Overview Of Sap Crm Architecture – Sap Crm Tutorial (7992) #overview #of #sap #crm
Basics And Architecture/Overview Of Sap Crm Architecture 7992
This lessons explains the architecture of SAP CRM and the components that make up the landscape.
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
Explain the architecture of SAP CRM and the components that make up the landscape.
In order to optimize your customer interactions, you intend to implement different channels within your company, such as Internet, telephony, field sales, and partners. You therefore have to become familiar with the SAP CRM system landscape.
Additionally, you wish to provide your employees with an intuitive and user-friendly interface to carry out their daily work.
SAP CRM Architecture Concept
The SAP CRM solution is the sum of all CRM functions and incorporates CRM components as well as the components SAP Business Intelligence (SAP BI), Supply Chain Management (SAP SCM), and SAP ERP (SAP ECC or SAP R/3).
A central CRM server with system access through various channels and a connection to other systems are both contained in SAP Customer Relationship Management (CRM), a part of the SAP Business Suite. The following application components are supported in SAP CRM:
Interaction Center: Using integrated Interaction Center solutions, clients can contact sales or service representatives by telephone, fax, or e-mail.Web Channel (Internet): Internet users may configure and order products or services using SAP CRM Internet components.Mobile Clients/Handhelds: Mobile sales representatives and service engineers can access the SAP CRM system from their laptops or other mobile devices to exchange up-to-date information with the central CRM server. The SAP CRM solution offers you the following, fully-integrated connections:The SAP CRM system as a central CRM server with corresponding application componentsThe SAP ERP system (SAP ECC or SAP R/3) as a back-end system with tried and true ERP functionsThe SAP BI system as a data warehouse solution with comprehensive statistical and analysis functionsThe SAP SCM system as a global Available-to-Promise (ATP) check and demand planning solutionThe SAP NetWeaver Portal as a tool that provides you with integrated access to all systems
SAP CRM and Other SAP Systems
Data is exchanged between the CRM system and a connected ERP system (minimum SAP R/3 Release 3.1I) using the CRM Middleware. A plug-in installed in the SAP ERP system acts as a counterpart to the R/3 adapter in the SAP CRM system, supporting data communication between the two systems. The data exchange includes the initial transfer of Customizing, master, and transactional data to the SAP CRM System, and the transfer of delta data in both directions. Also a non-SAP ERP system can be connected to SAP CRM.
Sales orders can be entered in the Internet Sales application component, the Interaction Center, a mobile device, or the CRM server. To confirm whether the requested items can be delivered on time, you need to run the Available-to-Promise (ATP) availability check. The SAP Supply Chain Management component performs these functions.
The SAP Business Information Warehouse (SAP BW) is used as a data source for parts of the SAP CRM solution, and also contains data for consolidation and analysis.
As of SAP ECC 6.0, the plug-in will be contained directly in SAP ECC. Until SAP ECC 6.0 the plug-in is delivered separately and has to be installed.
The SAP CRM solution supports the handling of CRM business objects (such as customers and prospects, activities and opportunities, and products and product catalogs) in a variety of application components including Internet Sales, Service Interaction Center, Telesales and Campaign Management. Some of these components require external extensions for communication and integration. These components will be described in more detail in later sections.
The middleware layer supports the controlled data exchange with other systems such as mobile clients, back-end systems, and data ware houses. A replication procedure guarantees consistent and up-to-date data in the distributed local databases, especially for mobile users. Message queuing ensures data delivery and processing.
Software adapters are used to connect to external systems. These adapters are responsible for assigning data and converting it to other formats. Both the ASCII adapter and external interfaces are provided for this. The SAP CRM application components also exchange data with the middleware layer using a CRM adapter. The SAP CRM component builds on the SAP Basis system, which provides a proven development platform, scalability, platform independence, and various other SAP tools. Therefore, the SAP CRM solution can be configured just as flexibly as an SAP ERP system.
#small business insurance
Insurance coverage is available for every conceivable risk your business might face. Cost and amount of coverage of policies vary among insurers. You should discuss your specific business risks and the types of insurance available with your insurance agent or broker. Your agency can advise you on the exact types of insurance you should consider purchasing.
General Liability Insurance
Business owners purchase general liability insurance to cover legal hassles due to accident, injuries and claims of negligence. These policies protect against payments as the result of bodily injury, property damage, medical expenses, libel, slander, the cost of defending lawsuits, and settlement bonds or judgments required during an appeal procedure.
Product Liability Insurance
Companies that manufacture, wholesale, distribute, and retail a product may be liable for its safety. Product liability insurance protects against financial loss as a result of a defect product that causes injury or bodily harm. The amount of insurance you should purchase depends on the products you sell or manufacture. A clothing store would have far less risk than a small appliance store, for example.
Professional Liability Insurance
Business owners providing services should consider having professional liability insurance (also known as errors and omissions insurance ). This type of liability coverage protects your business against malpractice, errors, and negligence in provision of services to your customers. Depending on your profession, you may be required by your state government to carry such a policy. For example, physicians are required to purchase malpractice insurance as a condition of practicing in certain states.
Commercial Property Insurance
Property insurance covers everything related to the loss and damage of company property due to a wide-variety of events such as fire, smoke, wind and hail storms, civil disobedience and vandalism. The definition of “property” is broad, and includes lost income, business interruption, buildings, computers, company papers and money.
Property insurance policies come in two basic forms: (1) all-risk policies covering a wide-range of incidents and perils except those noted in the policy; (2) peril-specific policies that cover losses from only those perils listed in the policy. Examples of peril-specific policies include fire, flood, crime and business interruption insurance. All-risk policies generally cover risks faced by the average small business, while peril-specific policies are usually purchased when there is high risk of peril in a certain area. Consult your insurance agent or broker about the type of business property insurance best suited for your small business.
Home-Based Business Insurance
Contrary to popular belief, homeowners’ insurance policies do not generally cover home-based business losses. Depending on risks to your business, you may add riders to your homeowners’ policy to cover normal business risks such as property damage. However, homeowners’ policies only go so far in covering home-based businesses and you may need to purchase additional policies to cover other risks, such as general and professional liability.
Healthcare is undeniably India s largest sector nowadays in terms of both revenue and employment. Healthcare as a whole comprise hospitals, medical devices / equipments, outsourcing, medical tourism and health insurance.
Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu India, a multinational professional service company has estimated that the overall Indian healthcare market today is worth US$ 100 billion and will likely to grow at a CAGR of 23 per cent to US$ 280 billion by 2020.
The Indian medical tourism industry is pegged at US$ 3 billion per annum, with an estimated 230,000 medical tourists arriving in the country. This is expected to double sharply in the next four years to US$ 6 billion.
The healthcare segment has attracted Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) worth US$ 3.41 billion between April 2000 and December 2015, according to the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP).
With this sharp increase, India requires 600,000 to 700,000 additional beds over the next five to six years, indicative of an investment opportunity of US$ 25-30 billion. Given this demand for capital, the number of transactions in the healthcare space is expected to witness a sharp increase in the near future. Increase in number of transactions means a healthy rise in Revenue Cycle Management (RCM) provided the RCM company adapts a holistic approach to the process and provide a complete solution. Those firms that follow this practice will be in a position to grab larger share of market in the future.
Other than this, the outsourced market in the healthcare segment is estimated to be around US$ 8 billion, a majority of which is in the US, followed by India. In a flourishing trend, most of the US Healthcare providers are outsourcing their non-core processes like RCM to third-party service providers in other English speaking countries, where India is choosen as a favourabe destination.
The competitive advantage that India has is her large pool of English speaking, talented, well trained professionals with good analytical skills which is essential for BPO indusry, not to mention the cost competitiveness compared to other English speaking countries. The matured medical education system in the country is also widely appreciated abroad.
Eventhough, apprehensions existed few years back about India s ability to handle complex US healthcare process, now they have been removed, as the RCM players have invested wisely for training and upgradation of systems with in the organisation.
So far the major RCM companies in India have been focussing on large sized hospitals in US, the less than 500 bed mid sized hospitals are untouched. This niche market will become attractive in the coming years for RCM companies to work on.
With the internal development in healthcare business with in the country along with the outsourced businesses, the RCM business in India has a tremendous growth opportunity in the coming years.
What is required to grab a major pie of this business is to keep investing money and time to employ / train periodically the healthcare management personnel and invest on the advanced technology to store, manage and analyse, data which helps in automating the RCM process. With these in place, no stopping India as a future leader in Revenue Cycle Management.
Written 4w ago Not for Reproduction
Bachelor of Education (Early Childhood Studies)
Bachelor of Education (Early Childhood Studies)
This course is designed to graduate early childhood educators who are competent, skilled teachers ready to work in schools and a range of early childhood settings.
A key feature of this course is the emphasis given to connecting theory with practice so that graduates will be proficient in developing effective early childhood educational programs that are informed by current research, policy and practice.
Partnerships with over 650 schools and numerous Children’s Services settings allow pre-service teachers to gain experience in diverse settings, including public, private, metropolitan, regional and remote contexts working with children, families and communities.
In addition, a distinguishing feature of this course is that pre-service teachers have the opportunity in the fourth year of their course to specialise and broaden their knowledge and skills in an area of interest. Units are also available in the degree that enables pre-service teachers to complete accreditation requirements to teach in Catholic schools.
Joondalup Campus Semester 1 – full part-time Semester 2 – part-time
Mount Lawley Campus Semester 1 – full part-time Semester 2 – part-time
South West (Bunbury) Campus Semester 1 – full part-time Semester 2 – part-time
Course admission requirements
The following course specific requirements are applicable:
Students must attain an Academic IELTS with an average level of 7.5 or more, across the four components of listening, speaking, reading and writing; no score below level 7.0 in any of these components; and, a score of 8.0 or more in the components of speaking and listening.
If secondary education and degree studies were completed within a period of 2 years before applying for registration in Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the UK or the USA, applicants do not need to provide proof of English competency.
Applicants who have completed their secondary education in South Africa in English and have an undergraduate degree taught in English from a South African University are deemed to have met English language requirements.
Applicants from the Seychelles:
Successful completion of the International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) grade C or above, PLUS a completed 4 year National Diploma.
Requirements from 01-JAN-2018:
All applicants are required to complete the online Computer-Based Assessment for Sampling Personal Characteristics (CASPer). The Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership requires all applicants for Pre-service Teacher education courses (Bachelor of Education, Graduate Diploma of Education, Master of Teaching) throughout Australia to provide information about their non-cognitive attributes. Further details and the scheduled dates for assessment will be provided by ECU as part of the course application assessment process.
General admission requirements
Non standard timetable requirements
Students have the opportunity to complete a fast-tracked final year and achieve eligibility for employment in schools from Term 4 during the same year.
In each year of the program, students undertake compulsory Professional Practice and in the final year, students undertake an Assistant Teacher Program (ATP) comprising of one term of approximately 10 weeks of continuous teaching practice. The Assistant Teacher Program is conducted during the final year of the course in the second term of the school year.
All Professional Practices are undertaken on a full-time basis and teaching students are required to give a full-time commitment to the school during the scheduled Professional Practice periods.
Clearances and/or Risk Management Protocols Required
To undertake a Professional Practice in a school or childcare setting, all pre-service teacher education students over the age of 18 must have supplied ECU with evidence of the following two clearances:
A valid National Police History Check from the Department of Education WA.
A valid Working with Children Check from the Department for Child Protection and Family Support WA.
Further information can be found at http://www.ecu.edu.au/schools/education/professional-practice/clearances
Professional practice rules
Students on practicum must conduct themselves according to the standards in the Student Charter for ECU and the guidelines for Professional Practice.
This course is dedicated to producing quality graduates ready to take up employment across the early childhood education sector, including teaching children aged 0-3 years, kindergarten, pre-primary and years 1-3 in a primary school.
Kindergarten, Pre-Primary or Junior Primary Teacher, Child Care Professional, Pedagogical Leader
Students will need to graduate to be eligible to register with the Teacher Registration Board of Western Australia (TRBWA). Registration with the Teacher Registration Board of Western Australia (TRBWA) is required to practice in the profession.
Graduates must meet the Teacher Registration Board of WA (TRBWA) literacy and numeracy proficiency requirements prior to graduation for teacher registration in Western Australia. Further information is available at http://trb.wa.gov.au
Students must complete the above two units LIT1200 (Personal Literacy) and NUM1200 (Personal Numeracy). The Teacher Registration Board of Western Australia requires that all students who enrol in a pre-service teacher education course (undergraduate and graduate) from 1st January 2017 will have to successfully complete tests about their personal levels of literacy and numeracy to graduate, and therefore, be eligible for registration as a teacher.
Year 1 – Semester 1
Drama Arts in Early Childhood Education
Becoming an Early Childhood Educator
Learning and Learners
Communication Skills for Teaching and Learning
Year 1 – Semester 2
Young Children’s Learning and Development
English 1: Oral Communication
Play and Pedagogy
Inquiry in Professional Practice (Child Care)
Year 2 – Semester 1
Early Childhood Mathematics 1
Guiding Children’s Behaviour in Positive Learning Environments
Music Arts in Early Childhood Education
Early Childhood Science and Technology Education
Year 2 – Semester 2
Assessing and Evaluating Young Children’s Learning
Health and Physical Education for Young Children
English 2: Literacy Learning in the Early Years
Inquiry in Professional Practice (K/PP)
Year 3 – Semester 1
Visual Arts in Early Childhood Education
Including Children with Special Educational Needs
English 3: Literacy in the Junior Primary Years of School
Social Science Education in Early Childhood
Year 3 – Semester 2
Early Childhood Mathematics 2
Teaching Indigenous Australian Students
English 4: Planning and Differentiating the English Curriculum in Early Childhood
Inquiry in Professional Practice 3: Junior Primary
Year 4 – Semester 1
Assistant Teacher Program
Unit from Specialisation
Year 4 – Semester 2
Students are required to select one of the following four options:
Leading in Early Childhood Settings
Unit from Specialisation
Students may wish to diversify their elective choices and develop a broad body of knowledge relevant to early childhood education. If this option is preferred, students must complete ECS4330 and ECS4261 as well as any two (2) units from any of the five areas of specialization, or from the additional electives listed below. If students select this option, no specialisation will be recorded on the academic transcript.
Literacy Coaching in Junior Primary
Children’s Literature in the Classroom
Teaching Integrated Science in Junior Primary Years
Quick guide to uni-speak
If you need it, here’s a quick explanation of some uni lingo.
Students interested in progressing further in this area can elect to study:
Handbook and timetable
For more detailed unit information for this course take a look at our Handbook. To organise your life for next semester visit the Semester timetable .
The Best Student Experience
The Best Student Experience
For the 8th year in a row, ECU graduates have given a 5-star rating for teaching quality in the 2017 Good Universities Guide.
This record is unmatched by all but a few universities in Australia.
ECU has also received the highest student satisfaction rating of all public universities in the 2017 Australian Government QILT survey.
More than 86% of our students rated their overall university experience positively.
Lumina Foundation is committed to increasing the proportion of Americans with high-quality degrees, certificates and other credentials to 60 percent by 2025. Lumina s outcomes-based approach focuses on helping to design and build an equitable, accessible, responsive and accountable higher education system while fostering a national sense of urgency for action to achieve Goal 2025.
Reaching Goal 2025 that 60% of Americans hold degrees, certificates or other high-quality postsecondary credentials by 2025 is essential to meeting our nation s growing need for talent.
Between now and 2025, assuming current rates of degree and certificate production continue, about 24.2 million Americans will earn postsecondary credentials. To reach Goal 2025, 16.4 million more need to be added to that total. Lumina is committed under our current strategic plan to make substantial progress by 2020 toward this total. Specifically, our target is to increase attainment by 5.9 million over the next three years. These credentials will be earned by the millions of Americans who will not obtain postsecondary credentials if we keep doing what we re doing but could be added to the total counting toward Goal 2025.
Over the course of our first two strategic plans. we have made substantial progress toward Goal 2025. With clear and abundant evidence, we now know that to increase postsecondary attainment to the levels we need, we must work with many partners to build an equitable postsecondary learning system out of our current disparate and disconnected systems. Fortunately, the need to increase postsecondary attainment is now widely recognized by the American people, and state and local leaders throughout the nation are mobilized to take action.
It is time to move to action on solutions that dramatically increase attainment to reach Goal 2025. The comprehensive system of postsecondary learning that Lumina is committed to help build will allow all Americans to obtain credentials representing the knowledge and skills they and the nation need. It is the key to meeting the nation s growing demand for talent.
What is the Issue?
The U.S. lags behind its global competitors in postsecondary attainment. America currently ranks a disappointing 11th in global postsecondary attainment, but the pace of attainment among younger adults is even more troubling. According to the OECD data, an astounding 64 percent of young adults (ages 25-34) in South Korea have completed education beyond high school. Those rates in Japan and Canada are approaching 60 percent, while young adults in the U.S. are hovering just above 40 percent.
Why is the Goal so Urgent?
Our rapidly evolving, complex economy is causing a surge in demand for skilled employees. Two-thirds of all jobs created in this decade will require some form of postsecondary education, according to the Georgetown Center on Education and the Workforce. Today, only about 40 percent of adults in the U.S. have achieved that level of education. Americans with a high-school diploma or less accounted for four out every five jobs lost in the recent recession.
Who is Affected?
Students who’ve traditionally been under-represented by the old system. When we talk about access for underserved students, it’s with a focus on today’s student These are low-income, racial and ethnic minorities, working adults, and first-generation students. The students we once called nontraditional are no longer the exception in postsecondary education … they are the rule. These 21st-century students represent our future—not merely the future of the higher education enterprise, but the future of the nation itself.
How Can I Help?
Read about the many ways to contribute to the national effort to reach Goal 2025. We have suggestions for innovative thinkers, institutional leaders, policymakers, student advocates, and families to connect and share strategies with others working to help students succeed. There is a role for everyone in both public and private sectors to contribute. Goal 2025 is not just Lumina Foundation’s goal, it’s the nation’s goal for creating a stronger nation through higher education.
WHAT IS THE ISSUE?
WHY IS THE GOAL SO URGENT?
WHO IS AFFECTED?
HOW CAN I HELP?
What You Can Do
Every American has a role in helping us reach Goal 2025, and we all benefit when we get there. Everyone–from employers to instructors to families–has clear steps to take. And no matter how small, each step toward the goal is essential. Find out how you can contribute to building a stronger nation through higher education.
What Needs to be Redesigned
Lumina’s priority is to fundamentally rethink how higher education is delivered, and what outcomes can be expected from postsecondary completion. Lumina Foundation is leading a national conversation about the disruptive innovations helping to design and build a 21st century system that meets the needs of all students.
Facts & Figures
Read some key facts on how we can increase levels of educational attainment equitably, through the use of quality data to improve student performance, identify problems, measure progress toward the goal and inform policy and decision making at all levels.
#short term business loans
The Perils of Short-Term Business Loans
Principals, Whitestone Partners Inc. a management-consulting firm
September 15, 2015
Funding your start-up is seldom easy. Your options are limited. Friends and family members normally can only invest a small amount. Bank loans can be hard to come by. Government programs can take months to navigate. Small business owners may consider alternative and short-term lenders when cash gets tight. However, before doing so, you need to understand what you are buying.
As example, let s say that you are going to borrow $50,000. You only need the capital for one month and the small-business lender tells you it charges three percent. In most cases, this is three percent per month. In other words, if you borrow $50,000 for one month, you must repay $51,500 ($50,000 of principal plus $1,500 of interest).
If you need to extend for an additional month, it is another three percent. If you do that for a year (12 times), you would pay $18,000 in interest (12 times $1,500). However, $18,000 divided by $50,000 is 36 percent. Therefore, even if you only keep the loan for one month, you are paying an interest rate that is 36 percent per year. Of course, you ll never hear one of these lenders say that they are charging you 36 percent. That rate doesn t sound attractive. Nevertheless, that s what it is. You wouldn t dream of paying that interest rate for a home loan or a car loan. Most credit cards offer better rates.
Related:Cash Crunch: What s the Best Loan for Your Small Business?
This type of lending is very expensive. In short, almost any other loan you could get would cost you less. You could take a second mortgage on your home, refinance your automobile, apply for a new credit card or ask your Uncle John for a loan. Explore all of the other options before taking this type of loan. It s probable that any other option would cost you less, probably much less.
Another option is to bring money into your business by taking on a partner — an angel investor. Sell part of your business to an investor to get the money you need. The popular show Shark Tank shows people trying to do this each week. If you follow this route, there are many precautions you should take, but that s another topic.
Suppose you have no other options. There are no viable investors. You don t own a home. Your car loans are maxed out and credit card companies aren t interested because your credit isn t good. If you literally have no other options, short-term or alternative lending might make sense. The key question is how long will you need to borrow the money?
If you will need money for the long term and there is no other source of capital, our best advice is to close down your business. Essentially no legal enterprise can deliver a return of more than 36 percent in the end. If your business doesn t deliver more than your cost of capital, you will eventually go out of business anyway. Facing that fact now will allow you to cut your losses.
On the other hand, if you truly need the money for only a short time, it may be that such a loan will make sense. For example, you owe your suppliers money. They are refusing to provide the material you need to work until they are paid. Customers owe you money for work you have previously done. What you are owed is enough to cover your obligations and you believe that you will receive payment in the near future. In this case, a short-term loan, even at a very high interest rate may make sense because it allows you to keep working.
Be cautious, there are many lenders that prey on small business people who have a dream, but are not financially sophisticated. In some cases, the rates are usury. Accepting such rates will cause you to dig a deeper hole in the long run. Nevertheless, there may be situations where these loans are appropriate.
The Two Types of Investments You Can Make In a Small Business
Equity and Debt Are The Choices on the Small Business Investment Menu
When you make a small business investment, you have two choices: Do you take equity (an ownership stake) or debt (lend money in exchange for interest income and future repayment)? Both have their own advantages and disadvantages. Betsie Van Der Meer/Taxi/Getty Images
Updated August 22, 2016
Investing in a small business has always been, is currently, and most likely always will be one of the most popular ways individuals and families begin the journey to financial independence ; a way to create, nurture, and grow an asset that, when intelligently run under the right conditions, throws off surplus cash to provide not only a good standard of living, but to fund other investments. Still, it isn t uncommon, at least in nations with an entrepreneurial history such as the United States, for a small business owner to have never owned a publicly traded share of stock or a mutual fund. opting, instead, to put everything into their own restaurant, dry cleaning business, or sporting goods store.
Frequently, this small business grows to represent the most important financial resource the family owns, other than their primary residence.
In today s economic and political climate, these types of small business investments are often structured as either a limited liability company or a limited partnership. with the former being the most popular due to the fact it combines many of the best attributes of corporations and partnerships. In years past, sole proprietorships or general partnerships were more popular, which provide no protection for the owners personal assets outside of the company.
Whether you are considering investing in a small business by founding one from scratch or buying into an existing company, there are typically only two types of positions you can take: 1.) Equity, or 2.) Debt. Though there may be countless variations, all investments come back to those two foundations.
Equity Investments in Small Businesses
When you make an equity investment in a small business. you are buying an ownership stake. Equity investors provide capital, almost always in the form of cash, in exchange for a percentage of the profits and losses. The business can use this cash for a variety of things, including funding capital expenditures to expand, reducing debt, buying out other owners, building liquidity, or hiring new employees.
In some cases, the percentage of the business the investor receives is proportional to the total capital he or she provides. For example, if you kick in $100,000 in cash and other investors kick in $900,000, totaling $1,000,000, you might expect 10% of any profits or losses because you provided 1/10th of the total money. In other cases, especially when dealing with an established business or one put together by a key manager, this would not be the case. Consider the investment partnerships Warren Buffett ran in his 20 s and 30 s. He had limited partners contribute nearly all of the capital, but profits were split 75% to limited partners, in proportion to their overall share of the capital, and 25% to him as the general partner, despite having put up very little of his own money. The limited partners were fine with this arrangement because Buffett was providing expertise.
An equity investment in a small business can result in the biggest gains, as well as the most risk. If expenses run higher than sales, the losses get assigned to you.
A bad quarter, or year, and you might see the company fail or even go bankrupt. However, if things go well, your returns can be enormous. Virtually all of the research on millionaires in the United States shows that the single biggest classification of millionaires are self-made business owners. If you want to rank among the top 1% of wealth. owning a profitable business in a niche market that churns out dividends each year is your best chance, statistically.
Debt Investments in Small Businesses
When you make a debt investment in a small business, you loan it money in exchange for the promise of interest income and eventual repayment of the principal. Debt capital is most often provided either in the form of direct loans with regular amortization or the purchase of bonds issued by the business. which provide semi-annual interest payments mailed to the bondholder.
The biggest advantage of debt is that it has a privileged place in the capitalization structure. That means if the company goes bust, the debt has priority over the stockholders (the equity investors). Generally speaking, the highest level of debt is a first mortgage secured bond that has a lien on a specific piece of valuable property or an asset, such as a brand name. For example, if you loan money to an ice cream shop and are given a lien on the real estate and building, you can foreclose upon it in the event the company implodes. It may take time, effort, and money, but you should be able to recover whatever net proceeds you can get from the sale of the underlying property that you confiscate. The lowest level of debt is known as a debenture, which is a debt not secured by any specific asset but, rather, but the company s good name and credit.
Which Is Better: An Equity Investment or a Debt Investment?
There is no simple answer to this question. If you had been an early investor in McDonald s and bought equity, you d be rich. If you had bought bonds, making a debt investment, you would have earned a decent, but by no means spectacular, return on your money. On the other hand, if you buy into a business that fails, your best chance to escape unscathed is to own the debt, not the equity.
All of this is complicated by an observation that famed value investor Benjamin Graham made in his seminal work, Security Analysis. Namely, that equity in a business that is debt-free cannot pose any greater risk than a debt investment in the same firm because, in both cases, the person would be first in line in the capitalization structure.
The Preferred Equity Debt Hybrid
Sometimes, small business investments straddle the ground between equity investments and debt investments, modeling preferred stock. Far from offering the best of both worlds, preferred stock seems to combine the worst features of both equity and debt; namely, the limited upside potential of debt, with the lower capitalization rank of equity. There are always exceptions to the rule.
Bachelor of Science (BS): Technology Degree Overview #b #s #information #technology, #bachelor #of #science
Bachelor of Science (BS): Technology Degree Overview
Individuals who want to earn a Bachelor of Science degree in technology can pursue a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, a Bachelor of Science in Industrial Technology or a Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology. Learn about these programs, as well as salary and career information.
Show Me Schools
View popular schools
Students interested in earning a technology-related bachelor’s degree have several options. Information technology degree programs teach students about computer applications and programming. Industrial technology degree programs aim to prepare students for technical duties in manufacturing and production industries. Students of medical technology programs learn scientific and medical topics. In addition to a high school diploma or the equivalent, students must submit their SAT or ACT scores for program admission.
Bachelor of Science in Information Technology
B.S. in Information Technology programs usually offer coursework in business concepts and technical communication to improve individuals’ ability to work with computer systems. By offering diverse curricula, many programs help students gain design computing, managerial, technical, communication and business skills. By engaging in hands-on experiences and teamwork, students may gain knowledge in technical trends and business practices. Some programs allow students to focus their studies on a concentration area in the field, such as system design, computer science, infrastructure or software application. Students may study topics such as:
- Web servers
- Information security
- Computer networks
Bachelor of Science in Industrial Technology
Most Bachelor of Science in Industrial Technology programs offer curricula that teach management principles, physical sciences and industry operations. Students may develop an understanding of operations and learn how to optimize areas of manufacturing, such as personnel, materials and processes. Many programs offer internship experiences in industrial or manufacturing settings, providing hands-on experiences for students. Also, students may have opportunities to gain skills in problem solving, leadership and management, design and collaboration. Some programs offer concentrations in areas of industrial technology, such as manufacturing systems, drafting design or automatic systems. Course topics in a program may include:
Find schools that offer these popular programs
- Computer and Information Support Services, Other
- Information Science and Studies General
- Information Technology
- Robotics and Artificial Intelligence
Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology
In general, Bachelor of Science programs in medical technology offer curricula with theoretical and practical work in a medical laboratory, where students learn to perform laboratory tests. Students may also gain hands-on experience during the clinical portion of their coursework, which may take place in hospital laboratories under the supervision of physicians and medical technicians. These programs take four years to complete, with the first three years focused around coursework and the final year devoted to clinical experience.
A B.S. in Medical Technology program should be accredited by the NAACLS and the American Medical Association Council on Health Education. Most B.S. degree programs lead to or qualify students to take certification and licensure examinations. Aside from typical high school transcript requirements, some programs have a minimum GPA requirement. Students may engage in topics such as:
- Clinical microbiology
- Clinical chemistry
Popular Career Options
A B.S. in Information Technology can prepare individuals for entry-level careers in the computer and technology field, such as occupations in software engineering, information systems or network security. Individuals may pursue positions as:
- Computer systems analysts
- Network systems professionals
- Database systems managers
- Data communications analysts
- Information technology designers
As reported by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), computer systems analysts could experience 21% employment growth from 2014-2024 (www.bls.gov ). During the same time period, the BLS states that employment for database administrators could grow 11% and network and computer systems administrators 8%. In May 2015, the BLS indicated that computer systems analysts earned a median annual salary of $85,800, database administrators $81,710 and network and computer systems administrators $77,810.
Obtaining a B.S. in Industrial Technology prepares individuals for positions in business and industry. Individuals with this degree may find jobs as:
- Safety managers
- Engineering technicians
- Quality control engineers
- Industrial engineers
According to the BLS, mechanical engineering technicians could realize slower-than-average 2% employment growth rate during the 2014-2024 decade, while opportunities for drafters could decline by 3%. The BLS goes on to report that the median annual salary for mechanical engineering technicians is $53,910 as of May 2015. Salaries for drafters could vary depending on the type of work; for instance, mechanical drafters earned a median annual salary of $53,520 and architectural and civil drafters $50,710.
After obtaining a B.S. in Medical Technology, as well as licensure, an individual is prepared for careers in medical research facilities and hospital laboratories. Individuals can find positions as clinical laboratory technologists. According to the BLS, clinical laboratory technologists earned a median annual salary of $60,520 in 2015. Employment growth for these workers is expected to be 14% between 2014 and 2024.
Students looking for a bachelor’s degree program in technology can choose between information, industrial, and medical technology. In addition to in-class courses, students in each of these programs will complete hands-on learning through labs and clinical experiences, along with internship possibilities.
Next: View Schools
In this year’s Almanac of Higher Education, The Chronicle explores the rapidly expanding use of technology on college campuses.
Packing classrooms full of the latest technology has become one of the hottest trends in education across the country. It seems.
Computers, smart phones and other gadgets are ubiquitous in our lives. Ever-easier to carry around with us, it’s a rare moment.
Master’s degrees in computer technology or computer engineering teach students about the systems and workings of computers as.
Malpractice insurance rates on the rise
Medical malpractice premiums are reportedly soaring to unaffordable levels in certain parts of the country, with Texas, Pennsylvania, Nevada, Ohio and Mississippi among the states hit hardest in 2001, according to a recent analysis by AM News. Neurosurgeons, obstetricians and other high-risk specialists are seeing the highest increases, but some family physicians, particularly those who perform obstetric services, are being affected as well.
Malpractice insurance rates for family physicians vary widely by region and scope of practice. For example, in Alabama, family physicians with and without OB paid an average of $29,527 and $8,269, respectively, for malpractice premiums in 2001, roughly a 35 percent increase over the previous year. In West Virginia, family physicians with and without OB paid an average of $63,660 and $18,460, respectively, in 2001, an 18 percent increase over the previous year, according to Medical Assurance Inc.
In response to the situation, which some are calling a medical liability crisis, government and health care leaders are proposing a variety of solutions. Representatives James Greenwood, R-Pa. and Christopher Cox, R-Calif. have introduced legislation in Washington that would help reduce frivolous lawsuits and set caps for damages. Other groups are suggesting that improved patient safety initiatives are the answer. According to Jury Verdict Research, the median medical malpractice award jumped 43 percent in 2000 to $1 million.
Physicians challenge insurers over payment issues
In what has been called a landmark case, Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Georgia has been ordered to publish its fee schedule and method for calculating payments to doctors participating in its plans. The Medical Association of Georgia and four of its physicians filed the lawsuit against the Georgia Blues in 1997 when the health plan refused to provide participating physicians with information on how their payments are determined.
In Texas, the state’s attorney general recently ruled that the Department of Insurance could force insurers to disclose their payment policies to physicians and other providers. Previously, the department had said it did not have that authority.
And in Connecticut, New Jersey, New York, South Carolina and Tennessee, medical associations have filed lawsuits against major insurers, alleging they use illegal methods to delay or deny reimbursements to physicians.
The methods in question include bundling separate services into a single reimbursable service, downcoding claims and using computer software programs that automatically reduce or deny certain kinds of claims, regardless of a patient’s condition.
Why health care costs are rising
Spending on health care insurance premiums rose $67 billion in 2001, according to a new report from Pricewaterhouse-Coopers prepared for the American Association of Health Plans. Nearly a quarter of the increase is attributed to government mandates and litigation.
Source: The Factors Fueling Rising Healthcare Costs. Washington, DC: PricewaterhouseCoopers; 2002.
PRACTICE PEARLS from here and there
Stop penalizing your best staff members
Keep your high-performing staff members motivated by rewarding their work and making sure that those who perform poorly aren’t being enabled, advises Sara Larch, COO of the University of Maryland School of Medicine’s faculty practice and chair of the Medical Group Management Association’s board of directors. Ask yourself whether any of the following are true for your practice:
Are poor performers repeatedly given overtime to complete tasks they should have finished during regular work hours?
Does everyone have the same opportunities to leave early or extend their lunch break when necessary, or do key employees not receive this flexibility because the practice depends so heavily on them?
Do excellent performers continually receive more projects, meaning they do more work than others?
Good employees are hard to find and harder to keep if the system doesn’t reward their additional efforts.
Maguire P. Rightsizing, not downsizing, is key to staffing success.
ACP ASIM Observer. May 2002:5.
PRACTICE PEARLS from here and there
Gracefully close a chatty visit or call
Try the following suggestions the next time you need to end a patient visit or phone call that goes on and on and on
Let the patient know the time limit for the visit is fast approaching. Mr. Doe, we’re coming to the close of our visit today. Do you have a question I can answer before we end?
Try speaking in the past tense. It’s been nice talking with you.
Let them know this isn’t their last opportunity to communicate with you. I’m looking forward to hearing more about your car when you come in for your next visit.
Baker SK. Tips to end visits and telephone calls. Available online at: www.susanbaker.com/tips/endingCalls.html. Accessed May 17, 2002.
Fixing the Medicare fee schedule
Some legislators aren’t giving up. The May 14 CongressDaily reports that House Ways and Means Committee Chair Bill Thomas, R-Calif. has asked that language be attached to two upcoming bills clarifying that the Department of Health and Human Services has the legal authority to correct an apparent statistical error that resulted in this year’s 5.4 percent reduction in physicians’ Medicare payments. The Bush administration contends that only Congress can fix the error, which, if left uncorrected, would reduce physician payments 17 percent by 2005.
Money isn’t everything
Over the past five years, the AMA has spent $83.5 million on lobbying efforts, more than any corporation, interest group or trade association, reports the April 27 National Journal. With all the money being spent to protect doctors’ and patients’ interests, some are wondering why the nation still lacks a patients’ bill of rights and why physicians’ Medicare reimbursements fell 5.4 percent this year. According to the National Journal. the AMA’s poor relations with both political parties and internal strife are to blame.
$10 for your online time
Two-thirds of all adults use the Internet, and 90 percent of Internet users say they want to communicate online with their physicians, according to a recent report from Harris Interactive. Among Internet users, 37 percent would be willing to pay $10 per month on average for the ability to send and receive e-mails to and from their physicians. Over 50 percent said the ability to communicate online would influence their choice of physicians or health plans.
How not to negotiate a contract
Two Colorado physician groups charged with price fixing by the Federal Trade Commission have agreed to settle their case out of court without admitting liability, reports the May 14 Denver Rocky Mountain News. The groups’ 86 physicians were allegedly advised to terminate or threaten to terminate individual contracts with health insurers in order to obtain higher reimbursement rates and better terms.
Nearly 3 percent of prescription drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) between 1975 and 1999 were withdrawn from the market as unsafe, and more than 8 percent required warnings be added to alert physicians and patients of potentially dangerous side effects, reports a study in the May 1 Journal of the American Medical Association. The study’s authors concluded that clinicians should avoid using new drugs when older, similarly efficacious agents are available. Both the FDA and the drug industry have questioned the findings.
A group of residents has filed a class-action lawsuit against the National Resident Matching Program, alleging that the program and its participating medical organizations and hospitals violate antitrust laws and force residents to accept below-market wages. If successful, the lawsuit could require hospitals and health care organizations to bid for residents’ services, resulting in higher wages and shorter work-weeks.
Are you ready for HIPAA?
Eighty-one percent of California health care organizations have developed a plan for complying with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), according to a report from the California HealthCare Foundation. However, only 12 percent of the 100 organizations surveyed have carried out their compliance plans and 78 percent believe clarifications or modifications are needed to the HIPAA privacy rules before they can be implemented successfully. Physician groups reported the least progress towards compliance.
What’s good for the goose
Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary Tommy Thompson, who has been known to take cigarettes away from HHS employees, is continuing his campaign for preventive services and healthier lifestyles, reports the May 7 Philadelphia Inquirer. Obesity, type-II diabetes and tobacco-related illnesses cost the nation $270 billion annually, lamented Thompson, who has done his part to reduce these costs by losing nine pounds this year and lowering his cholesterol by 155 points.
Read the full article.
- Get immediate access, anytime, anywhere.
- Choose a single article, issue, or full-access subscription.
- Earn up to 6 CME credits per issue.
#free business plan
Business Plan Templates
Your business plan is probably the most important thing your startup can work on creating and updating, especially in the first five years. It helps you and your team stay focused on results and then helps you guys persuade potential investors and advisors of how awesome your business is. That’s why we’re offering you free business plan templates to help you automate the process and to focus on the parts that count, not the formatting, copy-pasting and legal mumbo jumbo.
Remember, the most important part of your is presenting your team as an experienced, cohesive group of entrepreneurs that is more than capable of building a business that’s successful in the long-term. Include examples of how you have each of you has experience managing a team, finances, marketing and/or sales. Feel free to put a face with the name by adding headshots and prove that experience by including LinkedIn profiles and add CVs or resumes to the addendum.
Next, once they are convinced with your team, potential investors are going to want to take a long hard look at your financial plan. Each template includes spreadsheet samples with automatic formulas and examples each of: a Cash Flow spreadsheet, a Break-Even Analysis Spreadsheet, and a Profits and Loss Analysis with Graph. Each sample was developed by lawyers who have written business plans for successful entrepreneurs. And we had an awesome economist design these easy-to-complete financial plans.
Smart Document Automation for Sales
Claim your 14-day free trial. No credit card required!
Any early stage startup could use this subscription agreement template as a free sample to outline the agreement in which investors offer payment for equity and shares in your budding business.
This free budget proposal template is perfect for both a small business or a nonprofit to outline funds used for investors and donors.
We offer you the steps and the tools to create a fantastic business plan. Attract investors with this sleek and free startup business plan template.
Think you have the solution for local tourism? Kick off your hotels empire with this free hotel business plan template to assure investors and guests.
You’re ready to go out on your own to share your fabulous breads and pastries with the world. This free bakery business plan template is just what you need to get going.
Looking for investors and permits for your new cafe? Use this free Coffee Shop Business Plan Template to get all your cups in a row.
Always dreamed of starting a restaurant? This free restaurant business plan template is your first step in making your dream a legal, planned reality.
This free grant proposal template not only helps you put your most professional foot forward, it offers you loads of tips to make your project shine.
Your potential investors are spending the most time reading one part of your business plan. Use this executive summary template to make your business idea shine.
Use this free financial funding proposal template to present your organization as responsible and worthy of funding.
This business plan template is a great tool for your startup to customize to reflect your strong qualifications, experienced team, and marketable business idea.
You’re finally ready to open your own salon. This salon business plan template and tips will help guide you how to present your salon as a sound investment.