Tag: nanotechnology

Online Course: Chemistry 101 – Learn the Fundamentals #online #college #chemistry, #online #course #class

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Online Class: Chemistry 101

Course Description

At a minimum, a basic understanding of chemistry is needed for it offers a foundation for comprehending the inner workings of biology (how cells function and the behavior of organisms), as well as, the ecological relationships that exist between organisms and their environment.

In short, chemistry offers us a way of understanding the world in which we live.

Chemistry provides us with insights into how our bodies function; the ingredients that are contained within the foods we eat; the reason cars, planes and trains are able to run as efficiently as they do; the manner in which computers are built and operate; and the materials used to construct our homes and buildings within our communities.

Basically, chemistry is a part of almost everything we do for everything is comprised of chemical compounds. The claim that chemistry is everywhere is, thus, entirely accurate.

Chemistry encompasses a multitude of specialized sub-disciplines which have proven highly useful to chemistry as they have provided for the following: the production and testing of stronger materials, creation of pharmaceuticals to treat disease, and the study of life processes.

Lesson 1. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

The ordination of who was the true “father” of modern chemistry is a disputed point.

  • Lesson 2. Chemical Foundations

    In chemistry the accepted measurement system for mass (m) or volume (v) is the metric system, also known as the System International (SI) system.

  • Lesson 3. Stoichiometry

    Stoichiometry is the field of chemistry used to determine the quantities both for the required reactants of a chemical reaction and the predicted product of said reactions.

  • Lesson 4. Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

    Most chemical reactions require a catalyst, a certain condition external to the reactants themselves that facilitates or causes the molecules to react with one another.

  • Lesson 5. Gases

    Matter in gaseous form does not have an absolute density. In order to determine the density of any volume of gas, we must first determine the pressure under which the gas is being held.

  • Lesson 6. Thermochemistry

    There are two types of energy, potential (the amount of energy possible given a certain circumstance) and kinetic (the amount of energy being expended).

  • Lesson 7. Atomic Structure and Periodicity

    Electromagnetic radiation refers to the wavelengths on which energy travels through the Universe.

  • Lesson 8. Bonding. General Concepts

    Hydrogen bonds are the bonds established between hydrogen and elements with a high level of electronegativity.

  • Lesson 9. Valence Bond Theory

    Atoms form a bond when both of these two conditions occur 1) There is an “orbital overlap” between two atoms and 2) only two electrons, both of opposite spin, are present in the overlap.

  • Lesson 10. Properties and Solutions

    Solutions are a combination of solutes and solvents, which are not necessarily composed of the same forms of matter.

  • Lesson 11. Chemical Kinetics

    Chemical kinetics is concerned with the rates of chemical reactions.

  • Lesson 12. Chemical Equilibrium

    The first thing to understand about equilibrium in chemistry is that it is a dynamic state.

  • Lesson 13. Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy

    Spontaneous processes occur without outside intervention. Some of these occur very quickly, such as combustion, whereas others like the formation of diamonds occur very slowly over millions if not billions of years.

  • Lesson 14. The Nucleus, A Chemist’s View

    The nucleus of an atom is not always stable.

  • Lesson 15. Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry

    Many transition metals commonly form more than one form of oxidized compound depending on the conditions of formation.

  • Lesson 16. Organic Chemistry

    Organic chemistry is the study of carbon based chemistry in the realm of living things.

  • Additional Course Information

    • Document Your Lifelong Learning Achievements
    • Earn an Official Certificate Documenting Course Hours and CEUs
    • Verify Your Certificate with a Unique Serial Number Online
    • View and Share Your Certificate Online or Download/Print as PDF
    • Display Your Certificate on Your Resume and Promote Your Achievements Using Social Media

    Course Title: Chemistry 101

    Course Number: 8900109

    Learning Outcomes

    By successfully completing this course, students will be able to:

    • Define atoms, molecules, and ions.
    • Describe chemical foundations and stoichiometry.
    • Identify gases and thermochemistry.
    • Describe atomic structure and periodicity.
    • Describe bonding and the Valence Bond Theory.
    • Know properties and solutions.
    • Describe chemical equilibrium.
    • Know spontaneity, entropy, and free energy.
    • Know the nucleus, a chemist’s view.
    • Know transition metals and coordination chemistry.
    • Know organic chemistry, and
    • Demonstrate mastery of lesson content at levels of 70% or higher.

    Student Testimonials

    • “I am satisfied with the course I want to continue on.” — Viera V.
    • “She was prompt with all grading and any questions I had. It was a 101 course and offered a well rounded experience. It gave me more background on how I was using chem. in my wastewater, water operations.” — Tim M.
    • “The instructor was very helpful and available. She is very knowledgeable. This was an EXCELLENT course.” — Donna N.

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    IBM Develops A Broad-Spectrum Virus Cure That Outsmarts Viral Mutation #art,ebola,ibm,institute #of #bioengineering #and

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    IBM Is Developing a Super Molecule to Destroy All Viruses

    Photomicrographs of the drug AZT, which is thought to help prevent the replication of HIV. If IBM’s new method proves effective, it will do so much more than just prevent viral replication; it could clear it from the body. (Image: Larry Ostby / National C

    If you lined up everything alive on the planet today and counted them one-by-one, you d find that viruses are the most common creatures by far. Pervasive, pathogenic varieties are notoriously hard to treat, as the recent Ebola outbreak and the Zika pandemic attest. Why is that? Well first off, they are incredibly small, a hundred times smaller than your average human cell. Though they cannot take the immune system head on, they can infiltrate your body, hijack cells and use them to replicate .

    Once inside, a virus splices its own DNA into that of the host cell. It takes over and uses the cell s own machinery to replicate itself. Those viruses move on to other hosts, and in this way a virus infects the body. Today, we have antiretroviral drug therapy (ART) such as is given to HIV patients, which inhibits viral replication. A person can live normally, without the virus taking over. But ART doesn t clear it from the body. To do that, medications would have to target host cells while leaving healthy ones alone, a feat medical science has yet to accomplish.

    Another issue is that viruses mutate. meaning what may work with one variety may not with another. To understand viruses better, researchers at IBM s Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN) in Singapore, sought to find what all viruses have in common. Now, they believe they ve fashioned a molecule that could not only treat any virus successfully, but also create a viable vaccine.

    Instead of targeting them on the genetic level, which differs from one strain to the next, investigators looked at certain proteins common to any virus, known as glycoproteins. These are located on the outside of the body and allow a virus access into cells in order to hijack them. Understanding this, researchers moved to formulate a macromolecule, which is basically a large molecule made up of many smaller ones.

    Macromolecules. Image by Cjp24 (Own work) CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

    Using an electrostatic charge. the macromolecule is able to draw a virus in and bond to it, making it unable to enter a host cell. After that, it alters the pathogen s pH level. turning it acidic, and so far less likely to replicate. What s more, the macromolecule also has a way of protecting the immune system. It disperses a sugar called mannose which bonds to immune cells, inhibiting the virus s ability to enter them.

    So far Ebola and dengue have been tested, and the results, published in the journal Macromolecules. are encouraging. What s more, a computer model finds the technique effective against Ebola, the flu, chikungunya, dengue fever, and herpes simplex 1, among other viruses.

    This research has reached a mere proof-of-concept level. Far more studies will be required to confirm its efficacy and safety in humans. If successful, it might become a medication, a disinfectant wipe, or spray cleaner, even a hand sanitizer that can ward off viral infection. Adding it to a room containing Ebola could quickly clear it of the deadly virus. Even though there is a long road ahead, scientists are encouraged by these findings. So much so that the Watson supercomputer will be employed to help develop this exciting breakthrough.

    To learn about another possible method, click here:


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