Tag: Industry

The Industrial Revolution, cottage industry ideas.#Cottage #industry #ideas


Causes of the Industrial Revolution

All across England, the recent turn of the century has gone largely unnoticed. The vast majority of the country’s population lives in the countryside, completely isolated or in small communities like Bedlington. The principal trades are growing grain or raising sheep for wool, both of which require a lot of manual labour. Farming tools are common, but machines are not; animals are raised, but not used extensively for cultivating the land. Life in the countryside depends on nature in many ways: good weather in the summer means a good crop, just as a long winter can mean hunger and discomfort. People rise with the sun and go to bed when it gets dark.

The Cottage Industry

At the dawn of the eighteenth century, farming was the primary livelihood in England, with at least 75% of the population making its living off the land. (Kreis) This meant that many English families had very little to do during the winter months except sit around and make careful use of the food and other supplies that they stored up during the rest of the year. If the harvest had been smaller than usual or if any other unexpected losses had come about, the winter could be a very long, cold, and hungry one. The cottage industry was developed to take advantage of the farmers’ free time and use it to produce quality textiles for a reasonable price.

To begin the process, a cloth merchant from the city needed enough money to travel into the countryside and purchase a load of wool from a sheep farm. He would then distribute the raw materials among several farming households to be made into cloth (Cottage Industry). The preparation of the wool was a task in which the whole family took part. Women and girls first washed the wool to remove the dirt and natural oils and then dyed it as desired. They also carded the wool, which meant combing it between two pads of nails until the fibres were all pointed in the same direction. Next, the wool was spun into thread using a spinning wheel and wound onto a bobbin (this was often the job of an unmarried daughter; hence, the word “spinster” is still used today to describe an unmarried woman). The actual weaving of the thread into cloth was done using a loom operated by hand and foot; it was physically demanding work, and was therefore the man’s job (The Textile Industry). The task of transforming raw wool into cloth could be done entirely by one household, or split between two or more (ie. spinning in one home, weaving in another). The merchant would return at regular intervals over the season to pick up the finished cloth, which he then brought back to the city to sell or export, and to drop of a new load of wool to be processed.

The cottage industry proved to be profitable for the urban merchants, since they could sell the finished cloth for far more than they paid the famers to make it. The cottage industry helped to prepare the country for the Industrial Revolution by boosting the English economy through the increase of trade that occured as the country became well-known overseas for its high-quality and low-cost exports. Previously, tradesmen had done all the manufacturing themselves, so the idea of subcontracting was new and appealing. The cottage industry was also a good source of auxiliary funds for the rural people. However, many farming families came to depend on the enterprise; thus, when industrialization and the Agricultural Revolution reduced the need for farm workers, many were forced to leave their homes and move to the city.

Enclosure

Although serfdom in England had disappeared by the end of the seventeenth century, most farms were established on “common land” which local farmers typically leased from a wealthy proprietor who owned large areas of land in a district. There were, however, rules which prevented a landlord from expelling a tenant without a reasonable cause, and so farms could be passed down through a peasant family for generations. Traditionally, the land was divided into long narrow strips which grew smaller as the land was split into more parts for each succeeding generation. When new methods of agriculture began to be developed, it became clear that they would be more efficient with larger plots of land. Enclosure is defined as “the process of inclosing (with fences, ditches, hedges, or other barriers) land formerly subject to common rights” (Inclosure). This meant that the land that peasants had been cultivating on their own was returned to the control of the landowners and redistributed. Scavenging on someone else’s land became illegal, and small farmers (who had no political influence and were generally given the poorer plots) often lost access to wood and water (Enclosure Acts). Although the process was not standardized until the General Enclosure Act of 1801 (Inclosure), many private acts had been passed since the 1750’s and enclosure had been common for well over a century before. The urbanization of the English population was largely fueled by dispossessed peasants who moved to the city in the hopes of finding new work (Kreis).

Why was Britain First?

Why was Britain the first country to industrialize? This change, which occurred between 1750 and 1830, happened because conditions were perfect in Britain for the Industrial Revolution. Having used wood for heat instead of coal, Britain was left with large deposits of coal remaining to fuel the new ideas. Any raw supplies Britain itself did not have could be provided by its many colonies. These colonies also provided captive markets for the abundance of new goods provided by the industrial revolution (Gernhard). The product was cotton. Cotton was a simple, cheap, and easily made product that everyone could use. So, between 1796 and 1830 cotton production tripled (Haberman 48). The new production was easily transported, because there remained an old commercial fleet (Gernhard).

The Product and Market were the simple requirements, and many countries had them. What set Britain apart from the others, however, were three unique social elements: education, “modern” work attitudes, and a “modern” government. Great Britain had a larger educated workforce to run the machines and create manuals. The Enlightenment not only meant a larger educated population but also more modern views on work. The population in Great Britain was ready to move out of the country and to the city to work. Britain also had the large middle class and flexible mercantile class necessary. English society, unlike many others, was not opposed to “new money,” and as such was eager to accept the new wealthy and their new ideas (Industrial Revolution: The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain). Lastly, Britain’s government, a long-time constitutional monarchy, was just right for the situation. The government was flexible enough to support the new system and to a certain degree accepted Adam Smith’s capitalistic “invisible hand.” The Dutch were the forerunners financially, but with the establishment of the Bank of England in 1694, their supremacy was challenged (Industrial Revolution: The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain). The government and the bank provided incredible backing to new ideas, which soon turned into new wealth (Haberman 49).

Many of these elements were achieved because of the insularity of England. This meant that the industrial development was rarely interrupted by war (Gernhard). This combination of necessary elements led to the early mechanization of Britain. Between 1838 and 1850 Britain’s rail lines went from 540 to 6621 track kilometers; rail lines were considered the best way to monitor a country’s industrialization (Haberman 49). The elements needed or preferred for the Industrial Revolution can be summarized as follows:

  • modern work attitudes
  • education
  • a product
  • transportation for the product
  • large market
  • “modern” government
  • money

Financial Situations

What were the financial situations necessary to support the Industrial Revolution?

A new banking system

In Britain, expansion had led to new “private banking,” a new money economy, and trading organizations such as the Hanseatic League. Modern credit facilities also appeared, such as the state bank, the bourse, the promissory note, and other new media of exchange. This created economic stimulus which in turn gave the people more money to spend (Commercial Revolution).

A stable environment

The steady economic systems present under the new national monarchies created a reliable atmosphere for the new Revolution. The most notable of these governments were in Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, and England (Commercial Revolution).

A large amount of capital for investment

From the New World had come gold and silver, which in less than a century more than doubled European prices and stimulated economic activity, which in turn gave the wealthy more money to spend on new ideas (Commercial Revolution).


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Cottage, Define Cottage at, cottage industry ideas.#Cottage #industry #ideas


cottage

Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2017.

When Little Snow White awoke, they asked her who she was and how she had managed to come to their cottage.

Nevertheless, a cottage industry has grown up around the case.

If ESPN is a sleek bachelor pad, ESPNW is the cottage next door filled with Activia and ultra-soft toilet paper.

And then there are the five-times-a-week regulars for whom The cottage is a culinary touchstone.

Because of a last minute cancelation we got the cottage at a special rate.

From sea to sea there was stringing of bows in the cottage and clang of steel in the castle.

This cottage is smaller than its neighbor, and its wooden door is quite black from age.

Just as she opened the door of Andrew’s cottage, Wiseli came out of the sitting-room.

Dixon had a cottage there, which he occupied with his wife, and Allis was to stop with them.

They were a very depressed lot at Dixon’s cottage that evening.

cottage

© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins

Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

late 13c., from Old French cote “hut, cottage” + Anglo-French suffix -age (probably denoting “the entire property attached to a cote”). Old French cot is probably from Old Norse kot “hut,” cognate of Old English cot, cote “cottage, hut,” from Proto-Germanic *kutan (cf. Middle Dutch cot , Dutch kot ).

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    Business – Industry Loan Guarantees #music #business #degree


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    Business Industry Loan Guarantees

    Program Status: Open

    What does this program do?
    This program bolsters the existing private credit structure through the guaranteeing of loans for rural businesses, allowing private lenders to extend more credit than they would typically be able to.

    Who may apply for this program?
    Lenders with legal authority, sufficient experience, and financial strength to operate a successful lending program like:

    • Federal or State chartered banks
    • Savings and loans
    • Farm credit banks
    • Credit unions

    What kind of borrower may the lender request a guarantee for?

    Are there restrictions on the borrower?

    • Government or military employees may not own more than 20%
    • Majority ownership must be held by US citizens or permanent residents (1)

    What is an eligible area?

    • Any area other than a city or town with a population of greater than 50,000 inhabitants and the urbanized area of that city or town.
    • The borrower’s headquarters may be based within a larger city as long as the project is located in an eligible rural area
    • The lender may be located anywhere
    • Projects may be funded in rural and urban areas under the Local and Regional Food System Initiative

    How may funds be used?
    Eligible uses include but are not limited to:

    • Business conversion, enlargement, repair, modernization, or development
    • Purchase and development of land, easements, rights-of-way, buildings, or facilities
    • Purchase of equipment, leasehold improvements, machinery, supplies, or inventory
    • Debt refinancing when new jobs will be created and other conditions are met
    • Business and industrial acquisitions when the loan will keep the business from closing and/or save or create jobs

    Guaranteed loan funds MAY NOT be used for:

    • Lines of credit
    • Owner-occupied housing
    • Golf courses
    • Racetracks or gambling facilities
    • Churches, church-controlled organizations, or charitable organizations
    • Fraternal organizations
    • Lending, investment and insurance companies
    • Projects involving more than $1 million and the relocation of 50 or more jobs
    • Agricultural production, with certain exceptions (2)
    • Distribution or payment to an individual owner, partner, stockholder, or beneficiary of the borrower or a close relative of such an individual when such individual will retain any portion of the ownership of the borrower

    What Collateral Is Required?
    Collateral must have documented value sufficient to protect the interest of the lender and the Agency. The discounted collateral value will normally be at least equal to the loan amount. Lenders will discount collateral consistent with sound loan-to-value policy. Hazard insurance is required on collateral (equal to the loan amount or depreciated replacement value, whichever is less).

    Maximum Advance Rates
    Real Estate: 80% of fair market value
    Equipment: 70% of fair market value
    Inventory: 60% of book value (raw inventory and finished goods only)
    Accounts Receivable: 60% of book value (less than 90 days)

    What is the maximum amount of a loan guarantee?

    • 80% for loans of $5 million or less
    • 70% for loans between $5 and $10 million
    • 60% for loans exceeding $10 million, up to $25 million maximum

    What are the loan terms?

    • Maximum term on real estate is 30 years
    • Maximum term on machinery and equipment is useful life or 15 years, whichever is less
    • Maximum term on working capital not to exceed 7 years
    • Loans must be fully amortized; balloon payments are not permitted
    • Reduced payments may be scheduled in the first three years

    What are the interest rates?

    • Interest rates are negotiated between the lender and borrower, subject to Agency review
    • Rates may be fixed or variable
    • Variable interest rates may not be adjusted more often than quarterly

    What are the applicable fees?

    • There is an initial guarantee fee equal to 3% of the guaranteed amount
    • There is an annual renewal fee, currently 0.5% of outstanding principal (3)
    • Reasonable and customary fees are negotiated between the borrower and lender

    What are the underwriting and security requirements?

    • The proposed operation must have realistic repayment ability
    • New enterprises may be asked to obtain a feasibility study by a recognized independent consultant
    • The business and its owners must have a good credit history
    • At loan closing/project completion, the business must have tangible balance sheet equity position of:
      • 10 percent or more for existing businesses, or
      • 20 percent or more for new businesses.
    • Key person life insurance may be required and the amount negotiated. A decreasing term life insurance is acceptable
    • Personal and corporate guarantees are normally required from all proprietors, partners (except limited partners), and major shareholders (i.e. all those with a 20 percent or greater interest)

    How do we get started?

    • Applications are accepted from lenders through our local offices year round
    • Interested borrowers should inquire about the program with their lender
    • Lenders interested in participating in this program should contact the USDA Rural Development Business Programs Director in the state where the project is located

    Who can answer questions?
    Contact the local office that serves your area.

    What governs this program?

    • Loan Processing – Code of Federal Regulation, 7 CFR 4279-A and B
    • Loan Servicing – Code of Federal Regulation, 7 CFR 4287-B
    • This program is authorized by the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (ConAct)

    Why does USDA Rural Development do this?
    This program improves the economic health of rural communities by increasing access to business capital through loan guarantees that enable commercial lenders to provide more affordable financing for businesses in eligible rural areas.

    NOTE: Because citations and other information may be subject to change please always consult the program instructions listed in the section above titled “What Law Governs this Program?” You may also contact your local office for assistance.

    (1) Individual borrowers must be citizens of the United States (U.S.) or reside in the U.S. after being legally admitted for permanent residence. Corporations or other non-public body organization-type borrowers must be at least 51 percent owned by persons who are either citizens of the U.S. or reside in the U.S. after being legally admitted for permanent residence.

    (2) Production agriculture is eligible only if the project is vertically integrated, ineligible for USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) farm loan guarantees, and agricultural production as part of the loan is both secondary (less than 50 percent of the business) and less than $1 million. Nursery, forestry and aquaculture operations are eligible without these restrictions.

    (3) The annual renewal fee is currently one-half of one percent (.5%) of the outstanding principal loan balance as of December 31st. The renewal fee rate is set annually by Rural Development in a notice published in the Federal Register. The rate in effect at the time the loan is made will remain in effect for the life of the loan. Annual renewal fees are due on January 31. Payments not received by April 1 are considered delinquent and, at the Agency discretion, may result in cancellation of the guarantee to the lender. Holders’ rights will continue in effect as specified in the loan note guarantee and assignment guarantee agreement. Any delinquent annual renewal fees will bear interest at the note rate and will be deducted from any loss payment due the lender. For loans where the loan note guarantee is issued between October 1 and December 31, the first annual renewal fee payment will be due January 31 of the second year following the date the loan note guarantee was issued.


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    Small Green Business Ideas to Jumpstart Your Cottage Industry #introduction #to #business


    #cottage industry ideas

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    Small Green Business Ideas to Jumpstart Your Cottage Industry

    Going home-based can have a lot of benefits, not the least of which is the chance to turn it into a small green business. When someone says green, there are often a lot of misconceptions. The perception is that it would be expensive or large-scale, something better suited for a large corporation. However, the reality is that there are a number of small green business ideas that don t require multi-million dollar starting capital or big business performance capability.

    The big players when it comes to making soaps are large manufacturers that have the resources to spend heavily on manufacturing and advertising. However, that doesn t mean that a home-based small green business dedicated to it can t find a niche to succeed in. Eco-friendly soap-making is relatively simple to do from the average home and has the potential to generate a decent income.

    Crucial to succeeding at this are the following:

    * A niche product that matches a niche clientele

    * Creative approaches, such as shaping soap like animal characters or using bright colors

    * Starting locally before slowly expanding both production and operations over time

    This doesn t come up often when talk of small green business ideas happens, but it should. Business will pay money for the advice of an expert, even if they don t want to have the expert under their formal employ. Consultancy is basically the art of selling experience and know-how to companies that need it. People who know a trade or field better than anyone else can make a good income from being a consultant while also having very little actual environmental impact.

    Old Tire Recycling

    This small green business idea requires a bit of creativity. The number of tires that cars around the world go through every year is staggering. Some of them can end up being recycled, but a lot of them are just going to end up somewhere unused and ignored. A business focused on making all sorts of creations out of old tires needs creativity, but it can appeal to people and grab a market for itself. Here are a few examples on the creative uses for old tires.

    Custom Lamps and Lampshades

    This is another potential small green business idea that requires creativity. The basic idea is to turn random trinkets and items into a lamp or other light fixture. A creative eye and a touch for designing things are part and parcel of this type of business. For the most part, all that s needed in terms of materials are a little capital and simple tools.

    For this small green business idea, all that s needed are creativity, a sewing machine and some old clothes to work with. Torn jeans, old rags, shirt that don t fit anymore all of that can be recycled and turned into something new with a little elbow grease and a lot of creativity.

    Small green business ideas aren t something that everyone comes up with, but that doesn t mean there s a shortage of them. Green business ideas also aren t as expensive as most people think. In many ways, they can be very cost-effective and have as much potential to be profitable as anything else.

    Lorna Li is a business coach, entrepreneur and Amazon rainforest crusader, with a passion for green business, social enterprise, and indigenous wisdom. She helps changemaking entrepreneurs harness the power of the Internet to reach more people and make a bigger impact, while designing the lifestyle of their dreams. She is an Internet marketing consultant to changemakers. and works with innovative tech startups, sustainable brands, social enterprises B-Corporations on SEO, SEM Social Media marketing.

    Latest posts by Lorna Li (see all )

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    Top 10 Low Overhead Cottage Industry Small Business ideas #stock #market #update


    #cottage industry ideas

    #

    Are you planning to go home based while earning a significant sustainable income? If yes, then below are the top ten low overhead cottage industry ideas you can start today .

    Starting a small business from home is cool. At least, it gives you the freedom to work anytime you want—from anywhere and at any point in time. I am going to be really conversational in this post, so I want you to play along with me.

    A cottage industry can include anyone who’s working from home selling or offering product or services. In this present age, you can make a full living operating your own cottage business right from home Without mincing words, bellow are eleven super cool, money making cottage industry business ideas:

    Top 10 Low Overhead Cottage Industry Business ideas

    What You Need to Consider Before Starting a Cottage Business

    Though, starting a home cottage business sounds like a good idea. Of course, it’s profitable and flexible but there are many things you have to put into consideration before starting. I suggest you take your time to test the waters before going fully into the business…

    Are you good at writing or designing? Or, do you love soap making, editing or completing surveys. There are lots of cottage businesses you can start but you need to first review your talents, and identify what you like doing!

    Exclusive Cottage Business Ideas…

    Content mills like iwriter, Elance and Guru.com are looking for professional writers to help with content writing. 3years ago, while building my online business, I worked as a freelance writer on iwriter.com and generated a monthly profit of $300 — $500. For content writing, you should have a portfolio and samples to prove to clients that you are worth hiring!

    Seriously, there’s so much money to be made online. This young boy: Bamidele Onibalusi generates a monthly profit of $5,000 working from home, spending just 5 hours daily, writing articles… With content writing, your possibilities are limitless. You too can quit your day job and start earning $8,000 writing just like Tom Ewer .

    Tip: Remember, no one is born a great writer. Practice makes perfect. Join writing portals like Constant Content, Ehow, Squidoo, Blogging.org and Yahoo’s associated content to start earning today!

    Are you good at teaching Mathematics or playing musical instruments or you have a talent in teaching different foreign languages. If you answered YES to the above question, then you can actually make money by starting a tutoring business

    People are willing to pay to learn how to speak Chinese, type, dance, sow, cook, write or prepare foreign foods. If you are good in any of these topics, you could start up a blog or market yourself in your local newspaper.

    People who are willing to learn these things will gladly pay you as long as they get the value for what they paid for. To get started, you can offer to teach for free to build reputation. Don’t start out big. Offer tremendous value and don’t expect to charge much. You could offer to teach someone to speak Chinese Language for a measly fee of $50.

    Otunba Akin Alabi, the CEO of Nairabet visited China recently for business and was handed a flier by a Chinese dude. He wanted to trash the flier immediately but he tried to be polite. When he was about going into the elevator, he looked at the flier and was amazed at what he saw:

    “Learn To Speak Chinese Fluently in Just 2 Weeks!’’

    Now I love that. That young Chinese dude must be a smart cottage businessperson. He was offering a service that teaches foreigners how to speak Chinese! He knew they were foreigners who’re dying to learn Chinese, and would pay anything to learn it.

    3. Start Making soaps

    Are you good at making soaps? Or do you have flair for soap making. You can make a living by making soaps. All you need to do is to promote your soap business and collaborate with gift baskets companies to provide them with scented, soaps.

    Other Cottage Industry ideas to Consider

    You don’t need to be an experienced English speaker to start a proofreading business. Publishers are in need of talented proofreaders. You can actually make a living off editing if you understand the basic rules of spelling Grammar and punctuation. You can join Elance.com and Freelancer.com to get started. Or, set up a website and rank organically in the search engines.

    As a final note, I am quite sure you have many home business ideas. Just remember this: an idea without corresponding action is dead. So start a low-cost cottage business that you can manage from home and I will see you at the top.

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    LATEST U.S. MORTGAGE NEWS
    Last Updated July 30, 2017 3:33 PM Central

    MOST READ (Past 7 Days)

    preview | full story | July 31
    New mortgage activity was driven higher by home purchase financing this past week. Also significantly improving was government business, which has expanded by nearly a fifth from a year ago.

    preview | full story | July 31
    As home lending slowed in the first quarter of this year, credit unions took market share from non-bank originators. Just 10 lenders were responsible for nearly half of overall originations.

    preview | full story | July 28
    Servicing and staffing expanded from three months earlier and a year earlier at Primary Residential Mortgage Inc. Home lending activity moved up from the preceding quarter.

    preview | full story | July 28
    In the recently published decision of Ocwen Loan Services v. Quinn. the Superior Court of New Jersey, Appellate Division, affirmed a decision of the Superior Court, Passaic County, granting summary judgment in favor of a plaintiff-mortgagee, holding that the life estates of two defendants, who did not sign the plaintiff’s mortgage, were subordinated to the plaintiff’s mortgage based on the equitable principles recognized by the court in Sovereign Bank v. Gillis, 432 N.J. Super. 36 (App. Div. 2013), and the principles of replacement and modification.

    preview | full story | July 28
    Ocwen Financial Corp. has agreed to settle for $56 million a long-running class action securities fraud lawsuit.

    preview | full story | July 28
    A quarter-over-quarter gain was reported for mortgage earnings and originations at Hilltop Holdings Inc. Year-over-year gains, however, were lacking as servicing shrunk.

    preview | full story | July 27
    Interest rates on single-family loans retreated this past week. It’s possible, however, that mortgage rates could bounce back up in the next report.

    preview | full story | July 27
    Freddie Mac has improved its outlook for industry-wide single-family lending this year and next year by $140 billion. A majority of the increase went to home purchase financing.

    preview | full story | July 27
    Compared to the previous three-month period and the year-earlier quarter, home-lending activity at Churchill Mortgage Corp. was stronger. Staffing is shrinking, though.

    preview | full story | July 27
    A wholesale mortgage lender is providing its mortgage-broker clients with hands-free access to current information about their loan pipelines.


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    Industry Updates

    CSM Bakery Solutions Proposes to Sell BakeMark Business US-based CSM Bakery Solutions, is a global leader for bakery ingredients, products and services for retail and foodservice markets. (more )

    Bakery at Chicago Stands Out For Community Involvment The Edgewater community of Chicago, is home to a new family-operated bakery. Edge of Sweetness Bakery under the guidance of Kate Merrill and Paige Tyler, (more )

    Londoners are Loving the Dhan WaffleDonut Hybrid A demand for Dhan waffles is growing amongst the residence in London during weekends. “Dhan” means “egg” in Mandarin. (more )

    The Bakery Channel – Baking Industry Videos

    IDDBA – Bakeries rely on.

    The Vemag Cup Filler is.

    Bakistry: The Science of.

    The Chemistry of Baking.

    Snak King, one of the.

    SFWB visits Nonni’s Foods.

    Empire Bakery Equipment.

    The BLOEMHOF 860/860L.

    Rotella’s Italian Bakery.

    Informative video showing.

    IDDBA video report on.

    Solvay Aroma Performance.

    Upcoming Trade Shows

    The Packaging That Sells Conference 2017, held by BRANDPACKAGING, brings together brand.

    The New Products Conference 2017 will mark the 35th annual event held by Prepared Foods’ in.

    IFT17 hosted by the Institute of Food Technologies will be held in Las Vegas, Nevada from June.

    The Summer Fancy Food Show 2017 will mark the 63rd summer event held by the Specialty Food.

    The Sweets Snacks Expo 2017, held in Chicago, Illinois, is the ideal event for customer.

    From The Experts

    Integrating Gluten-Free Products Into Your Bakery

    The FDA requires that food with a gluten-free label contain less than 20 parts per million (ppm) of gluten. How can you integrate gluten-free products into your bakery? Follow these seven steps. (more )

    Special Feature

    The Scoop on Scooping Up Edible Cookie Dough

    We all remeber being kids and making cookies with our parents, grandparents or family friends trying to sneak some raw cookie dough, then getting caught and told “you’re going to get sick”. Well not any more! Edible cookie dough has been trending food buzz since early 2017 and is not slowing down.

    • Read more

    Tradeshow and Event Update


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