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How to Become a Social Worker #what #degrees #do #you #need #to #become #a


How to Become a Social Worker: Education and Career Roadmap

Should I Become a Social Worker?

People interested in helping others work through difficult life situations may want to consider a career in social work. Social workers provide direct services or clinical counseling to help clients assess and change harmful or unhealthy situations. They work in a variety of settings including nursing homes, hospitals, private practices, schools, and community mental health clinics. Caseloads may be heavy, causing stress and long work hours for many social workers. However, social workers can rest assured knowing their services are having tangible benefits for their clients.

In addition, a Masters in Social Work (MSW) is a very versatile degree which can be used as a stepping stool for other career tracks including public health and policy. Most entry-level positions require a Bachelor of Social Work (BSW). An MSW is necessary for other positions, including that of clinical social worker. All states have associated licensure or certification requirements. The following table describes some of the typical qualifications necessary for this career.

Find schools that offer these popular programs

  • Adult Development and Aging
  • Child Care Management
  • Child Care Services
  • Child Development
  • Community Organization and Advocacy
  • Family and Community Services
  • Family Systems
  • Human Development and Family Studies
  • Social Work
  • Youth Services

$59,100 (Median annual salary for social workers)

Sources: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Job postings by employers (August 2012)

Step 1: Earn a Bachelor’s Degree in Social Work

BSW programs prepare graduates for direct-service positions, such as mental health assistant or caseworker. Coursework includes social welfare policy, social work methods, applied research, child welfare, and social work for the aged. All BSW programs contain an internship or supervised fieldwork component, providing students the opportunity to develop practical skills in areas important to the profession, such as understanding group dynamics, interviewing, decision-making, and problem-solving.

Success Tip

  • Develop strong communication skills. Social workers must develop productive and healthy relationships with their clients and co-workers in order to work effectively. While in school, students can take advantage of internships and supervised fieldwork to learn how to interact with a variety of clients.

Step 2: Consider a Master’s Degree

An MSW can be undertaken with any undergraduate degree, though some programs may require certain prerequisite coursework in related areas, such as psychology and sociology, for applicants not holding a BSW. The MSW is required to become a clinical social worker or to work in schools or the healthcare system. These degree programs typically take two years to complete (though some programs offer more flexible 3 and 4-year degree plans) and prepare students for advanced practice in their specialties.

Students in these programs have a variety of concentrations and specialties to choose from, including mental health, families and children, global practice, older adults and families, and behavioral and physical health. Students may expand on professional components of social work, such as clinical assessment, caseload management, and leadership skills. Completion of an internship or supervised practice is required of all MSW students.

Success Tip

  • Gain experience in a high-demand specialty. According to the BLS, social workers in healthcare, mental health, substance abuse, children, families, and schools are expected to have the most favorable opportunities for employment. Working in these areas, even with a BSW, can provide the necessary experience through which to develop a specialty.

Step 3: Become Licensed

According to the BLS, all states have licensure or certification requirements for becoming a social worker. Licenses for non-clinical social workers are usually optional; rules vary for each state and can be found through the Association of Social Work Boards. State licensing requirements for clinical social workers typically involve 3,000 hours or two years of clinical experience along with completion of the MSW.

Step 4: Consider Credentialing

The National Association of Social Workers (NASW) offers voluntary credentialing at three levels for MSW-educated social workers. Each credential has varying eligibility requirements that may include specific hours of continuing professional education, clinical social work experience, and professional evaluations from colleagues.

There are also voluntary specialty certifications for both bachelor’s- and master’s- educated social workers in clinical social work, healthcare social work, gerontology, and several other areas, which may improve employment prospects.

Step 5: Maintain Licensure and Credentials

Social work licensure and certification, including specialty certification, must be maintained by completing continuing education courses. Requirements for the number of hours and the types of courses that can be taken vary for each state. By maintaining these credentials, social workers will continue to create career possibilities for employment and ensure that they remain employable.

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Police Officer Careers, Jobs and Degree Information – Criminal Justice USA #careers #without #a


Criminal Justice USA

How to Become a Police Officer

The duties of a police officer, also known as a law enforcement officer, focus on protecting people and property. They patrol the areas they are assigned, which sometimes include entire jurisdictions, respond to calls, enforce laws, make arrests, issue citations, and occasionally testify in court cases. They often make traffic stops, respond to domestic disturbances, and, at times, provide first aid to someone involved in a traffic accident or injured in a domestic dispute until paramedics arrive. Much of their time is divided between patrolling, writing reports, and filling out forms. In fact, police officers now also perform the immigration duties once exclusive to INS agents, meaning that INS agents are now essentially police officers. Before you can become a police officer, you must first meet the minimum qualifications.

Minimum Qualifications

Specific qualifications will vary by agency, but typically include being a U.S. citizen, at least 21 years old, and having no felony convictions. Misdemeanors are handled on a case-by-case basis, and many departments also require applicants to be financially responsible. To become a law enforcement officer, you will also have to meet physical fitness, medical, vision, and hearing requirements. Testing for these are part of the hiring process, as well as interviews, a background check, written exam, drug test, written exam, and psychological evaluation. You will also have to meet the educational and training requirements.

Education Training

Each agency will have their own educational requirements. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), some agencies require only a high school diploma, while others require some college coursework or a college degree. Many agencies encourage their officers to take law enforcement-related college courses throughout their careers. Earning an associate degree in criminal justice will usually allow you to meet the educational requirements and provide you with knowledge of the law, criminal justice system, criminal behavior, and more, which will benefit you in this career. Each agency will have training requirements that must be met as well. The majority of agencies will have a training academy, while smaller agencies may have you complete your training at a local college, university, or through a nearby, larger agency s academy. Through the academy you will receive training in areas such as defensive tactics, driving, tactical, firearms, and laws and regulations, preparing you for your career.

Career Statistics

The hiring process and training academy can take around 12 to 18 months, all together, though this may vary by agency. After graduating from the academy, you will be a probationary officer, which typically means you will be constantly supervised, have limited responsibilities, and in most cases, are eligible to be relieved of duty easier than if you were not on probation. The length of probation varies by agency. The BLS shows that the average salary for a police officer is $53,540 a year. However, what you earn will depend on several factors, including the agency you work for, location, performance, and amount of experience.

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How to get the best mortgage rate #what #are #points #on #a #mortgage #rate


How to Get the Best Mortgage Rate

You can trust that we maintain strict editorial integrity in our writing and assessments; however, we receive compensation when you click on links to products from our partners and get approved. Here’s how we make money .

Buying a home is a huge financial commitment. Finding the right mortgage (and how to get the best mortgage rate) can be a confusing process — especially for first-time homebuyers. Comparison shopping is the key to getting the best deal, and you’ll want to ask yourself, “How much house can I afford ? before getting too far into the process.

Here are six important questions to consider when deciding which mortgage is right for you:

1. Should I get a fixed- or adjustable-rate mortgage?

Mortgages generally come in two forms: fixed or adjustable rate. Fixed-rate mortgages lock you into a consistent interest rate that you’ll pay over the life of the loan. The part of your mortgage payment that goes toward principal plus interest remains constant throughout the loan term, though insurance, property taxes and other costs may fluctuate.

The interest rate on an adjustable-rate mortgage fluctuates over the life of the loan. An ARM usually begins with an introductory period of 10, seven, five or even one year, during which your interest rate holds steady. After that, your rate changes based on an interest rate index chosen by the bank.

ARMs look good to a lot of homebuyers because they usually offer lower introductory rates. But remember, your rate could go up after your introductory period, so be sure you’re comfortable with the chance your monthly mortgage payment could rise substantially in the future. As you try to figure out how to get the best mortgage rate. Use the terms of the loan to calculate what your payment might look like in different rate scenarios.

2. Should I pay for points?

A point is an upfront fee — 1% of the total mortgage amount — paid to lower the ongoing interest rate by a fixed amount, usually 0.125%. For example, if you take out a $200,000 loan at 4.25% interest, you might be able to pay a $2,000 fee to reduce the rate to 4.125%.

Paying for points makes sense if you plan to keep the loan for a long time, but since the average homeowner stays in his or her house for about nine years, the upfront costs often outweigh interest rate savings over time.

Alternatively, there are negative points. It’s the opposite of paying points: A lender reduces its fees in exchange for a higher ongoing interest rate. It’s tempting to reduce your upfront fees, but the additional interest you pay over the life of the loan can be significant. Carefully consider your short-term savings and your long-term costs before taking negative points.

3. How much should I expect to pay in closing costs?

Closing costs usually amount to about 3% of the purchase price of your home and are paid at the time you close, or finalize, the purchase of a house. Closing costs are made up of a variety of fees charged by lenders, including underwriting and processing charges, title insurance fees and appraisal costs, among others.

You’re allowed to shop around for lower fees in some cases, and the Loan Estimate form will tell you which ones those are. Shopping for the right lender is a good way to find the best mortgage rate, and save money on a mortgage and associated fees.

4. Do I qualify for any special programs?

Before you settle on a mortgage, find out if you’re eligible for any special programs that make home-buying less costly. For example:

    • VA loans. If you or your spouse are active military or veterans, you might qualify for a VA loan. Such loans allow low (or no) down payments and offer protections if you fall behind on your mortgage.
    • FHA loans: Like VA loans, an FHA loan allows low down payments, but they’re open to most U.S. residents. They’re popular with first-time homebuyers, because they require as little as 3.5% down and are more forgiving of low credit scores than traditional lenders.
    • USDA loans. If you live in a rural area, the USDA might give you a low- or no-down-payment mortgage and help cover closing costs. Like VA loans, USDA loans can also offer help if you fall behind on your payments.
    • First-time homebuyer programs: If this is your first go-round in the homeownership process, check out the HUD website for helpful information and a list of homebuyer assistance programs in your state.

5. How much can and should I put down?

Generally speaking, a lower down payment leads to a higher interest rate and paying more money overall. If you can, pay 20% of your home’s purchase price in your down payment. However, if you don’t have that kind of cash, don’t worry. Many lenders will accept down payments as low as 5% of your home’s purchase price.

Be aware: Low-down-payment loans often require private mortgage insurance. which adds to your overall cost, and you’ll probably pay a higher interest rate. Put down as much as you can while maintaining enough of a financial cushion to weather potential emergencies. As you ask potential lenders how to get the best mortgage rate. many will tell you that the more money you put down, the lower your rate will be.

NerdWallet s mortgage rate tool can help you see rates available to you with varying downpayments and purchase prices.

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How to Help a Heroin Addict #helping #a #heroin #addict


How to Help a Heroin Addict

More than 140,000 people used heroin for the first time in 2010, according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

If you or someone you love is addicted to heroin, you’re not alone. and there is help available. Call 1-888-744-0069 to find help for yourself or someone you love today.

Approaching a Loved One About Heroin Addiction Treatment

When someone is battling an addiction to heroin, the loved ones surrounding them may feel unsure of how to address the issue. Addiction to heroin can cause a number of distressing symptoms, and chances are the person wants to stop but doesn’t know how or continues using to avoid the onset of withdrawal symptoms.

The thing that a heroin abuser needs the most is support in sobriety. Make sure they know that you love them and will encourage them throughout their abstinence journey. When initially bringing up the suggestion of treatment, do your best to avoid negative dialogue that focuses on blame and judgment. Addiction is already isolating and stigmatizing so negative communication can push the addict further away. You will likely have better results if you encourage treatment in a caring and supportive manner while also making your personal boundaries clear and consistent.

In some cases, professional help can be very useful. Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a training program, conducted by a therapist, that teaches the loved ones of someone battling an addiction how to bring up the topic of treatment in an effective and productive way. It has been shown to work in seven out of ten cases, and it involves a lot of dedication on the part of the family (Meyers, Smith, Lash, 2005).

To be clear, offering support to your loved one does not mean enabling their addiction to continue. Remember, you can set your boundaries while continuing to offer the support your loved one needs and continuing to encourage treatment. By making it clear that you love them no matter what and that you will do what you can to help them through the struggle against their heroin addiction, you are establishing a trust in the relationship that they may not have realized was there.

Do You Love Someone With a Heroin Addiction? You’re Not Alone

The video below tells the story of Robbie, the lead singer of Vokab Kompany, who has watched his brother struggle with heroin addiction.

Heroin Addiction Treatment

Heroin can be extremely addictive, and as of 2012, over 100,000 people were admitted to treatment facilities for heroin usage. However, recovery from heroin addiction is possible. The exact treatment varies depending on the heroin addict, but one of the most effective treatments available is methadone. Once the patient has undergone tests for HIV, cardiovascular infections and hepatitis B and C tests, the addict will start detox therapy. During detox, certain medications may be used:

  • Methadone is a synthetic opiate that reduces the withdrawal symptoms associated with ending heroin use.
  • Buprenorphine is another prescription medication that has similar effects to methadone. While these can be addictive substances on their own, many consider these medications to be lifesaving.

Behavioral therapy is also used to help heroin abusers. Behavioral therapy is often used in conjunction with prescription treatments to help heroin users recover. Behavioral therapy styles include:

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy . which addresses destructive thought patterns and teaches skills for coping with stress.
  • Contingency management therapy uses a points system that rewards recovering heroin users for remaining drug free.

Behavioral therapy can take place in a one-on-one setting or in a group setting.

Another helpful resource for many is Narcotics Anonymous (NA). This is a nonprofit organization made up of recovering addicts. Groups meet independently and provide support and guidance while learning to live sober lives. Group meetings can supplement other types of treatment.

Heroin addiction help can take place in a number of settings:

  • Outpatient treatment is when heroin abusers live at home and continue their daily routines while receiving treatment.
  • Residential treatment is when the heroin addict lives full time at a treatment center. This allows the addict to focus exclusively on recovery.

For more information on the best treatment options for you, call 1-888-744-0069 .

Heroin Help Quiz question 1

Is Heroin Addictive?

Because of the way heroin affects the brain it is an extremely addictive drug In 2013, nearly 5 million people in the US reported having tried heroin at least once.

Heroin is an extremely addictive opiate due to how rapidly it enters the brain. It has both short-term and long-term effects. Short-term effects of using heroin include:

With long-term use, physical dependence increases. The long-term effects of heroin use may include collapsed veins, bacterial infections, and arthritis, which is why it’s so vital to get help as soon as possible. In fact, heroin is a potentially deadly drug. In 2012, over 3,600 deaths in the US were connected to heroin usage .

If you’re suffering form the effects of Heroin use and need help, don’t wait to find treatment.

Quotes from heroin addicts

  • “I live in real fear that I’ll relapse, and being so much older now, there’s no way I’d survive this time around.” (source )
  • “My father died from addiction, we lost a cousin, I myself had numerous overdoses and helped prevent siblings from OD-ing…”
  • “Recovery from heroin addiction is almost a miracle. Because it is not only your body that screams for the substance. Your brain wants it too. Without heroin, emotional pain feels unbearable.”

Heroin Help Quiz question 2

Recovery from Heroin Addiction is Possible

View the video below to see the journey of one man struggling from heroin addiction into treatment and recovery.

Credit: CBS News

What Are the Signs of Addiction?

Signs of drug addiction include needing increasingly larger or more frequent doses of heroin to feel the same effect. If you’re worried about yourself or someone you love, also watch for the following physical and behavioral signs of addiction to heroin:

  • Small, pinpoint pupils.
  • Slurred speech.
  • Slower reflexes.
  • Sweating.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Needle marks from injecting the drug.
  • Mood swings.
  • Spending money on heroin that you can’t afford.
  • Taking risks to obtain the drug.
  • Neglecting your appearance.

Heroin Help Quiz question 3

Am I Addicted to Heroin?

A sign that you’re addicted to heroin is if you experience withdrawal symptoms when you’re not using heroin. Symptoms of withdrawal include:

These withdrawal symptoms can be managed, however, so they are not an excuse to avoid detoxing.

Heroin Help Quiz question 4

Questions to Ask Yourself

  • Am I unable to stop heroin use?
  • Do I spend money on heroin I need for necessities?
  • Have I lost interest in hobbies and activities?
  • Can I imagine life without heroin?

Take the Assessment

The following short test will help you determine the extent of the problem.

Heroin Help Quiz question 5

Call Our Hotline Today

Recognizing that you or a loved one needs heroin addiction help can be difficult and frightening. You don’t have to deal with addiction alone, though. There are professionals available to help you or your loved one. Call our hotline today at 1-888-744-0069 to find out what options are best for you and your situation .

Heroin Help Quiz question 6


More than 140,000 people used heroin for the first time in 2010, according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. If you or someone you love is addicted to heroin, you re not alone, and there is help available. Call 1-888-744-0069 to find help for yourself or someone you love today. Approaching a Loved One

Fountain Hills Recovery

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Royal Mail Business Collections – mail collection from your premises #collections, #business #collection, #mail



Yes. To confirm your new address and the date you d like us to start collecting from there, send us an email .

How can I cancel my Customer Collection service?

To cancel your regular Collection, we ll need one month s notice. You can:

Royal Mail
Customer Account Processing Centre
PO Box 579
S49 1WW

Can I change the time of my Collection?

If you don t already pay for a Timed Collection, we ll need to check that your local office can provide that service. Send us an email with your request. If the time you select isn t available, you can apply for a Timed Collection Service. If you have a Timed Collection service, and want to change the time, send us an email with your request .

Can I specify the exact time I want my mail collected?

If you don t apply for a regular Timed Collection, we can t guarantee a collection time. We ll try to agree a time within 15 minutes of your request, subject to availability.

I’ve received a letter telling me that my collection time will change. Why?

Our Operational Modernisation Programme is about making the best use of our people and equipment and as part of that we need to look at all our collection routes. To see the changes that are happening in your area, you can read our Operational Modernisation information.

The driver hasn’t turned up to collect my mail, what do I do?

It s highly likely our driver is on the way and has just run into some unexpected traffic. However, if you are concerned, please call your local team contact or call us on 08457 950 950*. Please keep in mind that we re unable to contact our drivers when they re driving and collecting mail.

I pay for customer collection but I am now spending over £15,000 per year on Royal Mail products and services, how do I change to a free one?

If you spend 15,000 on Royal Mail products and services at the address we collect your mail from, you can change this to a free Customer Collection when we send your annual renewal invoice. You will have 30 days from the date on your invoice to make this request.

To complete your request, send us an email or write to:

Royal Mail Collections Team
PO Box 740
S73 0ZJ

Quote your Customer Collection account number and evidence of your spend. Evidence of spend includes:

  • Your account number(s) used for posting mail from the same site we are collecting from
  • Your Franking machine DIE number(s)
  • Your SmartStamp receipts
  • Any other valid proof of spend on Royal Mail s products or services.

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Philadelphia Schools, 1-25 – Philadelphia, PA, GreatSchools, p a schools.#P #a #schools


1647 schools found in Philadelphia, PA Save this search

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Public district K-8 | 4209 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19104

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Public district 6-9 | 6200 Crittenden St, Philadelphia, PA 19138

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Public district 5-12 | 1699 Spring Garden St, Philadelphia, PA 19130

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Public district 9-12 | 1700 West Olney Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19141

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Public district 9-12 | 1101 North 4th St, Philadelphia, PA 19123

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Public charter 9-12 | 5301 Tacony St Building 108, Philadelphia, PA 19137

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Public district 5-12 | 23rd And Ritner Sts, Philadelphia, PA 19145

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Public district 9-12 | 1100 Catharine St, Philadelphia, PA 19147

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Public district K-8 | 725 South 5th St, Philadelphia, PA 19147

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Public district 9-12 | 1600 West Norris St, Philadelphia, PA 19121

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Public charter K-12 | 1800 East Byberry Rd, Philadelphia, PA 19116

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Public district 9-12 | 11081 Knights Rd, Philadelphia, PA 19154

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Public district 9-12 | 2130 Arch St, Philadelphia, PA 19103

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Public district 9-12 | 1400 West Olney Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19141

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Public charter K-8 | 5901 Woodbine Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19131

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Public district K-8 | 325 South 7th St, Philadelphia, PA 19106

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Public district K-8 | 600 Sharon Ln, Philadelphia, PA 19115

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Public district K-8 | 2200 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19103

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Public district 6-8 | 8801 Verree Rd, Philadelphia, PA 19115

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Public district 9-12 | 901 South Broad St, Philadelphia, PA 19147

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Public charter K-12 | 11000 Roosevelt Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19116

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Public charter K-12 | 8001 Torresdale Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19136

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Public charter K-8 | 119 Rector St, Philadelphia, PA 19127

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Public charter K-8 | 1023 Callowhill St, Philadelphia, PA 19123

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Public charter 9-12 | 1928 Point Breeze Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19145

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How to Start a BPO (Business Process Outsourcing) in India #how #to #start #a


How to Start a BPO or Call Center in India

To start a BPO in India the entrepreneurs need to register with NASSCOM who will consequently verify the applicants’ integrity and then certify the organization. The owners should also set up a business development team that is capable of doing good research on the web and also analyzing the available information.

Steps involved in starting a new BPO

Create a new business plan

The owners always need to have a proper business plan in order to set up a successful BPO. Ideally, they should go for a BPO market segment where they have the requisite skill. They should also have a clear idea about the number of clients they will want to deal with at various stages of their operation.

To start with, the entrepreneurs should provide these companies their resumes as it is crucial to have a proper profile at the initial stages. They should also be ready to make minor adjustments to their desired pay structure at these stages. Following are the major components of a business plan:

  • Business goals
  • Logistics
  • Financial requirements
  • Staffing plans

Application process

The application form for a Business Process Outsourcing entity differs with respect to various entities. With some organizations, the application procedure is easy as they have online application forms that can be filled out.

In case of other companies, the owners need to get in touch with them directly and then arrange for a meeting where they will be able to highlight their abilities and experience. The owners should remember that with higher complexities their chances of success and staving off competition will be better.

It has often been seen that companies take a lot of time to reply. The entrepreneurs need to keep track of any progress in this regard. At times, they need to take the initiative and call up the companies where they have applied and get the latest information regarding their application.

The following table provides a comparative representation of the application procedures necessary for domestic and international call centers for Department of Telecommunications of India:

Domestic call centers

International call centers

Demand draft of specified amount drawn in favor of Pay and Accounts Officer (HQ) DoT. This is used as processing fee.

Demand draft of specified amount drawn in favor of Pay and Accounts Officer (HQ) DoT. This is used as processing fee.

Address of every location connected with leased lines or PSTN lines with incoming facilities only

Address of the location of every Indian and international terminal with IPLC connections

Bandwidth of lines that have been taken on lease

Bandwidth of lines that have been taken on lease and the reasons to justify the same

Amount of call center seats

Amount of call center seats

The organizational Memorandum of Article of Association

The organizational Memorandum of Article of Association

Schematic representation of the call center plan and total details of equipments being used

Schematic representation of the call center plan and total details of equipments being used

Name of clients. If clients are yet to be procured then the information can be provided prior to starting the service

Name of clients. If clients are yet to be procured then the information can be provided prior to starting the service

Nature of business operations

Proof of business type and contracts signed with end customers

Collecting important details

When an entrepreneur is trying to make repeated applications to a client that is yet to come back with an answer, they can highlight the following aspects:

  • Weekly market statistics
  • Mailing memorable items on a regular basis – this can include holiday postcards and sports schedules
  • Promotional items that have the applicants’ contact information and company logo

It is crucial that the lenders and banks have a positive image of a BPO. The entrepreneurs can start operations by researching for an updated list of companies that need to hire BPOs. The best way to achieve this is to procure a list from a well known provider of such information.

Important business decisions

The basic factor in starting a successful call center is deciding its nature of operations. Following are the major options available in this regard:

  • Inbound
  • Outsource
  • Outbound

Guidelines for starting a new BPO

The call centers are registered, as per the company established rules, under the Other Service Provider category. They can serve Indian companies on a non-exclusive basis. To start with, they are allowed to operate for a maximum period of 20 years following registration.

The call centers can avail 100 percent foreign direct investment. But they need to make sure that they inform the relevant authorities before they change the equity structure or their Indian or international partners. The applicable regulations also have to be followed in this regard.

The resources can be procured from authorized sources only. The local leased lines need to be taken from certified service providers and the IPLC has to be collected from certified operators of International Long Distance services.

The service providers normally assess the network diagram and provide resources to the OSP. This is done according to terms and conditions of the approval and prevalent policy guidelines pertaining to the concerned service provider. The service provider and the OSP, both, will be held accountable in case there is a violation of rules.

Normally domestic call centers are allowed to be set up on separate infrastructures. But requests for establishing a call center on an existing private network are judged on a case by case basis.

Two domestic call centers of the same organization can be interconnected but only after obtaining the necessary permission from the DoT. The permission is provided in case of the following situations:

  • Redundancy
  • Load balancing
  • Back up

However, domestic call centers are not allowed to interconnect with their international counterparts. PSTN connectivity is also not allowed in the following cases. They are allowed to handle both inbound and outbound calls.

The Indian end of an international call center is allowed to avail IPLC and internet connectivity in the same LAN. However, this permission is provided on the grounds that there shall be no transfer of data and voice traffic from the ISP through the call center’s IPLC.

If the company wants to increase an approved IPLC’s bandwidth then it can approach a certified ILD directly and inform the DoT within 15 days of the same. In case, it wants to add or change the POP, then the application needs to be sent directly to the DoT itself.

International call centers are allowed to interconnect with “Hot Sites” for getting back up and operating during any disaster. However, this permission is only given if international call center owners have provided the following facilities:

  • An exclusive router or server at the hot site
  • A locally leased line that connects the IPLC provider to the hot site
  • Local lease lines to the dedicated server at the hot site

The hot sites can only be used during the disaster. The process involves a request to the IPLC provider to change the IPLC towards the hot sites. In such circumstances, the DoT has to be informed as well.

The international call centers belonging to the same company can also cross map their seats for using them during any disaster. Under normal circumstances the actual call center will use all the seats but in abnormal situations they will have to leave the cross mapped seats for the other international call center. The DoT has to be informed in these cases as well.

Last Updated on May 25, 2015

New Business Ideas

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Psychology (EN) – Bachelor – s degree programmes – Bachelor – s Degree Programmes,



Behaviour and wellbeing

In the VU bachelor Psychology, you will learn how to use various scientific methods to study human behaviour and wellbeing. You will learn to understand behaviour—how we think, feel and act—and how those processes can go wrong. As a bachelor student you will acquire the methods and knowledge to address questions such as “What makes us who we are?” “What makes a person happy or depressed?”, “How do we learn? and “Why do some people have healthy lifestyles and others do not?”. You will learn that such questions are embedded in a broader context of how people develop over the lifespan, how people perceive and make decisions, what drives people, how genetic and environmental influences interact to make us who we are, and how and which interventions or therapies may help people with psychological problems.

Basic foundation

The VU bachelor Psychology offers you courses in clinical psychology, neuro- and developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, biological psychology, and social and organizational psychology. In the first two years of the study, you will acquire a broad understanding of the field of psychology and its methodology, and of the various research questions that currently define the field. Following this broad introduction, you will – towards the end of the second year – specialise by choosing a subject of your interest. In the subsequent bachelor year, you will pursue your subject both by acquiring knowledge and methods specific to your interests, and by learning general research skills, such reporting and communicating research results.

Looking beyond the bachelor

New scientific developments are continually shaping the field. For instance, such developments enable the study of the influence of physical activity on brain function and genetic influences on diseases such as autism, and they also give rise to new subjects such as e-health (healthcare by electronic processes). Psychology is a broad, multi-faceted discipline within the VU-wide research theme Human Health and Life Sciences. As students of psychology you will acquire a broad perspective, while focusing on the various application areas such as clinical (neuro) psychology, work and organizational psychology, social psychology, and developmental psychology.

Intensive and active study

Studying psychology at VU Amsterdam calls for active interest and participation. We foster this in working groups, in which we supervise students in actively pursuing knowledge and learning. Students are expected to adopt an active learning attitude in general, to participate actively in group meetings and to prepare well for working groups and lectures.

Your future

By completing the bachelor psychology successfully you will acquire the title Bachelor of Science (BSc), and with this title, a solid understanding of the scientific foundations of psychology. Following the bachelor many students choose to pursue a Master of psychology. which is also offered by VU Amsterdam.

Your subsequent career depends on your exact Master program, on your subsequent training and experience. Given a clinical Master, you may become a clinical psychologist, a clinical neuropsychologist or a development psychologist in a hospital or in mental health care organisations. There you would be involved in the treatment or diagnosis of clients with mental disorders and psychosocial problems. You can also choose to specialize as a work and organizational psychologist. You may pursue a career as a human resource manager or consultant at the personnel or managerial department of a large company or institute. As a social psychologist, you may work in communication or advisory positions in commercial organisations and government.

VU Amsterdam also offers two-year Research Master programs which prepare student for an academic career in psychology. Having followed such programs, you may work as a junior researcher at a university or research institute, or you may continue your academic career by pursuing a PhD.

Admission criteria and application

Note that the initial application procedure is fully online and that scans of your relevant documents are required.

You start the application procedure through the Studielink.nl national application system. You will then receive an e-mail inviting you to complete your application in the VU student portal, where you will also be asked to submit all documentation needed for the admission procedure. You do not have to complete your application in one session; you can save it and come back to it as often as you want before completing and submitting it.

Required application documents:

  • CV
  • Copy of valid passport or ID (ID for EEA students only)
  • Copy of your diploma (if obtained, can also be provided after conditional admission)
  • Copy of your latest transcript of records (if you have not graduated yet, please send us an official transcript listing the marks you have received to date). For A-level and IB applicants: include predicted Grade transcript if available.
  • Proof of sufficient English language test results (can also be provided after conditional admission)

A (to be obtained) secondary school diploma equivalent to the Dutch pre-university VWO is a primary admission criteria.

International students who require housing facilities, as well as all non-EEA students, must apply before 1 April 2017. EEA students who do not require housing facilities must apply before 1 May 2017. You will be informed about your admission within four weeks after the completion of your application (including all required documents).

Application fee
The (non-refundable) application fee for all applicants is €100. Please read the application fee procedure carefully.

English language requirements
VU Amsterdam requires all applicants to take an English test and to submit their score as a part of the application before 1 August 2017.

  • Exceptions are made for students who have completed their score as a part of the application before the given deadline.
  • Exceptions are made for students who have completed their education in Canada, USA, UK, Ireland, New Zealand or Australia or who have obtained an International Baccalaureate or European Baccalaureate diploma (English taught).

The following tests and scores are accepted:

  • IELTS 6.5
  • TOEFL paper based test: 580
  • TOEFL computer based test: 237
  • TOEFL internet based test: 92
  • Cambridge Advanced English score A, B or C, or equivalent

If you are already in the Netherlands, you can also register for a TOEFL test at VU Taalcentrum. Please note however that this test is only valid at VU Amsterdam. VU Amsterdam only accepts language tests that have been completed max. 2 years ago. The certificate of the test may not be older than 2 years, counted from the date you start the Psychology program at VU Amsterdam.

Applications to Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam are done completely online. You start the application procedure through the Studielink.nl national application system. You will then receive an e-mail inviting you to complete your application in the VU student portal, where you will also be asked to submit all documentation needed for the admission procedure. You do not have to complete your application in one session; you can save it and come back to it as often as you want before completing and submitting it.

Prepare documents and apply online. Please note that it is always possible to apply online, even if your English test results or your diploma are not yet available.


This is what you will be doing

This VU bachelor Psychology is a three-year program. The teaching includes lectures and tutorials. By means of the lectures, you will gain knowledge and insights from the literature. In the supervised workgroups you will extend your knowledge by assignments and discussions with fellow students. The study will require about 40 hours a week, and will include about 12 teaching hours a week at VU Amsterdam.

The aim of the first year is to impart basic knowledge of psychology, and its various subdisciplines. The first years includes a general introduction to psychology, and introductions to basic skills in methods, statistics, and diagnostics.

In the second year, the emphasis is on deepening the knowledge acquired in the first year. For instance this will include an introduction to neuropsychology. In neuropsychology you study the effect of brain damage on people’s behaviour (e.g. agnosia, aphasia, dementia). You also follow courses on Work and Organizational Psychology, Philosophy and Psychology, and the Interaction of Genes and Environment. Towards the end of the second year you may choose from three courses, reflecting the three third year specialisation tracks. This will help you decide on your minor track, which will determine the content of your third year.

During this so-called profiling year, you will immerse yourself into the minor track that you have chosen at the end of your second year. The Bachelor’s program is concluded with the Bachelor-thesis. Following the Bachelors program, students can pursue their education by enrolling in the master program, which in turn builds on the minor track followed in the third year.
More detailed information about the third year can be found in our study guide.

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Nursing Degree – Seneca – Toronto, Canada #getting #a #nursing #degree



Program Description

In this program, you will learn from intensive classroom instruction in theoretical and nursing practice. You’ll also gain a solid foundation in human anatomy and physiology, and complementary subjects in general education, as well as a minimum of 1,700 hours of clinical experience.

360° Virtual Tours

Your subjects will include nursing theory, the nurse as professional person, nursing practice, professional issues, human anatomy and physiology, pathophysiology, psychology and General Education.

Experience in the nursing practice laboratory and in several hospital and community settings is integral to the course of study.

To improve your likelihood of success while studying in BSCN, we recommend limiting employment to less than eight hours per week.

Provincial Registration

In order to practice in Ontario as a Registered Nurse, Nursing program graduates must be successful in the Registration Examination administered by the College of Nurses of Ontario and must maintain their certificate of competence thereafter. As a result of regulations arising out of the Nursing Act 1991, applicants for registration in Ontario must not have been convicted of:

  1. A criminal offence; OR
  2. An offence under the Narcotic Control Act (Canada) or the Food and Drugs Act (Canada).

Applicants who do not meet this requirement will be reviewed by the College of Nurses of Ontario (CNO) to determine if registration will be granted.

Successful Ontario registrants are eligible for registration throughout Canada (French required in Quebec).

Important Information

Seneca College offers the Nursing program in collaboration with York University. Successfully complete the first two years (four semesters) of this program and you will be eligible to continue on to York University to complete two additional years leading to a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (Honours) Degree. You’ll be required to meet York University admission requirements. The Collaborative BScN program is a four-year full-time program. Students normally must complete this program within six (6) calendar years (18 semesters) from the time of admission.

Important Notice

As of January 1, 2005, all new applicants for professional registration with the College of Nurses of Ontario must complete a bachelor’s degree in Nursing.

Program Requirements

All students in a York University Honours program must maintain an overall (all courses) grade point average (GPA) of 2.5 (C+ or 65%). For students in the Honours BScN program there are three additional requirements for courses:

  1. A minimum grade of C+ (65%) for all professional (NUR/HAP/HDP) courses.
  2. A “SATISFACTORY” grade in the clinical component of all practicum courses.
  3. A minimum grade of C (60%) for all other courses (PSY/LSO).

In Years 1 and 2, your academic standing is evaluated at the end of each term. You will receive a transcript on Student Centre. It will contain a statement about whether or not you are eligible to continue in the BScN program.

Academic Standing definitions for the BScN program are:

  • Good – Successfully completed all professional courses with a term GPA* of 2.5 or greater.
  • Probation- Failed one professional course or term GPA* is below 2.5. Must successfully complete all future professional subjects to remain in the program. No option to drop any professional courses.
  • Withdrawn – Does not meet program progression requirements. Failed two or more professional courses.
  • Students who have been out of the program for longer than one year may be required to repeat credits previously attained. There are no partial credits.
  • Students are allowed to retake a professional course once, provided they meet the requirements to remain in the program. Students should note that course availability and space considerations may preclude the possibility of repeating a course in the term they choose.
  • When a student is allowed to repeat a course, the second grade will be the grade of record, and the only grade calculated in the student’s Program GPA. Both grades will be calculated in the Cumulative GPA. A course can be credited only once towards satisfaction of degree academic credit requirements.
  • In order to transfer to York University, students must have successfully completed all required courses in Years 1 and 2 with a minimum program GPA of 2.5.

Admission Requirements

Ontario Secondary School Diploma (OSSD) or equivalent including six Grade 12 (U) or (M) courses with a minimum grade of 70% in each and a minimum overall average of 80%, or a mature applicant (21 years or older and has been out of high school for a minimum of two years). Mature applicants should disclose all previous postsecondary transcripts.

Required courses – minimum final grade of 70% in each:

  • English: Grade 12 ENG 4(U)
  • Mathematics: any Grade 12(U)
  • Biology: Grade 12 SBI 4(U)
  • Chemistry: Grade 12 SCH 4(U) or Physics: Grade 12 SPH 4(U)

University GPA Requirement:

  • Applicants who have completed at least four full courses or one year of full-time degree studies at an accredited university may be considered for admission. GPA requirements will be determined annually.

College GPA Requirement:

  • Applicants who have completed at least two full semesters or one year of full-time studies at an accredited college must have achieved the following GPA for admission consideration:
    • 3.3 (B+/75% or equivalent).

For further information on the York/Seneca BScN University/College GPA requirements, go to yorku.ca and click on University/College Transfer.

  • Applicant grades in prerequisite courses (or their equivalents) may be used as a basis for the selection of candidates.
  • Since the number of eligible applicants frequently exceeds the number of places available, every effort is made to ensure the applicants selected are those with the highest likelihood of success.
  • To be eligible for all practicum placements, students must have a completed Clinical Preparedness Permit, which includes:
    • A valid certificate in Basic Rescuer Level Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Health Care Provider
    • A current medical and immunization report
    • A current clear police record check
    • A record of mask fit testing.

BScN Language Proficiency

You meet our language proficiency requirements if you have completed:

  • four full years of study in Canada in English or French at the secondary school level; OR
  • four full years at the secondary school level in English in a country where English is a primary language; OR
  • the equivalent of one full year of an accredited university degree program in English in a country where English is a primary language; OR
  • two full years of study in an accredited college diploma program in English in a country where English is a primary language.

If you do not meet the above criteria, you must complete an acceptable English language proficiency test and earn an appropriate score. Test results should be sent to ontariocolleges.ca .

Acceptable Language Test

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Payroll Taxes: Withholding and Remitting Them to the IRS #payroll #taxes,taxes #for #church #payroll,calculate


Payroll Taxes

Is the church or nonprofit required to withhold federal payroll taxes from its employee(s) paychecks?

If you are a nonprofit, you are required to withhold and pay federal taxes on your payroll.

If you are a church and if you have any non-minister employees, you must withhold and match Social Security tax, and Medicare tax (FICA). You are also required to withhold income taxes when applicable.

Even if your church only has minister employees, you still may have to withhold income tax, if your minister has elected voluntary income tax withholds on his W-4. So, most churches will be required to withhold payroll taxes and remit them to the IRS.

The only exception to the church not being required to match Social Security and Medicare taxes for their nonministerial employees is rare cases where a church has filed an IRS Form 8274, (Certification by Churches and Qualified Church-Controlled Organizations Electing Exemption from Employer Social Security and Medicare Taxes) and been approved.

The Church Accounting: How To Guide devotes a whole section of the book to payroll for churches. It covers payroll terminology and forms and then takes you through the steps necessary to set up a payroll, calculate and file the necessary taxes and forms, and even details how to handle the minister’s payroll. It also includes sections on filling out IRS forms: 1099 and 1096.

If you have QuickBooks or are considering using it in the future, go ahead and purchase the QuickBooks for Churches and the How To Guide combo for a complete package on setting up and administering a payroll using QuickBooks.

QuickBooks for Churches & Church Accounting Combo Bundle

Calculating taxes for a payroll.

Each employee, including the minister if he has elected voluntary income tax withholding, must complete a W-4.

For non-minister employees, you must withhold the following taxes:

  1. Federal income taxes (based upon information provided in a W-4 )(Use the federal tax tables from IRS Publication 15, also known as Circular E )
  2. Social Security tax is 6.2% of gross wages.
  3. Medicare tax is 1.45% of gross wages.

Matching payroll taxes.

Your organization must match the FICA tax withheld from your non-minister employee payroll checks.(Exception stated above )

The amount of the matching federal taxes for a payroll is:

Total matching 7.65%

Regarding Medicare and Social Security tax and minister’s paychecks. see my Clergy Tax page

Is your organization considered small, medium, or large by the IRS? Your payroll tax liability determines how often you have to pay your taxes for a payroll to the IRS. See section 11 of Pub 15 (Circular E) for more details.

Unemployment taxes.

Churches are exempt from federal unemployment taxes. Many states also grant exemption to churches from state unemployment taxes.

Consult the state unemployment tax agency for your particular state to make sure your state grants an exemption to churches.

Workers compensation.

Most states require churches to provide Workers’ Compensation. Please check with your state to see if your church or nonprofit organization is required to provide this coverage.

For those of you residing in the beautiful country of Canada, I found a great payroll resource for you. Church Treasurers of Canada Inc.

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