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The target principal name is incorrect: Active Directory Domain Controller Replication Issue #an #active


The target principal name is incorrect : Active Directory Domain Controller Replication Issue

During an Active Directory domain controller upgrade from Windows 2003 to Windows 2012 R2 I observed replication issues on the Domain Controller which also owned the PDC emulator role.

A problem logging onto the domain controller is what initially triggered the investigation into potential issues. It is always a good idea to ensure replication and event logs are healthy before performing Active Directory changes and upgrades for situations like this.

Identifying the Error

repadmin /replsummary showed the following error:

Source DSA largest delta fails/total %% error
DC-01 15m:05s 0 / 10 0
DC-02 41m:15s 0 / 10 0
DC-03 06d.05h:43m:01s 4 / 10 40 (2148074274) The target principal name is incorrect.

You can see DC-01 and DC-02 are fine but DC-03 has replication errors and shows the error message”The target principal name is incorrect.”

Resetting the domain controllers computer account using the following steps resolved the replication issues.

Fixing the Issue

Step 1

Identify the DC which owns the PDC role:

netdom query fsmo

Step 2

On the domain controller, disable the Kerberos Key Distribution Center service (KDC).

Click Start, point to Programs, click Administrative Tools, and then click Services.
Double-click KDC, set the startup type to Disabled, and then restart the computer.
(Restarting is required or else you will get an error on the next step)

Step 3

Login to the DC again and run the following command to reset the computer account.

netdom resetpwd /server:server_name /userd:domain_name\administrator /passwordd:administrator_password
(This can not be done in Active Directory Users and Computers for Domain Controllers.)

Step 4

Set the KDC service to “Automatic” again and restart the server again.

Step 5

Run the following commands to ensure there are no replication issues.

repadmin /syncall
repadmin /replsummary

A clean replication summary looks like this:

Source DSA largest delta fails/total %% error
DC-01 13m:10s 0 / 10 0
DC-02 15m:05s 0 / 10 0
DC-03 15m:05s 0 / 10 0


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The TCP #major #classes #of #an #ip #network


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Thanks for your understanding!

Sincerely, Charles Kozierok
Author and Publisher, The TCP/IP Guide

IP “Classful” Addressing Overview and Address Classes
(Page 1 of 2)

When the first precursor of the Internet was developed, some of the requirements of the internetwork, both present and future, were quickly realized. The Internet would start small but eventually grow. It would be shared by many organizations. Since it is necessary for all IP addresses on the internetwork to be unique, a system had to be created for dividing up the available addresses and share them amongst those organizations. A central authority had to be established for this purpose, and a scheme developed for it to effectively allocate addresses.

The developers of IP recognized that organizations come in different sizes and would therefore need varying numbers of IP addresses on the Internet. They devised a system whereby the IP address space would be divided into classes. each of which contained a portion of the total addresses and were dedicated to specific uses. Some would be devoted to large networks on the Internet, while others would be for smaller organizations, and still others reserved for special purposes.

Since this was the original system, it had no name; it was just the IP addressing system. Today, in reference to its use of classes, it is called the classful addressing scheme, to differentiate it from the newer classless scheme. As I said at the end of the introduction to this section. classful isn’t really a word, but it’s what everyone uses.

IP Address Classes

There are five classes in the classful system, which are given letters A through E. Table 43 provides some general information about the classes, their intended uses and other general characteristics about them:

Table 43: IP Address Classes and Class Characteristics and Uses

IP Address Class

Reserved for experimental use .

Looking at this table (and at Figure 60 ) you can see that the first three, classes A, B and C, comprise most of the total address space (7/8ths of it). These are the classes used for unicast IP addressing, which means for messages sent to a single network interface. (The blocks also include associated broadcast addresses for these networks.) This is what we usually consider normal IP addressing. You can think of classes A, B and C as the papa bear , mama bear and baby bear of traditional IP addressing. They allow the Internet to provide addressing for a small number of very large networks, a moderate number of medium-sized organizations, and a large number of smaller companies. This approximately reflects the distribution of organization sizes, approximately, in the real world, though the large gulf in the maximum number of hosts allowed for each address class leads to inflexibility and problems.

As you can see, the classes differ in the place where the dividing line is drawn between the network ID and the host ID portions of the addresses they contain. However, in each case the division is made on octet boundaries: in classful addressing, the division does not occur within an octet.

Figure 60: Division of IPv4 Address Space Into Classes

(I don t really need to explain this one, do I? J )

Classes D and E are special to the point where many people don’t even realize they exist. Class D is used for IP multicasting. while class E was reserved for experimental use . I discuss IP multicast addressing later in this section.

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Boston Criminal Lawyer – Suffolk County Criminal Defense Attorney – Urbelis Law, LLC #urbelis


Boston Criminal Lawyer

Urbelis Law, LLC is a Boston-based criminal defense law firm representing individuals and businesses throughout the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. We also handle all federal criminal matters in the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts. Our firm is dedicated to not only understanding the facts and circumstances of your legal matter, but learning about you as a person. Our Boston criminal lawyers recognize that your case may have far-reaching collateral effects beyond what happens in court, and we customize our defense strategy based on your specific needs. If you want us to take it all the way to trial, we are more than willing to do so. In fact, our record demonstrates that we obtain “Not Guilty” verdicts on 90% of the cases we bring to trial. Of course, every case is unique. If the anxiety of your pending criminal matter is interfering with your ability to work or continue with your day to day life, or if your case would benefit from a resolution prior to trial, we will do everything in our power to reach the best possible outcome. We are here to listen to your situation and always provide a free initial consultation. Since many arrests and criminal matters arise during non-business hours, we are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The sooner you contact our office, the sooner we can fight for you.

From relatively minor misdemeanor offenses to major felonies, the Boston criminal attorneys at Urbelis Law have extensive experience handling every type of criminal matter in Massachusetts. In addition to our highly successful trial practice, we help clients navigate the ins and outs and potential collateral effects of their cases. We will handle an RMV hearing stemming from a misdemeanor criminal charge with the same vigor employed during a Sex Offender Registry Board matter as the result of a felony sexual assault charge. In addition to fully advising you of the strengths and weaknesses of taking your case to trial, you will always be apprised of your options short of trial (working out a deal), the consequences of your decisions, and the collateral effects associated with all potential outcomes. All of your bases are covered, and you will never be left in the dark, at Urbelis Law.

In addition to vigorously representing our clients throughout the various stages of their Massachusetts criminal cases, we provide that same dedication to help prevent criminal charges before they are officially filed. Whether you are concerned about being investigated for a crime, or you have been contacted by the police who are requesting an interview at the station, or perhaps you’ve received an application for a criminal complaint and don’t know where to turn. Don’t panic. We are here to help. It is important that you contact our office as soon as you have these concerns, because these situations are very time-sensitive and must be handled before they spiral out of control. Let us help prevent or minimize the damage. That’s what we do.

Given that many arrests occur during non-business hours, our Boston criminal lawyers are prepared to provide you with a free initial consultation 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If you were arrested over the weekend, we are prepared to meet with you right away to answer your questions and provide you with peace of mind before going in to your Monday morning arraignment in court. In most cases, you should be prepared to retain a defense attorney prior to the arraignment to ensure that all necessary paperwork is obtained from the government and your rights are protected from the onset of your criminal case. In more serious cases, or if you are already on probation for an open case, you should absolutely be represented by an attorney at the arraignment as the prosecution is likely to ask that you either be held on bail, have the bail revoked on your open case and have you detained for up to 90 days, or have you held as a “dangerous person ” for up to 120 days. In this situation, if you’re convinced that you can’t afford an attorney, you’re doing yourself a major injustice. The truth is, you can’t afford NOT to have an attorney. With no obligation to hire us after your initial consultation, you certainly having nothing to lose by calling!

Contact our office for your free initial consultation regarding your Massachusetts criminal matter:

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Which Schools Offer an Online College Algebra Class? #accredited #online #college #algebra #courses, #which


Which Schools Offer an Online College Algebra Class?

Online algebra courses are offered by schools and private organizations for school credit or certificates of completion. Read on to learn about some schools with algebra courses available online. Schools offering Mathematics degrees can also be found in these popular choices.

Algebra Overview

Online algebra courses might best serve the needs of those who want to brush up on their math skills or who want pursue college-level courses but conflicting work and family schedules make traditional classroom study impractical. There are now many universities and colleges offering online algebra courses for students with busy schedules or who live far away from campuses.

Important Facts About This Course

These courses are offered at the undergrad levels

High school diploma or equivalent; math placement tests

Many schools offer fully-online programs, but they may include exams that must be taken on campus.

Arizona State University (ASU)

ASU offers an online undergraduate algebra course for students who are interested in receiving college credit. This course has prerequisite educational requirements, and you must pay a fee for enrollment. You’re required to have a graphing calculator for this class. The three tests and final examination must be taken at the mathematics department’s testing center, which is located at the school.

Before taking the college algebra course, you should have knowledge of basic algebra. This includes factors, equations and exponents. The school measures your qualifications by reviewing your Math Placement Test scores. You could also show proof of the successful completion of an ASU intermediate math course.

University of Wisconsin (UWC)

UWC’s introductory course in algebra is offered online for non-degree credit. You must have successfully completed high school algebra and one geometry course or scored sufficiently on a math placement exam in order to enroll. Additionally, this course requires a fee to register. Although the course is presented fully-online, exams must be taken at the UWC campus or under the supervision of a professional who meets UWC’s qualifications.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

MIT offers free courses to the public, which are actual university courses that were offered in previous academic terms. You won’t get credit or grades for taking these courses, and you can take them at your own pace. Several undergraduate and graduate-level algebra courses are provided by the school’s OpenCourseWare project. It covers such topics as linear algebra, algebraic geometry, vector spaces, factorization, polynomial forms and number theory.

To continue researching, browse degree options below for course curriculum, prerequisites and financial aid information. Or, learn more about the subject by reading the related articles below:

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What is variable life insurance? #which #of #these #is #an #element #of #whole #life


What is variable life insurance?

100 % of people found this answer helpful

Variable life insurance is a permanent form of insurance that builds up cash value but allows you to invest the extra in sub-accounts that are managed by many professional management firms. The process of buying a variable policy is to allow your agent or registered representative to run an illustration showing the premiums required to purchase x amount of insurance that will buildup x amount of cash based on the sub-account illustrated performance. It sounds complicated, but it really is not. The key is running a policy that will sustain itself to age 95 to 100 with an interest rate of the sub-accounts that is reasonable, usually 7-8%. The sub-account is the insurance industry equivalent to mutual funds so do not get that confused. The market might average 9-10% for the last 100 years, but it is best to run your sub-account assumed performance a little lower than that for a little more security.

A good, experienced registered representative should take into account if a variable policy makes sense for your insurance/investment portfolio as many times these types of polices can be abused. Consumers can pay into it for a certain period of time and then change their minds mid-stream causing them significant out of pocket expense and then a possible surrender charge on the cash that they did build up. If the consumer does not make the long term commitment to the plan, they likely will lose quite a bit not to mention the time lost. If kept, the policy can be a great tool for insurance protection and cash value options down the road. However, this plan takes many years to complete and insurance needs change over time.

Jason R. Tate, ChFC, CLU, CASL

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Variable life insurance is a permanent life insurance policy with an investment component. The policy has a cash value account, which is invested in a number of sub-accounts available in the policy. A sub-account acts similar to a mutual fund. except it s only available within a variable life insurance policy. A typical variable life policy will have several sub-accounts to choose from, with some offering upwards of 50 different options.

The cash value account has the potential to grow as the underlying investments in the policy s sub-accounts grow – at the same time, as the underlying investments drop, so may the cash value.

The appeal to variable life insurance lies in the investment element available in the policy and the favorable tax treatment of the policy s cash value growth. Annual growth of the cash value account is not taxable as ordinary income. Furthermore, these values can be accessed in later years and, when done properly through loans using the account as collateral. instead of direct withdrawals, they may be received free of any income taxation.

Similar to mutual funds and other types of investments, a variable life insurance policy must be presented with a prospectus detailing all policy charges, fees and sub-account expenses.

To learn more, be sure to read our related article, Variable Vs. Variable Universal Life Insurance .

This question was answered by Barry Higgins .

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77 % of people found this answer helpful

Variable life insurance is a permanent life insurance policy with an investment component. The policy has a cash value account, which is invested in a number of sub-accounts available in the policy. A sub-account acts similar to a mutual fund, except it s only available within a variable life insurance policy.

I m not a huge fan of this type of Life Insurance. I ve found people can better serve their protection planning needs with Universal Life policies, with additional benefits for things like Terminal Illness and Chronic Illness riders. With a fully invested portfolio, there is just too much market risk for many people who actually need the underlying life insurance coverage. Bad few years in the market could cause the cash value to drop and put the death benefit in jeopardy when you need it the most.

*The investment return and principal value of variable sub-accounts will fluctuate. Your cash value, and perhaps the death benefit will be determined by the performance of the chosen sub-accounts. Variable universal life insurance policies typically include mortality and expense risk charges, administrative fees, and fund expense charges.

Withdrawals may be taxable and subject to surrender charges. Policy Loans and withdrawal will reduce the policy s cash value and death benefit. Loans are subject to interest charges.

Hope this helps,

Securities and advisory services offered through National Planning Corporation (NPC), Member FINRA, SIPC, a Registered Investment Advisor. Trilogy Capital Trilogy Financial and NPC are separate and unrelated entities. The opinions voiced in this article are for general information only and do not constitute an endorsement by NPC. NPC does not provide tax advice. www.FinancialPlannerLA.com

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Variable life insurance is the industry s attempt to let you have your cake and eat it too. It was a very popular product when I started my career selling life insurance in 1991. At that time, I was a captive agent with one of the original companies to manufacture it. The pitch was then and still is that the product allows you to get the best deal for a death benefit as well as the best deal for a living benefit. Maybe.

First, a little history.

From its inception, life insurance has typically been the most cost-effective way to pass money on to your heirs. No other product comes close to getting them the exact amount of money they need, exactly when they need it, for pennies on the dollar.

Still, the industry wanted to make the product more attractive, so they installed a cash account. This way people could get value from their purchase without waiting until they die. Whole life became popular and offered strong guarantees. Universal life then became popular and offered weaker guarantees, but more flexibility, and the potential for higher gains.

But, these gains would still be determined by the investment performance of an insurance company, so the industry went a step further. They separated the cash account from the policy and let the insured grow cash through market-based investments. Because life insurance can receive favorable tax treatment, these products offered the chance to make money in the market and not pay taxes.

Under the right circumstances, variable life insurance can do exactly that. These are what I consider to be those circumstances:

First and foremost, you have to qualify for a low premium. If the cost of insuring you is too high, then this overhead will significantly suppress your cash growth. Before you even consider purchasing this product, get prequalified for coverage to confirm competitive rates are available, given your own personal risk profile.

Second of all, you really have to know what you re doing as an investor. This product is treated legally as a security, and rightfully so. Like any investment, you have to manage risk and reward, factor in expenses, stay on top of asset allocation, and do everything else needed to insure optimum performance. If you are not prepared to do this yourself, then make sure you have an advisor who will.

Also as part of the management of the product, make sure you understand how to work within existing tax laws. There s a right way, and a wrong way, to grow cash inside life insurance, and take it out. Mistakes can be very costly. If you are considering paying significant sums into your policy, make sure you get professional tax advice.

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Buying an Internet Business – Why 2016 is the Year to Buy #local #business

#internet business


Buying an Internet Business Why 2016 is the Year to Buy

The start of a new year is always a natural time of year to make plans for the future. be it personally or professionally. It’s a good time to take stock of previous experience and think about what’s taking place in the world. Indeed, you don’t have to look too far for predictions posts at the moment, the internet is positively awash with musings about the year ahead with many exciting internet marketing trends predicted (mobile, the internet of things and as ever, more content marketing!)

Strangely though there is not much in the way of thoughts on business buying in 2016,particularly for buying an internet business. so I’ve put some thoughts together on why 2016 is potentially a very timely year to buy.

Buying an internet business – macro favors the opportunist

There’s so much uncertainty in both the US and global economy at the moment that you can carve a pretty convincing argument either way for economic collapse or prosperity in 2016 (presumably that’s how Wall Street analysts keep in business come high or low…)

I think though that when it comes to small business ownership there is strong cause for optimism this year. Consumer confidence has continued to climb through 2016 to the mid 90 s. Good news for consumer facing e-businesses.

Investment levels always tell you something about the market’s sentiment toward both the economy and small business growth. Whilst you shouldn’t always follow the herd it’s important to note we operate in an economy based largely on consent, so if everyone else is investing it’s a good sign for personal acquisitions. US venture capital investment continue to grow year over year, and 2015 saw the largest amount of investment dollars.

Lastly, borrowing is an essential component for acquisition and growth and it’s refreshing to see that whilst SBA lending softened a little in 2014 to $3.8bn (from $4.0bn in 2013), the lender is anticipating a huge boost in 2015 to $4.8bn. If you’re looking to debt finance an internet business acquisition, 2016 could well be the year to do it.

A word of warning though, it can still be quite difficult to secure debt financing for online business acquisitions. SaaS businesses and recurring revenue models that have at least three years of history tend to be the most successful candidates for funding, though cash buyers will continue to have pole position in 2016. If you want to learn about alternative finance options you can read How to Buy a Website with Finance .

Surging internet growth continues

The nice thing about most internet trends is that they almost always face upwards which makes the old Chinese proverb of “the best time to plant a tree was 20 years ago, the second best time is now” true at the start of almost every year.

E-commerce continues to be one of the biggest areas of internet growth and eMarketer expects the global E-commerce industry to increase another $263bn in 2015 to $1.763trn (yes trillion), all boding very well for site owners and potential business acquirers.

Content sites will not miss out on a continued surge in internet usage as multi-device and particularly mobile usage make the web a major source of advertising dollars. Internet advertising revenues continue to rise with spending up across every single sector. from 5% YoY in entertainment to 20% YoY in retail. Digital advertising revenue is now worth more than $40bn in the US alone (as of 2014), second only to TV, and rising at 15% per annum (5x faster than any other medium).

It’s not just the growth opportunities that are appearing in the internet investment landscape, the risk factors are somewhat fading too. Many online business acquirers are cautious of pending Google algorithm updates particularly when looking at websites with high search traffic (and they are wise to be). With the last 18 months seeing an unprecedented amount of algorithm changes. things have now started to calm and the industry is expecting a smoother runway in 2016.

That’s not to say there won’t be movement but there is much less concern over 20% single-day traffic falls as we saw with the Penguin and Panda rollouts in 2013 and 2014. The good news for site buyers is that investors now have the pick of sites that are still standing after the updates and they also have some runway ahead before Google consider another major algorithm update.

Mobile is an explosive opportunity

A major part of the trends above is the continued penetration of smartphones across the US, Western Europe and Asia as well as the proliferation of multi-device. Multi-device ownership is increasingly commonplace in developed markets with 1 in 4 smartphone owners in the US and EU5 also owning a tablet.

Almost every internet marketing predictions post is citing mobile’s importance this year and its clear from listings at FEI that site owners who have mobile-optimised their sites (at the least) or built new service or content offerings around mobile, are very well positioned for selling. With Google putting greater emphasis on the mobile user experience, potentially even incorporating “mobile-friendliness” into its search ranking algorithm, mobile-friendly is now essential.

Digi-Capital predict 61.3% CAGR of revenue growth in mobile app revenue (ex-gaming) to 2017 which is a staggering growth rate and a huge growth opportunity for buyers of e-businesses and apps in 2016 and beyond. Advertisers worldwide are recognizing the increasing penetration of mobile and its impact on consumers, and in response, plan to spend more than $64bn on mobile ads in 2015. 60% higher than 2014.

Favorable industry trends

Thomas and I wrote about industry trends at the end of 2015 and we think they are aligning positively for buyers. Whilst there’s undoubtedly more buyers in the industry than ever before, the market is formalizing and this can only be a good thing for raising industry standards amongst brokers, sellers and other industry participants alike.

An exciting new development has been the launch of Escrow’s new domain name holding service in 2014 which has dramatically increased the scope for creatively financed deals in 2016. With domain(s) held in Escrow during the deferred consideration period there is much less fear about payment default, which warms sellers to the idea of earn outs, holdbacks and other financing methods. All of this is great news for buyers looking to stretch out their funds or structures deals for lower risk.

Speaking of formalisation, the website buying industry definitely embraced content marketing in the past few years and we have seen a marked increase in content posting by brokers, marketplaces and industry commentators alike. Centurica now publish an annual website buying report and its co-founder Justin Gilchrist also published an in-depth primer on business buying.

FEI published a free Guide to Buying an Online Business to help educate buyers on how to run through the process successfully and to raise awareness about the asset class. In short, there’s never been more quality information available about internet business buying which is great news for new and seasoned buyers alike.

Buying an online business?

Download our free 83-page guide to buying and learn all you need to know

If not now, when?

So there are a lot of good reasons why 2016 presents a unique opportunity to buy an internet business. But the truth is, every year gives advantages over the previous year. So, if you’re waiting for the perfect time, then you’ve perhaps already waited too long. The right time to buy a business is now! Don’t wait for any arbitrary date like January 1st.

Instead, commit to your plan and get started right now. Yes, 2016 will be a great time for buying a business but so is today .

David Newell

David is the Brokerage Director at FE International. Starting out as an investment banker, he moved online to use his transaction experience for website brokerage. At FE International, he spends his time speaking with buyers, executing deals and working on raising industry standards to encourage more investments. In 2014 he closed more than $6m in sales and wrote a book on buying internet businesses for investors new to the space.

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Disable Windows 8 Defender Before Installing New Antivirus #is #windows #defender #an #antivirus #software


How to Disable Windows 8 Defender Before Installing a Different Antivirus Software

Windows 8 comes with an built-in antivirus called the Windows Defender. Windows Defender is nothing but the free antivirus of Microsoft called the Microsoft Security Essentials clubbed with the Defender of Windows 7.

Microsoft claims that Windows defender is sufficient for a home computer where mere basic protection is required, but I personally don’t like it. Though the detection rate of the product is quite good, the removal rate is pathetic (yes, there I said it!). It took the tool precisely 2 mins and 33 seconds to clean an EICAR test virus file and the amount of resources it required to do that was too much.

Note: I am in no way encouraging you to stop using Windows Defender. It is totally your call.

Now the thing is that you cannot install two antivirus software on a computer as they never work together (almost all of them conflict with each other) and thus if you are planning to install a 3rd party security solution on your Windows 8 system, you will need to first uninstall/disable the Windows Defender that’s natively present on the OS.

Uninstalling defender is very tough as it’s coded to the core but we can disable it to keep the things rolling.

Disabling Windows 8 Defender Using Services

Disabling the Defender using Windows Services is pretty simple.

Step 1: Launch the Start Menu and search for Services under the Settings tab and click on View local services to launch Windows Services.

Step 2: Look for the service name Windows Defender Service and stop it by right-clicking it.

Step 3: Now double-click on the same service to open the Property window and select disable in the Startup Type dropdown list and save the settings.

Your Windows 8 defender will now be disabled permanently, and you can go ahead and install a different antivirus now.

Disabling Using Windows Defender

For those of you who love to keep things simple, you can disable Windows Defender from its inbuilt settings.

Step 1: Launch Windows Defender. The best way is to launch Start Menu and search for Defender.

Step 2: Navigate to Settings tab in the Defender and click on the Administrator section. Here uncheck the option Turn on Windows Defender and save the settings.

Your Defender will be disabled instantly. If you want to enable Windows Defender protection in the future you can do that from the Windows Action Center.

If you are looking for an antivirus that will work great on your Windows 8 computer, I have a nice suggestion. Kaspersky, a leading antivirus solution provider, has already launched their consumer preview of Kaspersky Antivirus 2013 compatible with Windows 8. You may install and try it for free.

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How to Create an Excellent Business Plan #green #business

#business plan


How to Create an Excellent Business Plan

See how to craft the 3 most important parts of a business plan: the financial plan, the marketing projections and the executive summary. Before that, you must understand the concept of the plan.

A business plan is a management tool that acts like a guide when you need to plan a new venture, a market action or even expand your business. With a business plan in hand, an entrepreneur is able to better understand the situation they’re in, and will be able to determine which strategies to adopt in which moments, primarily when planning out their future actions.

Where to start?

To start out with, there aren’t any rules that should be strictly followed when creating a business plan and the entrepreneur shouldn’t be worried about failing or succeeding. The starting point should be defining your venture. The clearer the foundation, the easier it’ll be to continue the work you just started.

In general, a business plan comes with the following structure:

  • Details of the venture
  • Business sector
  • Products or services to be offered
  • Target audience or potential consumer market
  • Capital required
  • Monthly revenue estimates
  • Forecast of how long it’ll be before the invested capital can be returned
  • Partners and entrepreneurs involved, their positions, and a description of their respective jobs

Business Plan and Business Model

A lot of entrepreneurs have a hard time understanding the difference between a business plan and a business model. To a lot of people, these two documents look like the same thing. However, they are fundamentally different. The business model is an objective document that aims to present a thorough analysis of a company’s concept, so as to evaluate the very idea’s viability.

The business plan, on the other hand, is a more elaborate document that comprises all the information, calculations, and analyses that demonstrate the business’ viability. It should include the steps involved and the investment required to set up the company – alongside expenses, revenue, and return on investment forecasts. The business plan is important because it’s the document that can be given to potential investors.

Both documents should be drawn up harmoniously and should reflect the same strategic planning, seeing as the information contained in one will directly influence the other.

Financial Planning

Financial planning is another important point. With it, you can determine the expenses and investments involved in setting up and then keeping the business operational. You should also establish the working capital and where this capital will come from – you or a loan. In the financial plan, you should also include the profitability and the sales forecast, as well as the cost of production up until sale. These are indispensable to a business plan. They illustrate the financial situation of the future company.

Marketing Projections

One of the most important parts of the business plan is the marketing projections, because is in this section of the plan that you are going to show which ways your business will follow and how you ll manage to do that. For that to happen is important to have real data about you industry and is even better when you already have experimentations about sales and revenues per channel that you ll use.

If you want to make an excellent business plan, define the marketing and advertising strategy you intend to use. Evaluate your costs, which communication channels were chosen, and the return on each one.

Executive Summary

The third most important part is the executive summary. I suggest that you make an effort to fit this entire section in just one page. The thing here is that you want to keep the attention of the reader on the business plan and make him eager to read and analyse the rest, so be succinct as possible.

Temporal Horizon

The financial projection should cover a period of about 3 years. Beyond that point, it can be complicated to make realistic projections, especially in today’s rapidly changing market. If you’re in need of third-party investment, it might be necessary to create a plan with a larger temporal horizon (should the bank request it, for example). Even if the financial resources are coming out of your pocket, it’s still important to establish an initial strategy in order to make sure that the business functions properly and pays off your initial investment.

This post was written to present the reader with the basic concepts of a business plan. However, it’s important to remember that good ideas and a team that understands the business sector are essential to the success of your investment.

Este post também está disponível em: Portuguese (Brazil)

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A Beginner s Guide to Starting and Marketing an App, starting an app development


A Beginner’s Guide to Starting and Marketing an App

Starting an app development company

Building a mobile app for the first time? You no doubt have many questions: Is it worthwhile? Does it make sense? How will people know about it?

Having helped build more than a hundred apps from categories ranging from social networking, utility, entertainment and lifestyle, I get asked a lot of questions by entrepreneurs and businesses on the entire process of building and marketing apps.

Here are the most common ones to help you first-timers build a successful app:

I have many app ideas. Which one should I pursue?

Most successful entrepreneurs have built their business through multiple ideas. So don t limit yourself to a single app idea.

Apps are like releasing a hit music single. You never know which single will make it for you. So give each app four to six months after the launch and if you do not see a growing user base, move to the next idea.

I have an app idea, but where do I start?

Start by putting your idea down on paper as clearly as possible. Look for prototyping tools on the Internet and create a detailed, screen-by-screen mock-up/wireframe of your app. Once you re clear about your requirements, look for a company that can design and develop it for you.

How do I know whether the customer wants my app?

Get to the market fast with a prototype. Don t wait to create a complete app with all the features. Build only with the core proposition of the app and see if the customer is ready to buy. Once they do, you will get a lot of important feedback from your paying customers.

Should I build a mobile website or a native app?

There are close to a million apps each on iOS and Android app stores, and you re competing against the best to be seen and engaged with. Mobile websites don t offer any experience, nor do they add any value to the customer. Apps are to mobile what website is to a desktop. Don t mix the two.

Should we build the app in-house or outsource?

Some of the most popular products today were outsourced in their initial days, including Alibaba, Fab.com, Digg, Skype.

When creating the first instance of your product, keep the costs low and go with an outsourced provider that understands your requirements best. The most important thing for you at this moment is to get your product in the hands of the customer. Fast. Once you see a real demand for your product and continue to see traction, you can then take over the development and maintenance in-house.

How do I submit an app to the Apple App Store or Android Market?

Create a developer account with Apple and Google by registering through their website and paying the annual app store fees of $99 for Apple and $25 for Google. The actual process of uploading to the app stores should be done by your developers.

Should I offer my application as free and then figure out how to make money later?

There s a one-in-a-million chance (or probably less) that you could be the next Facebook or Twitter. The choice is yours.

If you want to build a business, have a clear monetization strategy right from the get go.

Products don t get sold on their own. You need to take them out of your four walls and place them onto a retailer s shelves. Then you have to tell people where to find them.

You need to do the same with your app. While app-store optimization can help you a great deal in your ability to be discovered, it is not enough to get significant traction for your app to make it a sustainable business. You need to market your app to get visibility.

The best form of publicity for your application, as for any business, is third-party endorsements. Reviews from tech bloggers, press coverage and word of mouth should be the preferred avenues. It is important to keep these sustained if you begin to see traction.

Also, pay keen attention to reviews posted by the users of your application and work doubly hard to reverse any negative reviews.

Should I create a cross-platform app?

Cross-platform apps seldom offer rich experience to users. There is a reason why there are different coding languages for different platforms, which have their own software development kits (SDKs). Such apps are often riddled with bugs and fail to offer consistent experience across platforms.

How much does it cost to develop an app?

It s like asking what it costs to buy a house or a car. The answer depends on many factors. Development costs can range anywhere between $3,000 to $100,000 or more depending on the complexity and overall features involved.

What if my app does not work?

Most app ideas, just as business ideas, are crap. Successful people make terrible decisions all the time but they also get back up with fresh learning from their failures and try something else. Move onto the next app idea if the current one does not get you results.

If you have more questions about building an app or have an experience to share, post it in the comments below.

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