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Best List of North Dakota Nursing Schools, Accredited Online Programs and Colleges #list #of

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    Best List of North Dakota Nursing Schools, Accredited Online Programs and Colleges

    Top North Dakota Nursing Schools, Colleges Degree Programs

    The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics has warned of a looming nationwide nursing shortage. Indeed, the projected growth in the sector is 19%, without taking into consideration how many of the current workforce will be leaving. As a result, the North Dakota Board of Nursing commissioned a report to better understand the issues that are faced in the state, and how these can best be addressed.

    From this report, it was demonstrated that it is most difficult to recruit Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs ). APN positions in rural areas are the hardest to fill of all. There are 56 medically underserved areas in North Dakota, affecting 34.56% of the population, so this is a significant issue. This is particularly true considering just 7.5% of the current nursing workforce is an APN.

    The second issue is around salary, as these are not consistent with education. Indeed, registered nurses (RNs) with an associate s degree often earned more than those with a bachelor s degree. The best salaries are enjoyed in the urban areas, and the worst in the northwest of the state. The average annual salary for an RN in North Dakota currently stands at $59,000, below the national average.

    Next, there is the problem with staff. Demand for Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs) is 6%, which is an improvement on past statistics. For RNs, the rate is 4%, which is again decreasing. The turnover rate for LPNs is also improving, down to 22%. However, it is increasing for RNs, having gone up to 30%.

    One particular initiative that sets North Dakota apart from other states, however, is that they allow nurses to take part in the decision making process. More and more facilities, including nursing homes, hospitals, assisted living facilities and HSCs are reporting that nurses are heavily involved in decision making. Those with the highest levels of education are also the most involved in this process.

    There is a strong focus on increasing the number of Nurse Educators in the state as well. There are just four schools that are registered with the American Association of Colleges of Nursing and they are significantly understaffed, with much of their workforce approaching or having surpassed retirement age. As a result, despite strong demand for nurses, some 422 qualified students had to be refused entry in colleges and universities. This is a particular problem that must be addressed if North Dakota is serious about counteracting its nursing shortage.

    List of North Dakota Nursing Schools Colleges

    Capella University Online Nursing Programs

    Capella University offers CCNE-accredited online nursing programs designed to meet the needs of RNs at every career stage:

    Search & Compare Nursing Programs

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  • Yes, We ve Seen the Surface of Venus #pictures #of #venus #surface

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    Yes, We ve Seen the Surface of Venus

    Venera was a series of satellites launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s and 1980s to study Venus’ environment. It was also the program aimed at returning the first images of the surface of another planet. Over the course of the program, thirteen probes successfully reached Venus and transmitted data about out planetary neighbour, eight landed successfully on the surface, and four returned pretty outstanding images.

    Venera 7, the first orbiter spacecraft with a lander in tow, launched on August 17, 1970. After a four month transit to Venus, the landing probe separated the orbiter on December 15 and plunged into Venus’ thick atmosphere. After a period of aerodynamic braking, the upper hatch and heat shield released, exposing the spacecraft the elements and releasing the parachute that slowed the lander. The chute was released six minutes later; Venus’ dense atmosphere was enough to slow the lander for the final 29 minutes of its descent. It landed successfully, Data was transmitted from the surface for one second before the signal failed, but post-flight analysis of the recorded radio signal reveled that the probe had actually transmitted data for 23 minutes before succumbing to Venus’ environment. Venera 8 followed, launching on March 27, 1972. It reached Venus on July 22, 1972, and once it reached the surface it sent back data for 63 minutes.

    Venera 9, which launched on June 8, 1975, was the first mission to attempt a photograph of Venus’ surface. Though the probe landed in good health on October 22, only one of the lens caps on the two cameras separate. What was planned as a 360-degree panorama around the lander became a 180 degree image. Venera 10 followed in Venera 9’s footsteps, reaching the surface on October 25. Again, only one of the lens caps separated properly returning a 180-degree panoramic image before going silent after 65 minutes on the surface. (Venera 9’s panorama is the upper image and Venera 10’s is the lower image.)

    The view from Veneras 9 and 10





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    Curriculum, Supervision, Educational Leadership #central, #washington, #university, #main, #home, #homepage, #ellensburg, #eburg, #primary, #cwu,

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    Program Overview

    The Master of Education, Higher Education program is designed for candidates with an interest in working in administrative positions in institutions of higher education, civic organizations, non-profit organizations, national government organizations, or the social sector. Program coursework provides students with a strong grounding in leadership / management / organizational development with particular attention to the higher education context.

    Addressing the growing demand for higher education professionals, the curriculum emphasizes theory, research methods and data analysis, as well as substantive knowledge and skills development in organizational leadership, particularly as it pertains to higher education. Delivered in a convenient online format the M.Ed. Higher Education provides students with a well- rounded foundation in higher education administration, and the ability to personalize the curriculum to meet their needs through elective courses and project / internship experiences.

    The M.Ed. Higher Education program is 45 credit hour program that consists of 10 core courses, two electives courses, an Internship or Capstone Project, and Master’s examination. The M.Ed. Higher Education program is offered fully online.

    The M.Ed. Higher Education faculty is comprised of professors from multiple fields; several professors currently work in higher education administration and can provide first-hand experience education.

    The M.Ed Higher Education Program welcomes graduate candidates interested in working in higher education and similar fields.

    In the pursuit of the M.Ed. Higher Education degree, students complete coursework, work on their internship/project, and prepare for graduation.

    Take the Next Step to Becoming a Wildcat.





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    Master Arts and Cultural Management Ranking master Arts and Cultural Management #masters #of #business

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    TOP 50 2017 EDUNIVERSAL BEST MASTERS RANKING Arts and Cultural Management

    Directeur de programme

    After more than twenty years of existence in an alternative form, the management of cultural enterprises and creative industries is now finally perceived as an integral cultural economic actor.

    Whether private or public, internationally renowned or anchored in its territory, closer to the creator or invested in the transmission of the past, artisanal or technological, selective or bringing together, the cultural operator is faced with two major challenges.

    While the thirst for culture has never been so strong and diverse, the value creation chains are in perpetual movement and overturn the usual modes of financing, essential to the renewal of creation and its dissemination. The bursting communication channels and the constant solicitation that we all face, makes it incredibly more difficult to convey by a particular message.

    You, who will be the cultural managers to come, will have to be creative and adaptable, both in identifying new cultural funding mechanisms and in passing on the right information to the right person.

    The specialization in cultural management will be the key to entering a sector with multiple facets, with a recognized economic and strategic weight, where your expertise will rely on know-how transmitted by professionals.

    The expert’s corner

    Isabel Capeloa Gil

    Director – The Lisbon Consortium – Rector – UCP

    UCP – Catholic University of Portugal

    Arts and Cultural Management is broadly defined as a field of research and professional development situated on the cusp of management and artistic production. Art and cultural production in general are powerful drivers of growth and their contribution to the economy tops that of many traditional sectors. The industries of creativity and culture (museums, galleries, film and media production, literature, performance arts and theatre, visual arts, etc.) require managers with an understanding of how culture works and art producers, curators and other cultural agents with clear managerial skills to run the complexity of cultural institutions.

    Art and cultural management is about unleashing the power of art to drive the economy of the future.





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    What is mobile marketing? Definition from #impact #of #e #marketing

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    mobile marketing

    What is mobile marketing?

    Mobile marketing is promotional activity designed for delivery to cell phones. smart phones and other handheld devices, usually as a component of a multi-channel campaign.

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    Some mobile marketing is similar to advertising delivered over other electronic channels such as text, graphic and voice messages. SMS messaging is currently the most common delivery channel for mobile marketing. Search engine marketing is the second-most common channel, followed by display-based campaigns.

    The expanding capabilities of mobile devices also enable new types of interactive marketing. New mobile marketing channels include:

    • location-based service (LBS). which involves detecting the area the user is connecting from (geolocation ) and sending marketing messages for businesses in that area.
    • augmented reality mobile campaigns, which overlay the user’s phone display with location-specific information about businesses and products.
    • 2D barcode s, which are barcodes that scan vertically as well as horizontally to include much more information. A mobile user can scan barcodes in the environment to access associated information.
    • GPS messaging. which involves location-specific messages that the user picks up when he comes into range.

    The Kelsey Group, a marketing research company, predicted that the mobile advertising industry would grow from to $3.1 billion in 2013, up from $160 million in 2008. The firm also predicts that mobile search marketing will account for 73% of mobile marketing by 2013, up from 24% in 2008, and that SMS-based campaigns would shrink to 9%, down from 63% in 2008. Display-based campaigns are expected to stay relatively steady, up to 18% from 13%.

    Learn More About IT:
    The Mobile Marketing Association provides relevant news, articles and research.
    This free chapter download provides background on the technologies behind mobile marketing.

    This was last updated in October 2009

    Related Terms

    Microsoft Office 365 suite Microsoft Office 365 suite is a hosted, online version of Microsoft Office software. IT administrators access it from a web-based. See complete definition screen door effect The screen door effect is a mesh-like appearance that occurs where visible gaps between pixels are seen on an electronic screen. See complete definition Snapchat World Lenses Snapchat World Lenses are a collection of augmented reality (AR) 3D enhancements to live real-world environments as viewed. See complete definition

    Dig Deeper on Enterprise mobile app strategy





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    Best Car Insurance Companies: Page 2 – Top Ten List #list #of #car #insurance

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    Best Car Insurance Companies

    The Contenders: Page 2

    Very friendly, personal, and informative staff. I enjoyed the choices that were given to me and how my coverages suited my needs and budget. I am a non-standard customer and my rate compared to the other non-standard insurance companies was lower & I received better customer service.

    Extraordinary customer service through and through! This is one of the few places that I’ve shopped where I really felt like the agents listened to me and understood my needs. My only regret is not checking them out sooner.

    22Arbella Insurance

    23Farm Bureau Insurance

    Farm Bureau has paid every claim we have had fairly and quickly. I hydroplaned after a tire blew out and my Honda flew over an deep embankment and landed upright but the damage was significant. Again, I was easing out of a parking place at a restaurant when a large pickup blew through the lot and couldn’t stop. My car was a total loss and Farm Bureau gave me what seemed to be more than they needed to based on my research of my car’s worth. A third time, I bumped someone at a right turn stop sign and they took care of the dent on the other car, no questions asked. If I were them, I would refer me to another company, but they continue to offer great service at an very fair price and have just insured our new condo at an excellent rate..

    Paid every claim we had with no problems. We were involved in agriculture and had several accidents. One involved one of our trucks hitting a gasoline carrier. Brakes on our truck went out on a crossroad and tore open the gas truck. Closed main highway for about 3 hours. Farm Bureau took care or it all.

    We were rear ended by a driver with Farm Bureau insurance. My wife and I both had injuries, and Farm Bureau were compassionate and efficient in quickly making sure that we had sufficient money to pay our medical expenses.

    Have had them for 16 years, they have the best rates. great customer service and they truly care

    24Erie Insurance

    Working with insurance adjusters on a daily basis, I couldn’t image carrying insurance through any other company. I find Erie to be the most likely to settle claims, which makes me feel extremely well-covered when I’m on the road. I know that if something happens, and the other person doesn’t have insurance, my company will take care of me without pushing back or thinking of dropping me. I love ERIE!.

    I have had ERIE for auto and home owners for 35+ years. Having done comparisons from time to time, I have not been able to get better rates and coverage for my dollar spent. Their claims service, to me, is outstanding. They are truly Above All in Service The only draw back is that they are somewhat regional.

    Left Nationwide after 33 years for Erie. 3 Cars and 2 House policies and saved over 30%. Now that’s a big savings that no one could match for the same coverage. Nothing wrong with Nationwide, just kept increasing the price with no claims. After a lot of checking, Erie was the best choice to be found.

    Been with erie for years and let me tell you they are definitely the cheapest insurance around.

    25Infinity Insurance

    Sucks to be the guy you hit but it’s cheap.

    ALTHO they did not give me discounts, at least they did not charge an arm and a LEG after my one accident. Mercury has been faithful and very helpful when I am a couple days late on payment. DARN ALLSTATE! They paid the other party over and over and over, even though the damage to my fender was worse, they only had a slight tap on rear end, but got FULL VALUE for their ‘destroyed’ car, and all 5 occupants got PT and chiropractic visits 3x each. I WAS ANGRY! They were not injured, and the car was repairable. But Mercury came through and gave me a good deal for the upcoming years!

    Mercury gave me a lower auto insurance quote than any of the others that I have checked that are ranked higher on this list.

    27Elephant Insurance

    We used to have Geico. We have a clean driving record no accidents and our insurance goes up. So we changed to Elephant and love it! And it is a whole lot less with the same coverages.

    28Auto-Owners Insurance

    I’ve dealt with them on two homeowner claims (for my grandmother) and three auto claims (a $68k uninsured motorist claim and a broken windshield claim on my cars and my mom’s car after she hit a deer). These claims have spanned the last nine years and each one was handled with a high level of professionalism, but also with decency, kindness and compassion. They are truly an honest company that pays the claims they owe quickly and fairly. When I was injured by the uninsured motorist in 2010, the first thing my attorney said when he saw that I had A-O was you have nothing to worry about, they will take care of you.

    Actually pay claims. Even when on an older vehicle with little damage.

    The rates are much better on a Homeowners policy than I have ever had with State Farm or Grange. Great agents also.

    Very prompt in handling and paying the only claim I have had with them which was roof replacement on my ho me. H ave never had to make a claim on my auto insurance with them but presume they would handle it in the same satisfactory way. I like their discount for paying annual premiums in full. I also like the fact that they do not spend exorbitant amounts of money for misleading T.V. commercials as many other companies do.

    29Shelter Insurance

    Been with them for over 10 years. The customer service is great, response time is excellent, and the cost of coverage is outstanding.

    Cheapest insurance and good service, too. They were there when I needed them, professional, and very efficient.

    I’ve been with Wawanesa for years and you can’t beat their prices or customer service in handling claims.

    Best price out there

    32California Casualty

    They have the lowest complaint ratio in California. They mainly market to teachers, police officers, fire fighters, and nurses. They’re also endorsed by the NEA and California Teacher’s Association. They’re a great family owned company!

    California Casualty is a great company! Association based, they work with teachers, fire fighters, policemen and nurses. They have to adhere to a higher standard when responding to claims so they don’t lose their endorsements. They are endorsed by over 1k associations nationwide. They also have the NEA endorsement. 97% claims satisfaction.

    We have worked with Calcas for over 20 years and have been completely satisfied with our rates and coverage.

    Man my insurance (Safe Auto) needs to get ranked up! – wefixbadcredit1

    Yes, I completely agree

    Nice service at a great price.

    34Lincoln Insurance

    I have been with State Farm for 35 yrs. And it’s time for a change. I rec’d my new premium and it increased $341. Encompass was less than half.
    Since they are a subsidiary of Allstate and their reviews are good, I will be going with them. State Farm has been good for me, but now in 2013, I can’t afford to be paying out all these increases for exactly the same coverage. Bye, bye SF xoxoxo

    Awesome insurance and great coverage. You will know their goodness if you ever need your car repaired. Even in a not my fault accident, PEMCO provided all the assistant needed in dealing with other person’s insurance.

    Cheap insurance. Paid above market value for my car when I totalled it. Good costumer service. Generally a great company, Though I am forced to get new insurance after getting a dui. Overall great care.

    38COUNTRY Financial

    39Access General Insurance

    Worst insurance company. Never get insurance with them.

    First time getting this insurance so far it’s been good!

    Can’t believe Direct wasn’t on this list. The one on White Bridge Pk in Nashville is the BEST. Great customer service!





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    Home – Royal Academy of Music #ram, #study #music #in #the #heart #of #london

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    Video: Semyon Bychkov conducts Strauss s Don Juan, January 2016.

    Semyon Bychkov, our Klemperer Chair in Conducting, returns here soon to conduct the Academy Symphony Orchestra and Chorus in Mahler s powerful Resurrection Symphony at the Royal Festival Hall on 22 June. Book tickets here.

    Would you like to study at the
    Royal Academy of Music?

    At this special place in the heart of London we are committed to helping our talented students to realise their full potential. You can follow in the footsteps of your heroes in music by studying at the Academy .

    News

    Five things you may not know about Mahler’s kaleidoscopic reflection on life, redemption and resurrection…

    It was announced today that the Royal Academy of Music has been rated Gold in the new Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF) create.

    Saxophonist wins prestigious Academy Jazz Prize

    Upcoming Events

    25.06.2017 12:00. Duke’s Hall

    Solo voices and the timbre of a solo oboe predominate in today’s cantatas.

    26.06.2017 10:00 – Wednesday, 28.06.2017. Various venues around the Academy

    A remarkable range of events celebrating Academy pianists’ outstanding creativity

    26.06.2017 15:00. Various venues around the Academy

    Belle Chen and Christina McMaster curate and perform alongside Academy pianists working with multimedia and film.





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    Treating Adolescent Depression With Psychotherapy: The Three Ts #cbt #model #of #depression

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    Treating Adolescent Depression With Psychotherapy: The Three Ts

    Treating Adolescent Depression With Psychotherapy: The Three Ts

    Adolescence is a time of increased vulnerability for depression, with risk factors driven by biological, cognitive, and social-environmental changes in development. More than half of all adolescents report experiencing depressed mood, and 8% to 10% experience clinically diagnosable symptoms. 1 Depression in the young negatively affects all areas of development, including academic, cognitive, social, and family functioning, and if untreated, it can have significant lasting consequences.

    Depression in adolescence is a strong predictor of recurrent depression in adulthood and long-term functional impairment, and it confers a 10-fold increase in risk for suicidal behavior. 2 Clearly, depression is a significant health concern among youths, with the potential for severe and lasting consequences: the need for effective intervention is unambiguous.

    Fortunately, there is strong empirical evidence for successful therapeutic treatment of adolescent mental health disorders, including depression. Psychotherapy for depression is as effective as medication in many cases and is the recommended first-line intervention for mild to moderate depression in youths. This article offers a brief review of the psychotherapeutic “three T’s” for depression: cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT).

    CBT is an evidence-based approach that has been tailored to treat a wide variety of mental health concerns in youths, including anxiety, eating disorders, impulse control disorders, ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and a range of other problematic behaviors in addition to specific adaptations for depression. Generally, CBT is directive, time-limited, structured, problem-focused, and goal-oriented. Weekly session structure begins with collaborative agenda setting and homework review and ends with review and consolidation of new skills learned and the assignment of new homework.

    Treatment typically ranges from 4 to 20 sessions, depending on program choice and setting, although treatment of comorbid conditions or severe symptoms can take longer. Clinicians may use various combinations of CBT techniques, or they may adhere to a specific manualized program. Common CBT interventions include psychoeducation (helping the patient and parents understand the connection between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors), mood monitoring (keeping a mood diary, linking emotions to thoughts), pleasant activities (creating a list of activities that the patient enjoys and setting aside daily time to engage in them), behavior activation techniques (joining a sports team, going for nightly family walks), and cognitive restructuring (identifying cognitive distortions and negative thinking patterns and re­placing them with more realistic and/or positive ways of thinking). Social, communication, conflict-resolution, and problem-solving skills are also frequent components of CBT programs.

    CBT has an extensive research base and a longer history than either IPT or DBT; as such, the approach has traditionally been considered the gold standard for the treatment of childhood and adolescent depression. Meta-analyses in 1998 and 1999 found effect sizes for CBT treatment of depression in youths of 1.02 and 1.27 respectively. 3,4 A more recent meta-analysis of 35 studies found a less pronounced effect size of 0.34, although this still represents a clinically significant small to medium treatment effect. 5 On the basis of these findings, in 2008 CBT received status as a well-established treatment for youths, according to the guidelines set by Nathan and Gorman. 6

    In addition to comparisons with wait list control and treatment as usual (TAU), CBT has also been compared with psychopharmacological intervention, primarily SSRIs. One of the most cited and controversial studies is the multisite 2004 Treatment of Adolescent Depression Study (TADS). 7 In this efficacy study, 439 depressed adolescents were treated with CBT, fluoxetine, a combination of the two, or a placebo. Results favored the combination of fluoxetine and CBT, followed by fluoxetine alone, and then CBT and placebo.

    In contrast to existing findings, CBT was not found to be significantly more effective than placebo, and CBT’s effectiveness was questioned. However, supporters of CBT are quick to note mediating factors and design irregularities in the study. It remains noteworthy that the combination treatment in this study was most effective for depressed youths, particularly because of the potential of CBT to act as a buffer against negative life stress and suicide, which psychopharmacology alone may not address. In addition, later studies, such as the Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA), support the finding for combined CBT psychotherapy and medi­cation in recalcitrant cases. 8

    The Practice Parameters of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) suggest that youths with mild depression may respond to CBT alone, whereas moderately to severely depressed youths may require CBT (or other psychotherapies) along with antidepressants. These guidelines also recommend that treatment continue for 6 to 12 months to avoid relapse. 9

    Many of the CBT programs for treatment of depression were developed initially in a group-delivery modality for research expediency. However, these programs can be tailored to the individual and applied within a variety of clinical settings, including outpatient, inpatient, schools, and partial hospitalization programs. CBT manuals range in level of directedness, from specific session by session instruction (Taking Action) to more principle-based manuals that guide the therapy and allow greater flexibility (Brent’s model within the Pittsburgh clinical trials). 10-12 The level of parental involvement also varies across CBT approaches but is generally viewed as an important element and essential for children and younger adolescents (Table 1 ).

    IPT is a well-established, structured, time-limited therapy developed specifically for the treatment of nonbipolar, nonpsychotic major depression in adults. The original model was adapted for adolescents (IPT-A) by Mufson and colleagues 13 in 1994. IPT-A defines the symptoms of depression and their consequences and the maintaining factors through an interpersonal lens, addressing problem areas in the adolescent’s current relationships and immediate social environments to reduce symptoms that contribute to depression.

    IPT-A aims to improve communication and problem-solving skills to increase interpersonal effectiveness and relationship satisfaction in adolescents (aged 12 to 18 years). From a developmental psychopathology perspective, focus on interpersonal relationships is paramount during adolescence—a period in which more intimate peer and dating relationships are fostered and parent-child relationships undergo transitions based on adolescent autonomy development. IPT-A identifies 4 interpersonal problem areas that may become the focus of treatment: grief, role dispute, role transition, and interpersonal deficits. Through an interpersonal interview, working as a team, the therapist and patient identify 1 or 2 areas on which to focus.

    Treatment is structured over 12 to 16 weeks in 60-minute sessions. The framework consists of 3 phases, in which the therapy aims to:

    • Identify a specific interpersonal problem area by examining the patterns in current significant relationships

    • Develop communication and problem-solving strategies to address the specific interpersonal problem area

    • Practice the skills in session and then transition them to the social environment, providing the patient with support to maintain his or her sense of social competence and independence





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    Temple of ra #temple #of #ra

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    Amun | King of the Egyptian Gods

    Among all the multitude of Egyptian deities, the god Amun was considered to be the king of the gods, a supreme creator-god. He was the ancient Egyptian god of fertility and life. While most Egyptian gods were ‘born’ at various points in the history of the Egyptian nation and many floated in and out of popularity, Amun appears to have been present in the mythology and culture of the Egyptian people almost from the very inception of this complex and mysterious nation.

    Amun had many names and served several roles in Egyptian mythology and Egyptians often worshiped Amun’s family along with him. Depictions of Amun are found throughout Egypt as are his legends.

    Mary Harrsch – Head of Amun Statue

    Names and Titles

    Amun was given the title “King of the Gods” of Upper Egypt.

    Scholars discovered several different spellings of the name Amun in Egyptian literature. Some of the different spellings are Am, Amen, Amon, Amoun, Ammon and Hammon.

    Other countries equated Amun with their own deities :

    • Egyptians equated him with the god Min.
    • The Greeks equated Amun with Zeus.
    • The Romans equated him with Jupiter.

    Amun-Ra

    Over time, the Egyptians combined Amun with Ra to form Amun-Ra. Alternate spellings of this name include Amen-Ra, Amon-Ra, Amon-Re, Amun-Re and Ammon-Ra. Egyptians referred to Amun-Ra as “one one” and “no second” because they considered him the supreme god.

    Pharaoh Seti I. offering to Amun and Mut

    Roles

    • Amun’s first role was as the patron saint of the ancient Egyptian city Thebes. where the ruling pharaoh and his royal family resided. Here he became joined with the sun god Ra and the two became known as the Egypt god Amun-Ra.
    • Amun-Ra was the king of the Upper Egyptian gods and one of the most important gods in Egypt, second only to Osiris .
    • Egyptians gave Amun-Ra the role of a creative power responsible for all life on earth. in heaven and in the Tuat (underworld).
    • Amun was also the father of the pharaoh .

    Family

    Amun was part of the Thebean triad along with Mut and Khonsu (a triad was a group of three gods including a mother, a father and a child).

    • Wife (as Amun): Amunet, a mother-goddess.
    • Wife (as Amun-Ra): Mut, goddess of Thebes, female counterpart of Amun-Ra.
    • Son: Khonsu, moon god of regeneration and healing

    Kairoinfo4u – The sacred boats of Amun-Ra, Mut and Khonsu

    Worship

    The history of the development of Amun’s worship is fascinating. He started as a deity worshiped only in Thebes. After the pharaohs moved their capital to Thebes, Amun became a major god. During the Eighteenth Dynasty, he assimilated with Ra and grew in importance.

    Many of the Eighteenth Dynasty kings commissioned frescos showing Amun-Ra fathering them. This was also the way rulers whose legitimacy was in doubt proved their right to rule. When Hatshepsut began ruling for her stepson, she commissioned murals showing Amun-Ra fathering her. She used these murals to legitimize her kingship and remain pharaoh until her death.

    As the Eighteenth Dynasty progressed, Amun-Ra’s cult grew in wealth and power. Soon, the cult rivaled the pharaoh in power and prestige. This fact contributed to Akhenaten’s decision to declare Aten the only god in Egypt. He moved the capitol to a new city but as soon as he died, Amun-Ra’s priests regained their power. Thebes became the capitol again and the cult of Amun-Ra continued to gain power.

    Hannah Pethen – Hatshepsut knealing before Amun

    Cult

    Worship of Amun was widespread and the pharaohs’ awarded the cult with land a percentage of the booty from conquests. One of the important positions in the cult was the “god’s wife of Amun” and the queen or queen-mother often fimagecentered this role. These women gained power and depictions show them making offerings to gods.

    Two festivals at Thebes involved the images of Amun and other deities traveling to other places:

    • During the Beautiful Feast of the Valley. images of the Thebean Triad were taken out of Karnak. They traveled on a boat, across the Nile, to visit the mortuary temples on the west bank.
    • At the celebration of the Opet Festival. Amun traveled from the Great Temple at Karnak to the temple at Luxor. This festival celebrated the sacred marriage between the god (Pharaoh) and the god’s wife (the queen).

    Temples

    Temples dedicated to Amun were built throughout Egypt and Ramses II built or rebuilt several of them. Three of these temples are those at Deir el-Medina, Luxor and Karnak:

    • Deir el-Medina is located on the western bank of the Nile across from Thebes and near the Valley of the Kings. Ramses II built this temple and two dedicated to the other members of the Thebean Triad.
    • Amun’s temple at Luxor was first built around 1500 BC and has been an active religious site up to the present day. People worshiped a unique version of Amun, named Amenemope (Amun of Opet). Two names for the Luxor Temple are the “Place of Seclusion” or the Southern Opet. This temple was in the heart of ancient Thebes and a processional road connected it to Karnak.
    • The temple complex at Karnak is the largest temple complex built by humans and the Great Temple of Amun is its crown jewel. Generations of pharaoh’s added to or rebuilt sections of this temple. Criosphinxes (sphinxes with ram heads) line one of the processional ways. Several courts, obelisks. and pylons, carved with hieroglyphics. are part of this temple. Several temples are part of this complex including one dedicated to Aten. Akhenaten built it during the first five years of his reign, before he moved the capital to Amarna.

    Nick Dawson – Criosphinx statues at the temple of Amun at Karnak

    Symbols

    Egyptian artwork associates several symbols with Amun:

    • The ram (criosphinx: a sphinx with a ram head).
    • The goose
    • At times, Amun’s frescos show him as an ape or a lion.

    Depictions

    Images and statues of Amun usually show him as a man with a blue or black skin .

    • He wears a double-plumed headdress and the plumes have alternating colors of either red and green or red and blue.
    • Amun wears several pieces of jewelry including a broad collar or necklace, bracelets and armlets.
    • His clothing is either a kilt or a tunic with decorated shoulder straps.
    • Amun holds an ankh in his right hand and a scepter in his left hand and sometimes a bull’s tail hangs from his tunic.

    Amun is also depicted with various animal heads. On occasion, he has a hawk’s head with a sun disc encircled by a serpent on top. Other depictions show Amun with a ram’s head.

    Depictions of Amun with his wife Amunet show him with:

    • An uraeus (upright form of an Egyptian cobra) head and Amunet with a cat head,
    • or Amun with a frog head and Amunet with an uraeus head.

    Dennis Jarvis – Amun-Ra (center) in the temple of Amada

    Legends

    Amun was a creator god and a force that created life. Instead of featuring in a story myth, many writings about him tell how he helped people gain a victory or solve a problem. Other inscriptions tell of oracles Amun gave to petitioners. His statue would move (hidden priests manipulated it) to answer a question.

    Important Facts

    • Amun was a creator god worshiped through Egypt.
    • Pharaohs were the ‘son of Amun.’
    • His cult gained enough power and wealth to threaten the pharaoh.
    • Women who were the “god’s wife of Amun” held important places in the cult.
    • Some pharaohs used Amun to legitimize their reigns.
    • Thebes was the center of his worship.
    • Some of Amun’s grandest temples were in Thebes.




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    IP “Classful” Addressing Overview and Address Classes
    (Page 1 of 2)

    When the first precursor of the Internet was developed, some of the requirements of the internetwork, both present and future, were quickly realized. The Internet would start small but eventually grow. It would be shared by many organizations. Since it is necessary for all IP addresses on the internetwork to be unique, a system had to be created for dividing up the available addresses and share them amongst those organizations. A central authority had to be established for this purpose, and a scheme developed for it to effectively allocate addresses.

    The developers of IP recognized that organizations come in different sizes and would therefore need varying numbers of IP addresses on the Internet. They devised a system whereby the IP address space would be divided into classes. each of which contained a portion of the total addresses and were dedicated to specific uses. Some would be devoted to large networks on the Internet, while others would be for smaller organizations, and still others reserved for special purposes.

    Since this was the original system, it had no name; it was just the IP addressing system. Today, in reference to its use of classes, it is called the classful addressing scheme, to differentiate it from the newer classless scheme. As I said at the end of the introduction to this section. classful isn’t really a word, but it’s what everyone uses.

    IP Address Classes

    There are five classes in the classful system, which are given letters A through E. Table 43 provides some general information about the classes, their intended uses and other general characteristics about them:

    Table 43: IP Address Classes and Class Characteristics and Uses

    IP Address Class

    Reserved for experimental use .

    Looking at this table (and at Figure 60 ) you can see that the first three, classes A, B and C, comprise most of the total address space (7/8ths of it). These are the classes used for unicast IP addressing, which means for messages sent to a single network interface. (The blocks also include associated broadcast addresses for these networks.) This is what we usually consider normal IP addressing. You can think of classes A, B and C as the papa bear , mama bear and baby bear of traditional IP addressing. They allow the Internet to provide addressing for a small number of very large networks, a moderate number of medium-sized organizations, and a large number of smaller companies. This approximately reflects the distribution of organization sizes, approximately, in the real world, though the large gulf in the maximum number of hosts allowed for each address class leads to inflexibility and problems.

    As you can see, the classes differ in the place where the dividing line is drawn between the network ID and the host ID portions of the addresses they contain. However, in each case the division is made on octet boundaries: in classful addressing, the division does not occur within an octet.

    Figure 60: Division of IPv4 Address Space Into Classes

    (I don t really need to explain this one, do I? J )

    Classes D and E are special to the point where many people don’t even realize they exist. Class D is used for IP multicasting. while class E was reserved for experimental use . I discuss IP multicast addressing later in this section.





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