Tag: Definition

Foreign Direct Investment Definition from Financial Times Lexicon #income #investment #definition


Definition of foreign direct investment

Investment from one country into another (normally by companies rather than governments) that involves establishing operations or acquiring tangible assets, including stakes in other businesses. [1]

The purchase or establishment of income-generating assets in a foreign country that entails the control of the operation or organisation.

FDI is distinguished from portfolio foreign investment (the purchase of one country’s securities by nationals of another country) by the element of control. Standard definitions of control use the internationally agreed 10 per cent threshold of voting shares, but this is a grey area as often a smaller block of shares will give control in widely held companies. Moreover, control of technology, management, even crucial inputs can confer de facto control.

FDI is not just a transfer of ownership as it usually involves the transfer of factors complementary to capital, including management, technology and organisational skills.

Strategically FDI comes in three types:

– Horizontal: where the company carries out the same activities abroad as at home (for example, Toyota assembling cars in both Japan and the UK.

– Vertical: when different stages of activities are added abroad. Forward vertical FDI is where the FDI takes the firm nearer to the market (for example, Toyota acquiring a car distributorship in America) and Backward Vertical FDI is where international integration moves back towards raw materials (for example, Toyota acquiring a tyre manufacturer or a rubber plantation).

– Conglomerate: where an unrelated business is added abroad. This is the most unusual form of FDI as it involves attempting to overcome two barriers simultaneously – entering a foreign country and a new industry. This leads to the analytical solution that internationalisation and diversification are often alternative strategies, not complements.

FDI can take the form of greenfield entry or takeover.

Greenfield entry implies assembling all the elements from scratch as Honda did in the UK, whereas foreign takeover means the acquisition of an existing foreign company – as Tata’s acquisition of Jaguar Land Rover illustrates.

Foreign takeover is often covered by the term ‘mergers and acquisitions’ (M ?>

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The Colombian refugee situation #refugee #definition


  • Finnish Red Cross | Federico Ferrara: I will promote resettlement, I will talk to my organisation to organize an event/ action to.
  • Caritas International Belgium | Elisabeth Verniers: I will write an article in the newspaper, I will promote resettlement
  • Hugahorsetherapy | Lynn Jeffery: I want to be a volunteer to help refugees when they arrive in my country
  • SPD | Max Singer: I want to be a volunteer to help refugees when they arrive in my country, I will talk to my organisation to orga.
  • Christoffer Modig: Write a thesis on the subject
  • Fondazione Giacomo Brodolini | Megan PILLI: I will promote resettlement, I will talk to my organisation to organize an event/ acti.
  • Caritas International | Elisabeth Verniers: Engage in the coaching of new arrived resettlers in Belgium help to mobilize local c.
  • Valentina Sofia Caron: I will talk to my organisation to organize an event/ action to promote resettlement, I want to be a volunte.
  • Swedish Migration Board | Denise Thomsson: I will talk to my organisation to organize an event/ action to promote resettlement, I.
  • Finnish Ev. Lutheran Church Council | Marja-Liisa Laihia: I will talk to my organisation to organize an event/ action to promote r.
  • Humber College | Evelyn Butler: I will send a petition to my government/city, I will talk to my organisation to organize an event.
  • AGIRE (Italian Agency for Emergency Response) | Cecilia Signorini: I want to be a volunteer to help refugees when they arrive in my country

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The Colombian refugee situation

Nearly 50 years of armed conflict between guerrillas, paramilitaries and the Colombian army resulted in the movement of over 4 million Colombians – both within Colombia and across its borders – since 1985. Around half a million have fled to neighbouring countries, mainly to Ecuador, but also to Costa Rica, Panama and Venezuela. At present, approximately 70,000 Colombian refugees are registered with UNHCR in the region.

While the flow of refugees to neighbouring countries has decreased in recent years, the need for protection remains high. Although members of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) have resumed peace negotiations with representatives of the Colombian government in June 2013, continued violence in some parts of Colombia makes that voluntary repatriation is not the preferred solution for most Colombian refugees.

Prospects for local integration are also limited. Ecuador has the largest population of recognised refugees in Latin America, 98% of whom are Colombians. Since 2010, there has been a rapid deterioration in the asylum and protection space for Colombian refugees in Ecuador. While it is a signatory to the 1951 Refugee Convention and the 1984 Cartagena Declaration, the government recently modified its Refugee Act to remove the expanded refugee definition set out in the Declaration. It has severely restricted access to the domestic asylum procedure, meaning many Colombians are not legally recognised as refugees and are unable to access basic services. Many live in inaccessible jungle settings in border areas, and are vulnerable to armed conflict between Colombian factions crossing into Ecuador. They also suffer through poor living conditions, a lack of access to health services, and very limited livelihood opportunities. Violence against Colombian refugee women and girls in Ecuador is widespread. Secondary movements of Colombian refugees within Ecuador are common, and Colombian refugees generally suffer racism and discrimination, including police harassment in some areas.

The lack of local integration prospects for Colombian refugees in Ecuador has thus become a protection issue, and resettlement remains an important durable solution for some. Of particular concern are Afro-Colombian refugees, unaccompanied minors and refugee women at risk of exploitation.

In 2012, 559 Colombian refugees were resettled. In total, UNHCR plans to submit 2,054 Colombian refugees for resettlement in 2014, of whom 2,000 are in Ecuador. A lack of UNHCR capacity and a significant population of unregistered individuals make the ongoing assessment of resettlement needs challenging.

In 2011, Colombian refugees were identified as one of the populations prioritised for resettlement. A Contact Group. chaired by the Governments of New Zealand and Uruguay was formed in February 2012 with the aim of maximising the strategic use of resettlement of Colombians in Ecuador. Although several EU Member States resettle Colombian refugees, the EU has not included this population as a priority for 2013. The EU does, however, offer substantial humanitarian aid and assistance via ECHO.

Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Uruguay and the US have resettled Colombian refugees. In Europe, Denmark. Norway and Sweden have resettled refugees from Ecuador.

Photo: Colombian refugees in Ecuador. © B.Heger/UNHCR

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What is business plan? Definition from #online #business #opportunity

#what is business


business plan

A business plan is a document demonstrating the feasibility of a prospective new business and providing a roadmap for its first several years of operation.

Business plans are an important part of creating new businesses, whether as a startup or an offshoot of an existing business. Business plans for startups are often shared with funding agencies, potential investors and venture capitalists to obtain the necessary funding.

Although the specifics may vary, here are the typical components of a business plan for a new business:

  1. The executive summary is a nutshell version of the entire plan, briefly covering the essentials.
  2. The business description describes the proposed new endeavor, explains its purpose and its target market.
  3. The plan’s market analysis section describes the industry and the market environment of the proposed business, including a profile of the competition.
  4. The organizational and managerial section explains how you envision the structure of your business, what types of positions and departments it will encompass.
  5. The products (or services) section details what you’re offering. This section should include a full description of the products you’ll sell and your plan for product lifecycle management (PLM ).
  6. The marketing and sales section explains your strategies for branding. marketing and selling your product or service.
  7. The funding request will differ according to what type of information is required by the funding party.
  8. The financial projection covers the expected performance and milestones over the first years of operation, usually five years. For an existing business, historical financial data should be included.
  9. An appendix can include useful information that doesn’t belong in any of the other sections.

A business plan is similar to a business model. However, the latter is a representation of how an existing business works, rather than how a prospective business can work.

This was last updated in December 2013

Contributor(s): Ivy Wigmore

Related Terms


– Risk management is a company’s process for identifying and controlling threats to its assets, including proprietary corporate data, customers’ PII and intellectual property. (SearchCompliance.com )

– Rebranding is an update of the materials and presentation used to represent a business. A company may rebrand to appear more modern or to distance itself from past issues, among other possibilities. (WhatIs.com )

– A/B testing is a statistical method used to assess proposed changes to a product or service. (SearchBusinessAnalytics.com )


– Terms related to business, including definitions about project management and words and phrases about human resources, finance and vertical industries.

– This WhatIs.com glossary contains terms related to Internet applications, including definitions about Software as a Service (SaaS) delivery models and words and phrases about web sites, e-commerce.

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What is business technology (BT)? Definition from #business #sales

#business technology


business technology (BT)

Business technology (BT) is the ever-increasing reliance on information technology by businesses of all types to handle and optimize their business processes .

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What is business continuity management (BCM)? Definition from #creative #business #cards

#business continuity


business continuity management (BCM)

Business continuity management (BCM) is a framework for identifying an organization’s risk of exposure to internal and external threats.

The goal of BCM is to provide the organization with the ability to effectively respond to threats such as natural disasters or data breaches and protect the business interests of the organization. BCM includes disaster recovery. business recovery, crisis management, incident management, emergency management and contingency planning .

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You also agree that your personal information may be transferred and processed in the United States, and that you have read and agree to the Terms of Use and the Privacy Policy .

According to ISO 22301. a business continuity management system emphasizes the importance of:

  • Understanding continuity and preparedness needs, as well as the necessity for establishing business continuity management policy and objectives.
  • Implementing and operating controls and measures for managing an organization’s overall continuity risks.
  • Monitoring and reviewing the performance and effectiveness of the business continuity management system.
  • Continual improvement based on objective measurements.

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Definition of Stock Market – The Economic Times #sell #a #business

#stock markets


Definition of ‘Stock Market’

Definition: It is a place where shares of pubic listed companies are traded. The primary market is where companies float shares to the general public in an initial public offering (IPO) to raise capital.

Description: Once new securities have been sold in the primary market, they are traded in the secondary market—where one investor buys shares from another investor at the prevailing market price or at whatever price both the buyer and seller agree upon. The secondary market or the stock exchanges are regulated by the regulatory authority. In India, the secondary and primary markets are governed by the Security and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).

A stock exchange facilitates stock brokers to trade company stocks and other securities. A stock may be bought or sold only if it is listed on an exchange. Thus, it is the meeting place of the stock buyers and sellers. India’s premier stock exchanges are the Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange.

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Definition of Information Technology (IT) #information #technology #definition


Definition of Information Technology (IT)


The purpose of this procedure is to ensure a consistent approach is used in determining what is or is not considered information technology (IT).


The NDUS definition of Information Technology (IT) includes, but is not limited to hardware, software, services, and supporting infrastructure to manage and deliver information using voice, data, and video.

To further define information technology, the following information is provided.

Information Technology expenses include:

  • All computers with a human interface.
  • All computer peripherals which will not operate unless connected to a computer or network.
  • All voice, video and data networks and the equipment, staff and purchased services necessary to operate them.
  • All salary and benefits for staff whose job descriptions specifically includes technology functions, i.e. network services, applications development, systems administration.
  • All technology services provided by vendors or contractors.
  • All licensing and maintenance of software.

Examples of Information Technology:

  • Traditional computer applications that include data storage and programs to input, process, and output the data.
  • Server hardware and software used to support applications such as electronic mail/groupware, file and print services, database, application/ web servers, storage systems, and other hosting services.
  • Data, voice, and video networks and all associated communications equipment and software.
  • Telephone equipment and switches used for voice communications.
  • Voice response systems that interact with a computer database or application.
  • Software and support for office automation systems such as word processing and spreadsheets, as well as the computer to run them.
  • Computers, learning management and network systems used by teachers, trainers, and students for educational purposes.
  • Personal computers and associated software.

Examples of items excluded from the definition:

  • Closed/stand-alone computer systems that monitor or automate mechanical or chemical processes, such as the fire alarm systems.
  • Audio-visual equipment which can be operated as a standalone piece of equipment, such as televisions, tape recorders, VCRs, video cameras, and overhead projectors. Stand-alone video editing equipment is excluded.
  • Copy machines and fax machines that are standalone equipment and not connected to the network.
  • Licenses or subscriptions to electronic information provided to users in lieu of books or magazines.
  • Salaries of staff that use technology but are not directly involved in developing, implementing or supporting technology as documented on their Position Description. Data entry staffs, staff that digitize drawings, staff that do desktop publishing are excluded. Power users who use advanced features of spreadsheets or word processing software are excluded.
  • Course development and materials are excluded; however, equipment to operate course materials and learning management systems are not excluded.

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Cash Flow Definition #business #promotional #items

#cash flow business


Cash Flow

What is ‘Cash Flow’

Cash flow is the net amount of cash and cash-equivalents moving into and out of a business. Positive cash flow indicates that a company’s liquid assets are increasing, enabling it to settle debts. reinvest in its business, return money to shareholders, pay expenses and provide a buffer against future financial challenges. Negative cash flow indicates that a company’s liquid assets are decreasing. Net cash flow is distinguished from net income. which includes accounts receivable and other items for which payment has not actually been received. Cash flow is used to assess the quality of a company’s income, that is, how liquid it is, which can indicate whether the company is positioned to remain solvent .


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The accrual accounting method allows companies to count their chickens before they hatch, so to speak, by considering credit as part of a company’s income. “Accounts receivable ” and “settlement due from customers” can appear as line items in the assets portion of a company’s balance sheet. but these items do not represent completed transactions, for which payment has been received. They do not, therefore, count as cash. (Note that the credit vs. cash distinction is not the same as it is in everyday terminology; proceeds from credit card transactions are considered cash once they are transferred.)

The opposite can also be true. A company may be receiving massive inflows of cash, but only because it is selling off its long-term assets. A company that is selling itself for parts may be building up liquidity. but it is limiting its potential for growth in the long term, and perhaps setting itself up to fail. In the same vein, a company may be taking in cash by issuing bonds and taking on unsustainable levels of debt. For these reasons it is necessary to view a company’s cash flow statement. balance sheet and income statement together.

Cash Flow Statement

Often called the “statement of cash flows,” the cash flow statement indicates whether a company’s income is languishing in the form of IOUs – not a sustainable situation in the long term – or is translating into cash flow. Even very profitable companies, as measured by their net incomes. can become insolvent if they do not have the cash and cash-equivalents to settle short-term liabilities. If a company’s profit is tied up in accounts receivable, prepaid expenses and inventory. it may not have the liquidity to survive a downturn in its business or a lawsuit. Cash flow determines the quality of a company’s income; if net cash flow is less than net income, that could be a cause for concern.

Cash flow statements are divided into three categories: operating cash flow. investing cash flow and financing cash flow. Operating cash flows are those related to a company’s operations, that is, its day-to-day business. Investing cash flows relate to its investments in businesses through acquisition ; in long-term assets, such as towers for a telecom provider; and in securities. Financing cash flows relate to a company’s investors and creditors: dividends paid to stockholders would be recorded here, as would cash proceeds from issuing bonds.

Free cash flow is defined as a company’s operating cash flow minus capital expenditures. This is the money that can be used to pay dividends. buy back stock. pay off debt and expand the business.

Real World Example

Below is a reproduction of Wal-Mart Stores Inc.’s (WMT ) cash flow statement for the quarter ended April 30, 2015. All amounts are in million of U.S. dollars.

Cash flows from operating activities:

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What is business telephone system? Webopedia Definition #cleaning #business

#business telephone systems


business telephone system

Related Terms

A system where multiple telephones are used by businesses in an interconnected fashion that allows for features like call handling and transferring, conference calling, call metering and accounting, private and shared voice message boxes, etc. A business phone system can range from just a few telephones in a small business up to a complex private branch exchange (PBX) system utilized by large businesses.

Business telephone systems can function over the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN ) and/or over the Internet (Internet telephony or VoIP ). Business phone systems can also be delivered as a hosted service (typically referred to as a centrex ), which can free companies from having to invest in costly equipment.

business telephone service

business VoIP

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What is business partner? definition and meaning #business #profile

#business partner


business partner

An individual or company who has some degree of involvement with another entity’s business dealings. The term ‘business partner’ can have a wide range of meanings, with one of the most frequent being a person who, along with another person, plays a significant role in owning, managing, or creating a company (two best friends who start a business together would consider themselves business partners). The term is also frequently used for two businesses that cooperate, to any degree, such as a computer manufacturer who works exclusively with another company who supplies them with parts.

  • I thought they were a really great business partner and would be with us for a long time to come and would work greatly next to us.
  • Since I am out of town this week I will call my business partner and let her know to be expecting a package to arrive at the bakery on Tuesday.
  • Having someone else to start a business with me will mean that as a business partner that I will not need to make major decisions alone.

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