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Democracy in America November 11th, 2:00
Prospero November 10th, 16:57
Erasmus November 10th, 15:55
Graphic detail November 10th, 15:20
The Economist explains November 10th, 5:30
Democracy in America November 9th, 19:33
The Stock Market in Grand Theft Auto V operates with the same goal as real life stock trading: Buy low and sell high in order to turn a profit. The value of stocks are affected by various things including story progress, in-game purchases and with some stocks, other players.
EditGTA Stock Market: Prime Directive
The single most important rule of the GTA 5 Stock Market is this: wait as long as possible to perform Franklin’s Assassination Missions, and invest as heavily as possible with all three characters when you do so.
No tricks, no fuss. Just wait. These Missions are sure-fire, vast Stock Market shifts hard-coded into the Story Mode. The more money you have to invest, the more money you can make on these dramatic and guaranteed market swings. You can easily double your investment more than once over this way.
Do note that the first Assassination Mission is mandatory in order to progress in the story. Invest all you have from all three characters and then save the rest of the missions for after you finish the story.
EditLCN Stock Market
The prices of LCN stocks are directly influenced by what the player does in single player Story Mode. During Franklin’s series of Assassination Missions, murdering the head of one company will enhance the stock value of a rival. For example, killing corrupt jury members for the Redwood trial increases the value of rival Debonaire’s stock.
EditHow Story Missions Affect Stocks
Throughout the game’s story, Lester will offer Franklin missions in which he’ll have to assassinate a target. These targets have a huge role to play in the company’s whose stocks are available to purchase, and their deaths will affect the value of their corresponding stock. Although Lester will often tell Franklin himself, this table clarifies which stock the player should invest in before or after killing their target.
These stocks will rise by a preset maximum percentage over the following 5-10 minutes, before swiftly dropping to less than half of that profit then slowly returning to normal. Keep a close eye close/reopen the trading pages to stay on top of the price, as if you miss it then try to reload the maximum percentage will be greatly reduced – you’ll be able to tell this has happened because it will remain at this capped value for far longer than expected, and it will be an even percentage (for example 25% after The Vice Assassination versus up to 50% pre-reload).
for a detailed guide on this see the Assassination_Investor page
EditStock Market Trends
Once all assassination missions are exhausted, making money on the stock market is still possible. This can be achieved by predicting trends. Graphs for individual stocks are provided during the purchase process. Before you purchase a stock, study the graph for any distinguishing repetition in patterns, as these can be quite easy to spot, especially for stocks that have a consistent up and down trough-patterned graph like pictured below.
Stocks like this are usually fairly easy to predict. Buy these types of stocks when near the bottom of the trough and try to sell them as close to the top of the trough as possible by visualizing the pattern of previous price movements on the graph. You can usually expect a return of 5-10% guaranteed by using this method. Be warned though, GTA stocks are short-term investments and are extremely volatile. For this reason you shouldn’t place all of your money in any one stock, because some will do better than others and some will inevtiably go into a sharp decline. Despite the risks, all stocks will eventually at least resurface so you can break even and dump the stock if you are unhappy with its general preformance. Certain singleplayer stocks seem to perform better than others from console to console, try and find out what those good performers might be. Additionally, check out the market movers on the front page of your exchange to see general positive trends, but be warned purchasing any stocks that are well into their climb as they will shortly fall sharply.
If the graph for your stock appears linear between increases, plateaus, and declines (like the graph pictured below) there still will be a discernable pattern to watch for; however, predicting the trend will not be as easy. Using the numeric values when purchasing the stock for the low and high share price might be better for stocks that are volatile in a linear fashion. Buy stocks when the current price is near the recorded low and sell them when near the recorded high.
Preferred ROI And Time Required:
Once your Return On Investment (ROI) reaches a satisfactory level and appears as if it will not expand much longer, it is advised to avoid losing the gain already made and free up much needed capital that can be utilized for additional trades by selling the stock. Much like in the card game of Black Jack where the target is a value of 21 for your cards, going over could “bust” a large hole in the already available ROI if your stock starts on a sharp decline. Time is money. Since the goal of most users appears to be making a series of short-term trades in rapid succession to make the most money possible, after an acceptable ROI is achieved the stock should be sold so investment capital is freed for further short-term investments that (hopefully) should yield an even better ROI with the additional investment capital from the profits of the past trade. An acceptable ROI for LCN stocks should be around 10% and for BAWSAQ stocks 25-40%, depending on individual user preference and personal time constraints on game play time. Acceptable ROI can be achieved via BAWSAQ usually in 3-6 hours depending on user activity levels. For BAWSAQ the weekends are prime times for making large ROIs. Acceptable ROI for LCN can be achieved after sleeping for 5-10 minutes in 5 sleep cycle increments in quick succession, assuming the particular stock invested in will go up and is not actually in a downward price trend. These paramaters should be evaluated by the individual user and adjusted to their personal needs. One example that falls within these paramaters is a trade that was made within four hours of initial purchase netting an ROI of over 33% and a profit of over $6,000,000.
Personal Observations Opinion On Trends (BAWSAQ):
It should be noted the BAWSAQ exchange marginally makes returns of 30% or higher on investment within 3-6 hours (not in-game hours) of first purchasing a stock on a significant upward trend. These returns tend to be two to ten times higher than those which are achievable on the LCN exchange in the same amount of time. In theory this is because online market participation is on the rise and has yet to reach its peak. If the laws of economics are considered in the algorithm that determines stock price, then stocks in upward trends ought to rise more rapidly and those in downward trends ought to fall more rapidly, in theory. This provides a unique opportunity to make millions in profit off trades before the market levels off and volatility becomes less of a factor. For every action there is definitely an equal and opposite reaction, however. The risk involved for online investments becomes equally as consequential as the potential gains. For users who understand entry level to intermmediate economics and closely follow their trades, I would recommend taking advantage of the current market volatility. It is my prediction this volatility will inevitably level off in one to three months as user activity declines (GTA V players start stacking their games on the book shelf as a relic of their achievements). Users who are really confused by the mechanics of the GTA V stock market and are just learning how to make trades should use the LCN exchange to avoid the volatility and risk that could cripple their investment capital unless they are not concerned with taking losses on their portfolio.
EditBAWSAQ Stock Market
The prices of BAWSAQ stocks are affected by the Grand Theft Auto V online community. For example, Ammu-Nation originally was a wise investment, likely due to the sheer number of people buying weapons and ammo in game, however it’s price has been in free fall since Friday 27th, likely due to a tail off in ammo and gun purchases and thereby causing many to offload stocks exacerbating the issue. HAL and PIS have been on the rise since about the same time, but have begun to slow a little (as of Monday 30th). These two stocks are likely on the rise because their value was so low during the previous week, which prompted many to invest heavily at low prices for maximum possible returns.
You may be able to get a small jump on the market by watching RockStar Games Social Club Site, the BAWSAQ market is available there and seems to be slightly ahead of the in-game market.
Social Club member conduct in single-player modes appears to have discernible effect on overall market performance.
The Grand Theft Auto online markets for Xbox 360 and PS3 Communities operate separately and fluctuate independently.
Stock Market History Chart and a Detailed Look at the Markets
Stock market history is shown below of the 20th century. During that period of the stock market history, looking at the stock market history chart you will see that the stock market returned an average of 10.4% a year.
Even though America seems to be on the forefront for most new developments, this wasn’t the case for the Stock Market. The history of the Stock Market shows that other countries, as early as 1531, had already established a system for trading bonds and other commodities. Belgium actually had the World’s first system, with Amsterdam soon following. And, even though Wall Street seems to be the financial center for America today, that wasn’t always the case either. Actually, trading in America actually began in Boston where bonds, hides, molasses, and even contracts were bought, sold, and traded.
Finally as trading progressed throughout the World, America officially established their foothold in 1792 by organizing a formal stock and bond trading system, and Wall Street was established. (And, believe it or not, there was a wall there at one time, hence the name.) In 1791, before the formal organization, trading through individuals on Wall Street, at one time, on one day, hit 100 shares of stock that traded hands. Unbelievable.
In 1792, approximately 24 financial leaders set rules, regulations, and fees that would govern the trading that was to take place, making New York one of the first organized exchanges. Then, every day, in a building located at 22 Wall Street, auctions would take place starting at noon and the highest bidder would win.
Originally developed under a different name, in 1817, the name changed to the New York Stock and Exchange Board. It was at its fifth address and yearly costs for operating totaled around $5000. In 1863, the name changed again, to the New York Stock Exchange and moved into its new location where it still does business today.
The Curbstone Brokers
The stock market history shows that the NYSE had competition in New York and other areas as well. One of its largest competitors was a group of individuals who would be called the Curbstone brokers. These brokers dealt with securities and were willing to handle small transactions that didn’t meet the requirements set by the NYSE (commonly referred to at the time as the big board ). The curbstone brokers waited to see what the price was set at for the day by the big board, and then conducted their auctions of the evening. The big board required a minimum of 100 shares to be sold at a time; the Curbstone brokers would sell as little as one share at a time.
Up to this point, all of their business was conducted outside no matter what the weather was. After conducting business this way for over 100 years, they decided to move their business inside. They purchased a lot on Wall Street and built a building and in 1928 named their selves the New York Curb Exchange. In 1953, they changed their name to the American Stock Exchange.
Evolution of Trading Technology
In the early days, the stock market history showed that to buy and sell stocks and bonds meant that someone had to physically have the bonds in their hands and using runners to deliver these from one location to another was the norm. On the other hand, trading the way it used to be done meant that unless you were one of the lucky ones to be in the group you weren’t able to trade or you had to have physical representation there to perform the trades for you.
As the stock exchange progressed so did the need for up-to-date information on the fluctuation in the price of the stock markets. To help reduce the risk, investors wanted information on the price changes and a way of being able to get out immediately in the event the stock market begins to crash, like in did in 1929.
Images floated around that showed the chaos on the trading floor with ticker tape lying everywhere and the mound would just keep building up; however, today, the trading floor has been pretty much eliminated through the incorporation of computerized technology.
We’re not just talking about computers and Internet service, we are also talking about highly detailed software programs that are considered to be intellectual technology and that are based upon mathematical pricing model strategies, plus.
A lot has gone on over the years throughout the development of technology into the Stock exchange, and today, one can make trades from the comfort of their own home using real-time data about the stocks, pricing, and more. Trades can literally be performed in an instant, no matter how many shares you wish to acquire or sell.
Why is the Stock Market Important?
The Stock Market provides a place to buy or sell shares in companies from within the United States and across the globe. It helps to generate capital for the companies that are traded so that they can expand their businesses accordingly to meet the high demand. It allows the United States and other countries to trade commodities across the borders.
When one purchases a share of stock, you hope that the value of the stock will rise and if it does, then you make a profit. Although some investors utilize day trading and short term terms, many invest for the long haul hoping to create a substantial amount of stake in a company or to receive a substantial amount of cash through the value of the stock that they own and then sell; helping to grow the value of their portfolio towards retirement.
Today, hundreds of shares trade hands by the minute and the value of the Stock Market is in the billions of dollars. In the early days, it was lucky to be worth a couple of thousand dollars.
Today, billions of shares trade hands everyday and the value of the Stock Market is in the trillions of dollars. In the early days, it was lucky to be worth a couple of thousand dollars.
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02 Sep Exchequer returns for August show a significant fall in revenues collected during the month.
02 Sep US employment growth slowed more than expected in August after two straight months of robust gains and wage gains moderated.
02 Sep Tech giant Samsung has said it is suspending sales of its latest flagship smartphone Galaxy Note 7, as reports of exploding batteries threaten to damage the reputation of the South Korean electronics giant.
02 Sep Telecoms firm Eir has recorded its first year of annual revenue growth since 2008.
02 Sep Minister for Finance Michael Noonan has claimed that the EU Commission’s ruling over Apple’s tax operations in Ireland was an “attack on our corporate tax regime”.
02 Sep Heavy machinery maker Caterpillar has said it could lay off about 2,000 employees at a plant in Belgium, as it considers shifting production to other facilities as part of a restructuring programme announced last year.
02 Sep Irish Residential Properties REIT, or I-RES, is seeking planning permission for 492 apartments as well as retail space in Sandyford in Dublin.
02 Sep Peer-to-peer lending platform Linked Finance says 21 SMEs raised €600,000 in funding during the first two weeks of its new fixed rate loan offering.
02 Sep Activity in the services sector rose by 0.5% between June and July, with wholesale and retail trade seeing a 6.1% surge during the month.
02 Sep Currency movements have hit Fyffes’ banana business, according to the company’s first half results.
02 Sep Crude prices have risen today after losses of more than 3% yesterday, with investors treading cautiously ahead of key US employment data.
02 Sep RTÉ’s Europe Editor Tony Connelly looks at the Apple ruling and the possible impact of a similar case involving Spanish bank Santander.
02 Sep The Irish Times reports telecom firms have hit out at Eir for raising wholesale broadband prices for the second time in 14 months.
02 Sep Telecoms firm Eir has recorded its first year of annual revenue growth since 2008.
01 Sep Up to 250 jobs could go at US multinational Caterpillar’s plants in Northern Ireland, a spokesman has said.
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Grafton Chief Executive Gavin Slark discusses the builders’ merchant and DIY retailer’s double-digit growth in percentage terms in revenue and profit in H1
Bord Gáís Energy Managing Director Dave Kirwan said the firm is reducing its residential electricity prices by 5% and its residential gas prices by 2%
Just Eat Managing Director for Ireland Amanda Roche Kelly discusses the brand’s presence at the upcoming Electric Picnic festival
#financial markets today
What You Need to Know About Stock Markets Today
By Anne Kates Smith | October 2010
Thanks to electronic trading, the stock market is wilder than ever.
Editor’s Note: We are re-featuring this guide to understanding the markets in light of the announcement on February 15 that the parent company of the New York Stock Exchange has agreed to merge with Deutsche Boerse. The merger would create the world’s largest operator of financial markets. Deutsche Boerse shareholders would own 60% of the merged company; NYSE Euronext shareholders, 40%. The text below has been updated since publication in the October 2010 issue of Kiplinger’s Personal Finance and the data is as of February 16, 2011.
1. There’s no “there” there. You may picture a bustling exchange, where commerce begins and ends with the clang of a bell. But the “stock market” is an increasingly fragmented collection of more than 50 trading platforms, almost all electronic, with various protocols, rules and oversight.
2. The Big Board has shrunk. Images of the New York Stock Exchange still dominate business-news broadcasts. But, in fact, just 34% of the trading volume in stocks listed on the NYSE actually occurs on the exchange, down from 79% in 2005. Nasdaq, the first electronic exchange, accounts for about one-fifth of all U.S. stock trading. Newer exchanges, such as Direct Edge, in Jersey City, N.J. and BATS Exchange, in Kansas City, Mo. each account for about 10% of trading volume. About 30% of U.S. trading volume takes place off exchanges.
3. ECNs are the new matchmakers. Electronic communication networks match up buy and sell orders at specified prices for institutional investors and brokers. This is where “after-hours” trading occurs. In addition, hundreds of broker-dealers execute trades internally, filling orders out of their own inventory.
4. Some trades are shrouded in mystery. You’ve heard of dark stars. Now there are dark pools — private networks, sponsored by securities firms, where professionals trade without displaying price quotes to the public beforehand. Such dark pools account for more than 10% of stock-trading volume. The Securities and Exchange Commission wants to make dark pools more transparent to avoid a two-tier market that denies the public important pricing information.
5. You’re sure to get the best price — most days. According to an SEC rule, your trade is supposed to be routed to the platform with the best price at that moment. But when some venues aren’t functioning as normal, exchanges may override the rule. The rule didn’t apply during the “flash crash” of May 2010, when an intentional slowdown on the NYSE caused orders to be routed elsewhere, at lower prices.
6. There are fewer traffic cops. In the old days, specialists and market makers kept markets liquid by stepping up to buy — or sell — when a stampede of investors headed the other way. Now, not all exchanges require market makers. High-frequency traders, who program computers to profit from minute price discrepancies and can execute trades in milliseconds, were supposed to fill the void. But they don’t have to, despite the fact that they often account for 50% or more of total trading volume.
7. Stoplights are coming. A pilot plan, recently extended until April, calls for stock-by-stock circuit breakers that would be applicable across all trading platforms. The plan currently applies to stocks in Standard & Poor’s 500-stock index, the Russell 1000 index and certain exchange-traded funds, and calls for a trading pause if the share price changes by 10% within a five-minute period. Since December, market makers in exchange-listed securities have been required to maintain continuous buy and sell quotes within a certain range of a security’s most recent share price, putting an end to occasionally ridiculous quotes, far removed from prevailing prices, that were never meant to be executed.
#small business finance
Small Business Finance Markets Report 2015/16
The Small Business Finance Markets Report 2015/16 shows that the market for small business finance is improving, however a number of challenges remain:
- A lack of businesses scaling-up is hampering UK productivity – there remains a need to stimulate a greater volume of scale-up businesses and SME exporters to counteract the UK’s lagging productivity. OECD data shows that Britain is near the bottom of the table for the percentage of businesses that grow to more than 10 employees after three years.
- A need to delivery further diversity in the small business finance market – there is an ongoing need to accelerate the evolution of a diverse and accessible range of finance options to drive competition and choice for smaller businesses. The four largest banks still account for 80% of the small business loan market in 2014, with many small businesses not looking at alternative finance options beyond their main bank.
- Supporting growing SMEs across all UK regions – the finance landscape remains uneven across the UK. To help rebalance growth, an increased availability of finance for smaller businesses across the UK is required. 71% of total SME equity investment is accounted for by London and South East based companies.
2015 Business Finance Survey: SMEs
This survey, undertaken by BMG Research for the British Business Bank, follows on from the previous 2012 and 2014 “SME Journey” surveys to explore SME awareness of different types of external finance and their experience of raising finance. We have extensively used the findings from this survey within our new Small Business Finance Markets 2015/16 report to assess how finance markets have changed.
Amongst the findings, this survey shows a continued increase in business awareness of alternative finance types, including peer-to-peer lending and crowdfunding. The research also shows that a higher proportion of SMEs are aiming to grow in the next 12 months (56%), compared to 46% in the previous 2014 survey.
2015 Business Finance Survey: Mid-caps
This survey, undertaken by BMG Research for the British Business Bank, assesses the characteristics of mid-caps (businesses with £25m-£500m annual turnover) and their experience of raising external finance. The survey finds that mid-cap businesses are more likely to use and seek external finance compared to SMEs, and are also more likely to obtain finance. In addition, a high proportion of mid-cap businesses (79%) are aiming to grow in the next 12 months.
Methodology Consultation: Assessing the Unmet Demand for SME debt finance
The British Business Bank would like to consult with interested stakeholders on appropriate methodologies for assessing the unmet demand for SME debt finance. The consultation seeks views on our proposed methodology and suggestions for alternative methodologies or additional data sources.
#bond market news
What Are the Best International Bond Markets?
What Are the Best International Bond Markets?
With low interest rates in the U.S. and outright negative rates in some overseas markets, the bond market probably isn’t the first thing to come to mind when investors are looking for yield.
But experts are pointing to some niches of the international bond arena that are yielding well above what can be had domestically, albeit with more risk.
Both high-quality and lower-quality bonds have been performing well in terms of price. High-quality developed market bonds have rallied with demand from risk-averse investors, such as those worried about Britain voting to leave the European Union .
But of course as bond prices rise, their yields decline. So, needing to make money, investors have also been turning to lower-quality emerging market bonds. That also drives their price up, but these bonds simply yield more because they are riskier.
It can be tempting to stay within the U.S. in terms of bonds, says Richard Lawrence, senior vice president of portfolio management at Brandywine Global Investment Management, which is a subadvisor for the Legg Mason BW Global Opportunities Bond Fund (ticker: GOBIX ). But that would be eschewing higher yields in emerging markets and some developed world bonds.
“You have to look beyond the headlines,” he says.
Emerging markets can be a good place to look for yield, but that’s because they are associated with certain risks, says Eric Stein, co-director of global income at Eaton Vance Management, which has the Global Macro Absolute Return Fund (EIGMX ), the Emerging Markets Local Income Fund (EEIAX ) and the Emerging Markets Debt Opportunities Fund (EIDOX ). The three main risks for foreign bonds are currency, interest rates and default, he says.
International bonds also move in step with the Federal Reserve and U.S. Treasurys. If the Fed raises rates, that would cause bond yields elsewhere to rise, meaning their value would fall in the short term. This would only create a headwind for international bonds if the Fed raises rates more than expected and Treasurys sell off, Stein says.
If U.S. rates rise more quickly than expected, this could strengthen the U.S. dollar and cause some emerging market currencies to weaken.
Demand from China is also a risk as many emerging market countries are commodities producers and China is a large consumer, he says. A sell off in the Chinese currency can also send shockwaves through global risk markets, he says.
Oil prices are also a risk, since many emerging market countries are oil exporters, he says.
With the top five global bond issuers – the U.S. France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Japan – all yielding low or negative rates, emerging market countries are “last bastions of yield,” says Meb Faber, a co-founder and chief investment officer of Cambria Investment Management.
Rising interest rates in the U.S. would lead to higher rates elsewhere. So in the short term, that would cause international bond prices to decline and their yield to go up, Faber says.
Whether international bonds will face a strong headwind as the Fed raises rates depends on how the market reacts to the pace of the hikes, Lawrence says.
A strong dollar acts as a headwind for investors in international bonds unless they hedge that currency exposure, he says, but this year, declines in the U.S. dollar have made it more sensible to buy securities denominated in other currencies.
Stein thinks the Fed will raise rates a little more than expected over the next two years, providing a slight headwind to some emerging market currencies.
For those looking for yield, Lawrence points to Brazil, where the 10-year bond is yielding around 12 percent. He also likes Mexico because of its correlation with the slowly improving U.S. economy and its Treasury market but much higher yield. South Africa is also attractive, with its 10-year bonds yielding about 9 percent and a slowly improving fiscal picture.
Both Lawrence and Stein point to Indonesia because of its reform agenda.
They also cite New Zealand as a niche of the developed world economies where investors can get higher yields without taking a lot of credit risk. However, Stein is bearish on the New Zealand dollar.