-valve dampers don’t use electronic components or magnetic fluid, and they are neither driver-adjustable nor adaptable to road conditions. Instead, the spool valve’s merit lies in tailor-shaped internal ports that improve the precision and effective range available to engineers as they tune the shocks. They work magnificently. The Z/28 transitions from left to right to braking and acceleration with nearly imperceptible load transfer. It is stoic and stable as it bounds over the curbing and hunkers into hard braking through the tight corkscrew of Barber’s eighth and ninth turns. On the road, firm doesn’t mean harsh, either. As we bomb over a bridge deck that is set two inches above the road that abuts it, I tense in anticipation of a jarring impact—it never materializes.

How to identify a Z/28: badges, lots and lots of badges.

We won’t be talking about a true lightweight Camaro until at least 2016, though, when the car is redesigned on the Alpha platform. The Z/28 we tested was equipped with the sole option package—five extra speakers and air conditioning—and weighed 3862 pounds. It’s not light, but that is 35 pounds shy of a 1LE and more than 300 pounds slimmer than a ZL1.

Even without looking at the scales, we feel it’s a stretch to say Chevrolet stripped the Z/28 of everything that didn’t make it faster. The car still has carpeting, a headliner, full interi­or trim, and (lighter) rear seats. The wide Recaros are all-day comfortable rather than track-day snug. Other than the flat-bottom steering wheel and rescaled speedo and tachometer, from the driver’s seat the Z/28 could easily be confused for a six-cylinder Camaro. If you want to convince someone how serious this car is, you’ll have to pop the trunk, where there isn’t a single piece of plastic trim or carpet.

Or drive the Z/28 on the track. Because that’s really the only way to show off cornering this flat, grip this abundant, power this ­visceral, and a car this bad-ass.

Highs, Lows, and Verdict


Galvanic handling, pavement-sucking tires, 7.0 liters worth of small-block V-8.


Pricier than a Corvette without being faster, looks like a V-6 Camaro inside.



VEHICLE TYPE: front-engine, rear-wheel-drive, 4-passenger, 2-door coupe

PRICE AS TESTED: $76,150 (base price: $75,000)

ENGINE TYPE: pushrod 16-valve V-8, aluminum block and heads, port fuel injection

TRANSMISSION: 6-speed manual

Wheelbase: 112.3 in
Length: 192.3 in
Width: 76.9 in Height: 52.4 in
Curb weight: 3862 lb

EPA city/highway driving: 13/19 mpg

*Skidpad unavailable. Number derived from track test.

TEST NOTES:Unlike other Chevys with performance traction management, the Z/28 doesn-t have launch control. Grippy though the tires are, it doesn-t take much right pedal to break them loose on an acceleration run. A quick time is all about modulating the throttle.

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Cost of a Bookkeeper – Small Business #bookkeeper, #bookkeeper #cost, #bookkeeper #prices, #shop #bookkeeper,


Bookkeeper Cost

  • Hourly rates for an outside bookkeeping service run $20-$50 an hour. depending on complexity and location. Usually you can hire a trained, experienced bookkeeper on a contract basis for $30-$40 an hour. but there can be a minimum monthly charge of $100-$150 for small businesses that don’t require a lot of work hours. The amount of bookkeeping time required will vary significantly depending on the complexities of the business and the industry. An established Northern California retail store with 12 employees generates about 4-6 hours a week of bookkeeping work, or $480-$960 a month, plus $80 in monthly fees for a payroll service to issue paychecks and file payroll tax forms.
  • Accountants sometimes have on-staff bookkeepers to provide these services, usually at $30-$50 an hour .
  • Online services such as SBSuite [1 ] (starting at $69/month for a basic package ) and EasyBookkeeping.com [2 ] (which has an online cost calculator to input your company’s specifics) handle your company’s bookkeeping needs entirely through e-mail, phone calls, faxes and the Internet.
  • A typical salary for an in-house bookkeeper in the United States runs $30,400-$39,898 according to Salary.com [3 ]. The average annual pay for a bookkeeping account executive is $68,294. or $57,600 for a payroll manager, according to BookkeeperList.com.

Related articles: Business Tax Preparation. Accounting Software. Payroll Service. Accountant

What should be included:

  • A business needs accurate and up-to-date bookkeeping for two reasons–to pay taxes and to understand how your business is doing. These tasks can be done in-house by an employee or business owner using computer software; by an outside bookkeeper; or by an accountant–but having an accountant doing daily bookkeeping tasks is the most expensive option. Generally an accountant gives an overview, providing financial advice and recommendations, while a bookkeeper handles the crucial but more daily nitty-gritty of maintaining business records.
  • A bookkeeper does not necessarily need a degree in accounting, but should have formal college-level coursework, experience and a detailed-oriented attitude. A bookkeeper may complete tax forms and generate standard financial reports or might simply gather and prepare the detailed numbers that a Certified Public Accountant uses for tax preparation, financial analysis or a business audit.
  • With the advent of easy-to-use accounting software such as QuickBooks, many new small business owners start out doing their own bookkeeping, because they want to keep tabs on what’s happening. Microsoft.com [4 ] lays out reasons to hand off at least some of your bookkeeping tasks to a professional.

Shopping for a bookkeeper:

  • Gaebler.com [5 ] gives tips for hiring a bookkeeper. Ask other local business owners for referrals and be sure to check a company’s record with the Better Business Bureau [6 ] .
  • The American Institute of Professional Bookkeepers [7 ] lets you search the resumes of potential employees or freelance bookkeeping services. The institute also has certification [8 ] programs for bookkeepers at more than 200 colleges.
  • Intuit [9 ] lets you search for local accounting and bookkeeping professionals who are certified to work with its QuickBooks software.

I have a very good bookkeeper that is knowledgeable about most things and knows her scope of expertise that works closely with a CPA. When you are looking for a qualified bookkeeper or anyone else to take care of your business or personal finances, you have to look closely at their background, do a background check, knowledge, and training. And most diffenently get reference, not just to look at but check with references to see what kind of job they do for them. Mine came with excellent references that were not forged!

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Posted: February 4th, 2015 01:02PM

Seriously you promote a firm that is not a cpa but advertises that they perform bookkeeping accounting and tax preparation services for businesses. Seriously. You have no idea how many tax rules and regulations along with how many accounting rules and regulations for LLC’s, Partnerships, S-Corps and regular Corporations there are. Shame on you! Non CPA’s are completely unqualified in every way to perform tax services for businesses and individuals.
Clearly the 2 companies named on this page paid for the advertisement.

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