A Start-Up Slump Is a Drag on the Economy, how to start a business.#How
The New York Times
Graphic | A Long Start-Up Slump
September 20, 2017
Unemployment has fallen, and the stock market has soared. So why has the economic expansion since the recession been so tame, with sluggish productivity and, at least until recently, anemic wage growth?
Economists say the answer, to some degree, can be found in a start-up slump — a decline in the creation of new businesses — and a growing understanding of what’s behind it.
A total of 414,000 businesses were formed in 2015, the latest year surveyed, the Census Bureau reported Wednesday. It was a slight increase from the previous year, but well below the 558,000 companies given birth in 2006, the year before the recession set in.
“We’re still in a start-up funk,” said Robert Litan, an economist and antitrust lawyer who has studied the issue. “Obviously the recession had a lot to do with it, but then you’re left with the conundrum: Why hasn’t there been any recovery?”
Many economists say the answer could lie in the rising power of the biggest corporations, which they argue is stifling entrepreneurship by making it easier for incumbent businesses to swat away challengers — or else to swallow them before they become a serious threat.
“You’ve got rising market power,” said Marshall Steinbaum, an economist at the Roosevelt Institute, a liberal think tank. “In general, that makes it hard for new businesses to compete with incumbents. Market power is the story that explains everything.”
That argument comes at a potent political moment. Populists on both the left and right have responded to growing public unease about the corporate giants that increasingly dominate their online and offline lives. Polling data from Gallup and other organizations shows a long-running decline in confidence in banks and other big businesses — a concern not likely to abate after high-profile data breaches at Equifax and other companies.
The start-up slump has far-reaching implications. Small businesses in general are often cited as an exemplar of economic dynamism. But it is start-ups — and particularly the small subset of companies that grow quickly — that are key drivers of job creation and innovation, and have historically been a ladder into the middle class for less-educated workers and immigrants.
Perhaps most significant, start-ups play a critical role in making the economy as a whole more productive, as they invent new products and approaches, forcing existing businesses to compete or fall by the wayside.
“Across the decades, young companies are really the heavy hitters and the consistent hitters in terms of job creation,” said Arnobio Morelix, an economist at the Kauffman Foundation, a nonprofit in Kansas City, Mo., that studies and promotes entrepreneurship.
The start-up decline might defy expectations in the age of Uber and “Shark Tank.” But however counterintuitive, the trend is backed by multiple data sources and numerous economic studies.
In 1980, according to the Census Bureau data, roughly one in eight companies had been founded in the past year; by 2015, that ratio had fallen to fewer than one in 12. The downward trend cuts across regions and industries and, at least since 2000, includes even the beating heart of American entrepreneurship, high tech.
Although the overall slump dates back more than 30 years, economists are most concerned about a more recent trend. In the 1980s and 1990s, the entrepreneurial slowdown was concentrated in sectors such as retail, where corner stores and regional brands were being subsumed by national chains. That trend, though often painful for local communities, wasn’t necessarily a drag on productivity more generally.
Since about 2000, however, the slowdown has spread to parts of the economy more often associated with high-growth entrepreneurship, including the technology sector. That decline has coincided with a period of weak productivity growth in the United States as a whole, a trend that has in turn been implicated in the patterns of fitful wage gains and sluggish economic growth since the recession. Recent research has suggested that the decline in entrepreneurship, and in other measures of business dynamism, is one cause of the prolonged stagnation in productivity.
“We’ve got lots of pieces now that say dynamism has gone down a lot since 2000,” said John Haltiwanger, a University of Maryland economist who has done much of the pioneering work in the field. “Start-ups have gone down a lot since 2000, especially in the high-tech sectors, and there are increasingly strong links to productivity.”
What is behind the decline in entrepreneurship is less clear. Economists and other experts have pointed to a range of possible explanations: The aging of the baby-boom generation has left fewer Americans in their prime business-starting years. The decline of community banks and the collapse of the market for home-equity loans may have made it harder for would-be entrepreneurs to get access to capital. Increased regulation, at both the state and federal levels, may be particularly burdensome for new businesses that lack well-staffed compliance departments. Those and other factors could well play a role, but none can fully explain the decline.
More recently, economists — especially but not exclusively on the left — have begun pointing the finger at big business, and in particular at the handful of companies that increasingly dominate many industries.
Graphic | Big Business, Getting Bigger The share of employees working at large, medium and small companies in the United States.
The evidence is largely circumstantial: The slump in entrepreneurship has coincided with a period of increasing concentration in nearly every major industry. Research from Mr. Haltiwanger and several co-authors has found that the most productive companies are growing more slowly than in the past, a hint that competitive pressures aren’t forcing companies to react as quickly to new innovations.
A recent working paper from economists at Princeton and University College London found that American companies are increasingly able to demand prices well above their costs — which according to standard economic theory would lead new companies to enter the market. Yet that isn’t happening.
“If we’re in an era of excessive profits, in competitive markets we would see record firm entry, but we see the opposite,” said Ian Hathaway, an economist who has studied the issue. That, Mr. Hathaway said, suggests that the market is not truly competitive — that existing companies have found ways to block competitors.
Experts also point to anecdotal examples that suggest that the rise of big businesses could be squelching competition. YouTube, Instagram and hundreds of lower-profile start-ups chose to sell out to industry heavyweights like Google and Facebook rather than try to take them on directly. The tech giants have likewise been accused of using the power of their platforms to favor their own offerings over those of competitors.
Most recently, Amazon openly called for a bidding war among cities for its second headquarters — hardly the kind of demand a new start-up could make. Mr. Morelix said the Amazon example was particularly striking.
“We’re saying that it’s O.K. that they shape how a city charges taxes?” Mr. Morelix said. “And what kind of regulations they have? That should be terrifying to anyone that wants a free market.”
In Washington, where for years politicians have praised small businesses while catering to big ones, issues of competition and entrepreneurship are increasingly drawing bipartisan attention. Several Republican presidential candidates referred to the start-up slump during last year’s primary campaign. Progressive Democrats such as Senators Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts and Amy Klobuchar of Minnesota have pushed for stricter enforcement of antitrust rules. In a speech in March, Ms. Klobuchar explicitly tied the struggles of entrepreneurs to rising corporate concentration.
In July, entrepreneurs achieved a mark of political relevance: their own advocacy group. The newly formed Center for American Entrepreneurship will conduct research on the importance of new businesses to the economy and push for policies aimed at improving the start-up rate. Its founding president, John Dearie, comes from big business — he was most recently the acting head of the Financial Services Forum, which represents big financial institutions.
“Everybody loves entrepreneurship, but they’re not aware it’s in trouble,” Mr. Dearie said. “If new businesses are the engine of net new job creation, and if new businesses are the engine of innovation, and new business creation is at 30-year lows, that’s a national emergency.”
Follow Ben Casselman on Twitter: @bencasselman
How to Start a Rice Dealership Business, Pinoy Bisnes Ideas, how to start a
How to Start a Rice Dealership Business
Rice is an important primary staple food in many Asian countries especially in the Philippines. Indicating the high demand for this commodity, planning to put up a rice dealership business in your area is a wise choice. There is already an assurance that this business will succeed because buyers are already there. Of course, in any kind of business, conducting a feasibility study is always a crucial step to take. This will assess the economic viability of your proposed business.
Here are some important questions to consider before plunging into this kind of business.
1. Do you have enough capital or budget for your rice dealership business? With at least P60,000 to P100,000 as a starting capital.
2. Do you want to operate as sole proprietorship or corporation? Business registration guide here.
3. Do you have a big and safe storage room for the sacks of rice that will be delivered to you?
4. Do you have a good location for your rice dealership business? Research the area of your target market, the flow of traffic and their buying habits.
5. Do you have lists of rice suppliers in your area? Make sure you have a lists of several suppliers and make a good relationship with them.
6. Do you have necessary equipments like calibrated weighing scales, rice sacks etc., and a service delivery (optional).
7. What varieties of rice do you intend to sell? Make sure to have several varieties of rice, so that your customers will have several options.
8. How will you market your business? This is also an important aspect especially you are new in this kind of business. Make a good marketing strategy and make your business known to your customers. Make a good deal with restaurant owners, hotels, resorts and small carenderias in your place to be their rice supplier.
Here are Some NFA Rice Dealership FAQ
Q: Who are required to secure license from NFA?
A: All persons, natural or juridical, that are engaging or intending to engage in the rice and/or corn business whether commercial or NFA rice/corn.
A: Before the start in any of the business activity enumerated above, the proprietor or operator should first secure a license from NFA. For those already license, businessmen should renew their annual license on any day within their scheduled month allotted by the NFA
A: Application may be filed at the NFA office that has jurisdiction over the location of the principal business of the applicant.
Q: In case we have more than one (1) store/establishment for Rice/Corn business, should all be licensed?
A: Yes, owner/operator should file a license for all outlets at the NFA office where his principal place of business is located. Additional outlets are treated as branches.
A: For new applicants, follow these procedures:
secure application form from the licensing officer upon payment of application fee;
accomplish and file application with complete requirements to the licensing officer who in turn checks the documents and determines corresponding license fee;
pay license fee to the cashier and get copy of official receipt;
prepare the facilities/equipment requirements for inspection by NFA Investigators;
after inspection of establishments, present notice of inspection to licensing officer, official receipt and proof of compliance with deficiencies, if any;
licensing officer issues license if application is found to be in order;
applicants display license in their establishments.
Procedures for renewal applicants:
secure application from licensing officer upon payment of application fee;
accomplish and file application with complete requirements together with previous year s license to the licensing officer;
licensing officer checks completeness of requirements and determines license fee to be paid;
pay license fee to the cashier and present the official receipt to licensing officer;
licensing officer issues renewal sticker and stick it to appropriate portion of the license if application is found to be in order;
applicants display licensing conspicuous place in their establishments.
Q: For New Applicants, how long do we have to wait for the Approval of our License Application?
A: The establishments and facility requirements of new applicants are inspected by NFA Investigators within 20 working days after the filling of their applications. Those inspected are given inspection notices stating the date when they can return to the NFA to show compliance with any deficiency, if any. Otherwise, their notices state the date they can get their license. In all these cases, it should not exceed 20 working days after inspection.
A: Application fee is P50.00 for a single line activity and P100.00 for two activities or more. License fees depend upon capacity of the post harvest equipment used.
A: Documentary and facility requirements depend upon the business activity.
Q: Does the NFA requires only Licensing on Rice/Corn Business Activities?
A: The NFA also require the registration of the following facilities aside from the license on the activities mentioned earlier list.
motor vehicles used or intended to be used in transport/hauling of palay/ rice/corn whether for exclusive use or for hire except public utility vehicles franchised by proper government agencies not principally used for transporting rice/palay/corn;
warehouses,threshers and sellers for own produce;
mechanical dryers for owner s/operators exclusive use;
packaging machines for owner s/operators exclusive use;
institutions/establishments securing their rice/corn requirements from the NFA;
poultry and hog raisers securing byproducts from the NFA;
manufacturers/importers/dealers and distributors of rice/corn post-harvest facilities;
non-operating mills and other post-harvest facilities. In this case, registration is done only once.
Registration is done at the office of the NFA that has jurisdiction over the location of the principal business of the applicant.
Registration fees see separate from that of the license fees.
Q: In the event that I discontinue my business, what should I do with my License/Registration Certificate?
A: Surrender your license/registration certificate to the NFA office that issued it together with a written notice of discontinuance.
Otherwise, in case you reapply, you would be charged with the fees for the entire period that you have not applied for renewal.
Q: What do you mean by Bonded Activities?
A: Bonded activities mean third party stocks are deposited in your facilities, for storage, milling, threshing, corn shelling or mechanical drying. Operators/owners of facilities accepting third party stocks are required to post a bond as well as fire insurance to safeguard the stocks of the third party.
How Do Small Business Loans Work, Bizfluent, how do business loans work.#How #do #business
How Do Small Business Loans Work?
Obtaining financing helps build your business, but it’s not always easy to do. Securing a business loan takes time and patience, whether you need $5,000 or $5 million, since banks are not in the position to grant every business a loan. Because small businesses are considered risky ventures by lenders, starting your application early and effectively navigating the process is critical..
A business loan is based on your business needs, and your own qualifications to start and run your company. But that’s just the start. The bank also looks closely at your personal finances, since you’ll be liable for repaying the loan if your business goes under or you’re otherwise unable to make the payments. Banks usually require small business owners to use personal assets, such as your home or car, to secure the loan. Lenders often work with the Small Business Administration, a government agency that backs many of the commercial loans underwritten by banks.
Banks may give loans through their internal lending programs, or they may choose to guarantee the loan through the SBA. SBA-backed loans include the 7(a) primary loan program that covers a variety of small business financing, and the CDC/504 Program that helps businesses obtain new facility or modernize their facilities. The CDC program is ideal if you have an established business with a proven track record.
The bank will require you to provide a business plan that includes financial statements and projections about future revenue. The plan must indicate what you intend to do with the money, such as increasing your marketing efforts or paying for supplies to meet demand. To improve your chances of getting a loan, the SBA provides counseling through a volunteer program, known as SCORE, to help you create a business plan that meets the lender’s requirements.
Before you begin the tedious process of obtaining a loan, note the disadvantages. A small business loan is based on your personal ability to pay, so you’re liable for making the payments until the loan is paid off no matter what happens to your business. You may go through all the work to satisfy the bank’s requirements only to find out you still don’t qualify, or the bank may only give you a small portion of the money you need. This would require you to act quickly to secure additional financing.
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Imagine a life where all your time is spent on the things you want to do.
Imagine handing a letter to your boss that reads, “Dear Boss, I’m writing to let you know that your services are no longer required. Thanks for everything, but I’ll be doing things my own way now.”
Imagine that today is your final day of working for anyone other than yourself. What if—very soon, not in some distant, undefined future—you prepare for work by firing up a laptop in your home office, walking into a storefront you’ve opened, phoning a client who trusts you for helpful advice, or otherwise doing what you want instead of what someone tells you to do?
All over the world, and in many different ways, thousands of people are doing exactly that. They are rewriting the rules of work, becoming their own bosses, and creating a new future.
In The $100 Startup, Chris Guillebeau shows you how to lead a life of adventure, meaning and purpose — and earn a good living.
Still in his early thirties, Chris is on the verge of completing a tour of every country on earth — he s already visited more than 175 nations — and yet he s never held a real job or earned a regular paycheck. Rather, he has a special genius for turning ideas into income, and he uses what he earns both to support his life of adventure and to give back.
There are many others like Chris — those who ve found ways to opt out of traditional employment and create the time and income to pursue what they find meaningful. Sometimes, achieving that perfect blend of passion and income doesn t depend on shelving what you currently do. You can start small with your venture, committing little time or money, and wait to take the real plunge when you re sure it s successful.
In preparing to write this book, Chris identified 1,500 individuals who have built businesses earning $50,000 or more from a modest investment (in many cases, $100 or less), and from that group he s chosen to focus on the 50 most intriguing case studies. In nearly all cases, people with no special skills discovered aspects of their personal passions that could be monetized, and were able to restructure their lives in ways that gave them greater freedom and fulfillment.
Here, finally, distilled into one easy-to-use guide, are the most valuable lessons from those who ve learned how to turn what they do into a gateway to self-fulfillment. It s all about finding the intersection between your expertise — even if you don t consider it such — and what other people will pay for.
You don t need an MBA, a business plan or even employees. All you need is a product or service that springs from what you love to do anyway, people willing to pay, and a way to get paid
Not content to talk in generalities, Chris tells you exactly how many dollars his group of unexpected entrepreneurs required to get their projects up and running; what these individuals did in the first weeks and months to generate significant cash; some of the key mistakes they made along the way, and the crucial insights that made the business stick. Among Chris s key principles: if you re good at one thing, you re probably good at something else; never teach a man to fish — sell him the fish instead; and in the battle between planning and action, action wins.
In ancient times, people who were dissatisfied with their lives dreamed of finding magic lamps, buried treasure, or streets paved with gold. Today, we know that it s up to us to change our lives. And the best part is, if we change our own life, we can help others change theirs. This remarkable book will start you on your way.
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Starting in New York City and going to the ends of the earth, we ll be hitting all 7 continents with the message of The $100 Startup.
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