California Repossession Law: What To Expect And How To Avoid It #california #bankruptcy #law


California Repossession Law: What To Expect And How To Avoid It

Last updated April 15, 2016.

When a creditor comes to repossess your car. boat, or other property, do you know what to do? Here s what you need to know about California repossession law.

When can a creditor repossess my property in California?

Creditors generally retain the right to repossess the property you acquire with a purchase money loan. The most common example is an auto loan. so we’ll use that throughout the article. Keep in mind that the same applies to any property that is collateral for a loan. So, you borrow money to buy a car and the car secures the debt. If you stop paying, the lender can reclaim the property. It may choose to sue and get a judgment against you, but it’s not required as long as the repossession is peaceful.

In California, the lender may repossess your car as soon as you default on the loan, even if the payment is just one day late. The specific terms of your loan agreement may give you a grace period, so read it carefully. West’s Ann. Cal. Com. Code §§ 9601, 9609. In addition, the lender is entitled to repossess after default of any kind on the loan agreement. That means that not only is your car at risk if you miss a payment or pay late, but if you break another term of the loan agreement. For example, auto loans require that you keep the car insured. If you allow your insurance to lapse, your lender has the right to repossess.

You don’t have to be present for the lender to repossess your car. They can take the property from any publicly accessible area, including your driveway. However, a repossession agent can’t break into your house or into a locked or fenced area without permission from the legal owner of the property (you or your landlord).

Of course, just because the lender has the right to repossess doesn’t necessarily mean that it will do so. It’s much easier and cheaper for the lender if you simply continue to make your payments. They’ll only act to repossess if they believe that you’re not going to pay or that you’ll destroy the collateral.

Who can repossess property?

In California, two different types of individuals may repossess your car. First, your lender may hire a repossession agency. Repossession agencies must be licensed by the California Department of Consumer Affairs’ Bureau of Security and Investigative Services (BSIS). They must show you a BSIS ID if you ask for it. You can verify the license online or call BSIS at (916) 322-4000. An employee of the legal owner (probably the bank or the dealership) may also repossess the property; they don’t have to be licensed by BSIS.

After repossession, you ll have to pay for the storage of any personal items left in the car and some lone agreements may require you to pay the costs of repossession and storage of the car itself.

How can I avoid repossession?

If you honor the all of the terms of your loan agreement, the lender cannot repossess your car. If you default on one or more terms, you are at risk for repossession. There are, however, steps you can take to prevent it.

Reinstate the Loan

If you’ve missed one or more payments, the best option is pay all of the missed payments and all applicable late fees at once. This is called “reinstating the loan” or “curing the default.” Your loan agreement may or may not include provisions for reinstatement, but California law protects your right to reinstate the loan even after repossession, until the property is sold or otherwise disposed of. If you falsified information on your loan agreement, hid the car, used it to commit a crime, damaged the vehicle, or threatened violence against the repossession agent, you lose the right to reinstate the loan. In addition, you can only reinstate a loan once every 12 months and a maximum of twice over the course of the loan.

Contact Your Lender

If you can’t afford to pay all of your missed payments and late fees at once, you may reach out to your lender to ask for other options. Repossession is time consuming and expensive and many lenders will be willing to work with you to avoid that option. You may be able to negotiate a longer grace period or a lower interest rate, which will make payments easier.

Sell the Property

You may choose to sell the car yourself. If your car is repossessed, the lender will dispose of it at auction. If the car sells for less than you owe, you’re liable for the difference. If you organize a private sale, you’ll probably get a better price than you would at auction. Selling the car may be difficult, though. It will require the approval of your lender and they can refuse the sale for any reason or no reason at all. However, you may be able to use the lender’s refusal to protect yourself from liability for the deficiency if they receive less at auction than your private buyer offered.

Surrender the Property

You can also choose to surrender the car. You still lose it, but you may be able to negotiate a surrender as full payment of the loan. Then you won’t have to worry about a deficiency after the auction.

Refinance Your Loan

You can offer to refinance through the original lender or through a different lender. A refinanced loan will usually have a longer term, which means you’ll be paying more interest overall. If you choose to refinance, make sure that you can afford your new loan. Make sure it has a lower interest rate than your current one and don’t forget to check the fees. Consider also whether it’s worth refinancing. A new loan may last three to five years or more. If your car is already older, it may not be worth refinancing.

File for Bankruptcy

If you’re having trouble with more than one loan, bankruptcy may be a good option for you. When you file for bankruptcy, you get the protection of the automatic stay. The automatic stay stops all collection actions against you – including repossession. The bankruptcy process will give you some time to organize your finances without worrying about waking up and finding your car has been repossessed. Most debtors can keep their cars and other property through bankruptcy. In addition, you may only have to repay the loan up to the value of the car rather than repaying the full amount of the loan. Bankruptcy is a serious measure for serious debt problems, so reach out to an experienced bankruptcy attorney to discuss whether it’s the right choice for you. If you car has been repossessed, but not yet sold at auction, you still can get the vehicle back through a Chapter 13 bankruptcy .

Don t let repossession take you by surprise.

Whenever you take out a loan, read the entire agreement carefully and make sure you understand everything in it. It will include details about a grace period and the steps your lender will take if you miss payments. If you are going to fall behind on your payments, start considering your options for avoiding repossession. The earlier you act, the easier it is to keep your car.

If you have missed several payments on your loan and are facing property repression, contact one of our experienced attorneys at Borowitz Clark. We have years of experience helping thousands of consumers successfully resolve their financial issues.

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West Houston Hotels, Wyndham Houston West Energy Corridor, Upscale Hotels in Houston, best energy


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Enjoy a dip in the indoor saltwater pool and get energized in our Wellness Center. Savor creative modern Texas cuisine at Park Restaurant Grille, and meet for drinks and a game of billiards at Ten Bar Lounge. Celebrate or get inspired in 9,200 square feet of dynamic meeting and event space, including 12 meeting rooms and the Berkshire Ballroom. We offer a free shuttle within 5 miles and to 16 area businesses.

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Bachelor of Exercise and Sport Science, Deakin, bachelor of science human services.#Bachelor #of #science


Bachelor of Exercise and Sport Science



The Bachelor of Exercise and Sport Science is nationally recognised and the field-leading degree of its type in Victoria. The major focus of the course and your learning is to improve performance, health and participation of individuals, athletes and teams through training, coaching and advice.

You will develop the expertise to become a professional leader in exercise and sport science, and have the opportunity to study the biology, technology, behaviour and best practices that underpin exercise and sport science.

Depending on your career aspirations and areas of interest, you could choose to focus your study in specialised streams such as coaching, exercise physiology, health promotion, sports nutrition, psychology, or physical activity and health.

This is the first and longest standing undergraduate course in Victoria with an accredited pathway to directly facilitate your capacity to register and practice as an Accredited Exercise Scientist with the peak national accrediting body, Exercise and Sport Science Australia (ESSA).

Saved Course

You have saved Bachelor of Exercise and Sport Science to your saved items where it can be compared against other courses and also shared. Access saved items in the top right hand corner of the navigation. Courses are saved with cookies. Learn more about them.

Key facts

Clearly-in ATAR 2017

Waurn Ponds: 60.70



Trimester 1

  • Start date: March
  • Available at:
    • Burwood (Melbourne)
    • Waurn Ponds (Geelong)

Trimester 2

  • Start date: July
  • Available at:
    • Burwood (Melbourne)
    • Waurn Ponds (Geelong)

Trimester 2 offering subject to availability of places

Deakin splits the academic year into three terms, known as trimesters. Most students usually undertake two trimesters each year (March-June, July-November).

Key information

Award granted

Estimated tuition fee – full-fee paying place

Estimated tuition fee – (CSP)

VTAC code

1400310381 – Waurn Ponds (Geelong), Commonwealth Supported Place (HECS)

1400314411 – Waurn Ponds (Geelong), Commonwealth Supported Place (HECS)

1400514411 – Burwood (Melbourne), Commonwealth Supported Place (HECS)

Deakin code



Approval status

Australian Quality Framework (AQF) recognition

Course Structure

Course structure applies for students who commenced in 2018 onwards. Students who commenced prior to 2018 should refer to previous online Handbooks or consult your course enrolment officer

To complete the Bachelor of Exercise and Sport Science students must attain 24 credit points. Most units (think of units as ‘subjects’) are equal to 1 credit point. in order to gain 24 credit points you will need to study 24 units (AKA ‘subjects’). Most students choose to study 4 units per trimester and usually undertaken two trimesters each year.

The course comprises 24 credit points which includes 16 core units (these are compulsory and 8 elective units (you can choose which ones to study).

Also, you can select elective units to form a major sequence. Majors can be selected from within the Faculty of Health or any other Faculty, subject to availability and pre-requisites. Majors may include applied sport science, exercise physiology, strength and conditioning, sport coaching, nutrition, physical activity and health, health promotion, management, sports nutrition, marketing, languages or media.

Campus mode Burwood (Melbourne) units only available to Burwood (Melbourne) based students.

Core units

Level 1 – Trimester 1

plus one elective unit (recommended from level 1)

Level 1 – Trimester 2

plus one elective unit (recommended from level 1)

Level 2 – Trimester 1

plus two elective units (recommended from level 1 or level 2)

Level 2 – Trimester 2

Level 3 – Trimester 1

plus two elective units (recommended from level 1 or level 2)

Level 3 – Trimester 2

plus two elective units (recommended from level 1 or level 2)

* Unit also available in Trimester 3 2017

Elective units

Exercise and Sport Science elective units

Electives are offered subject to availability of resources and quotas where applicable.

Level 1 – Trimester 1

Level 1 – Trimester 2

Level 2 – Trimester 1

Level 2 – Trimester 2

Level 3 – Trimester 1

Level 3 – Trimester 2

Major Sequences

Refer to the details of each major sequence for availability.

  • Exercise Physiology – Burwood (Melbourne), Waurn Ponds (Geelong)
  • Applied Sport Science – Burwood (Melbourne), Waurn Ponds (Geelong)
  • Physical Activity and Health – Burwood (Melbourne), Waurn Ponds (Geelong), Warrnambool
  • Sports Nutrition – Burwood (Melbourne), Waurn Ponds (Geelong)
  • Sport Coaching – Burwood (Melbourne)
  • Strength and Conditioning – Burwood (Melbourne), Waurn Ponds (Geelong)
  • Psychology – Burwood (Melbourne), Waurn Ponds (Geelong), Warrnambool, Cloud (online). Individual units may not be available on every campus
  • Nutrition – Burwood (Melbourne), Waurn Ponds (Geelong)
  • Health Promotion – Burwood (Melbourne), Waurn Ponds (Geelong), Warrnambool, Cloud (online)
  • Family, Society and Health – Burwood (Melbourne), Cloud (online)
  • Disability and Inclusion – Burwood (Melbourne), Cloud (online)

Entry requirements

Deakin University offers admission to undergraduate courses through a number of Admission categories.

In all categories of admission, selection is based primarily on academic merit as indicated by an applicant’s previous academic record.

For more information on the Admission Criteria and Selection Policy visit the Deakin Policy Library.

Applicants should have successfully completed VCE, or equivalent, including Units 3 and 4: a study score of at least 30 in English (EAL) or at least 25 in English other than EAL.

Professional Recognition

Exercise and Sport Science Australia

The Burwood (Melbourne) campus was the first to achieve ESSA accreditation status in Victoria and recognises our long standing commitment to quality standards in education and curriculum delivery, while this accreditation was additionally awarded for the Waurn Ponds campus in 2015.

H343 Bachelor of Exercise and Sport Science students who have been awarded Credit for Prior Learning for non-university studies (such as credit for prior learning obtained via TAFE study or Deakin College) please note that you may not be eligible for immediate registration with ESSA. This does not mean that ESSA registration is not available to you. What it means is that registration is not automatically granted as a Deakin graduate from the H343 Bachelor of Exercise and Sport Science course.

You can still apply to ESSA for membership but you will need to apply on your own directly to ESSA when you have completed your course. Application details can be found on the ESSA website, and you will be required to complete the non-NUCAP form. In the application you will need to demonstrate that you have met the exercise science knowledge and skills requirements.

Physical Activity Australia

Students can register with Physical Activity Australia (PAA) to be able to work as an Exercise Instructor by successfully completing the required specialisation unit sequence as part of the Bachelor of Exercise and Sport Science course. This permits registration with PAA to a level equivalent to a Certificate III in Fitness and/or Certificate IV in Fitness. Specific requirements for registration are currently under review and the information will be available by the end of October 2017.

Career outcomes

As well as traditional roles in the sport, exercise, coaching and fitness industry, you may pursue employment in sports administration, facility management, community health and wellness, rehabilitation or sport science. Other employment opportunities include local and state government agencies, professional sporting bodies, hospital and rehabilitation clinics, fitness and aquatic centres, private health and recreation centres, or large business organisations. The degree is also a common pathway to postgraduate study in areas such as clinical exercise physiology, physiotherapy and research. Please refer to our School s Careers website for more information.

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Small Business Assistance in PA #small #business #loans #in #pa


Small Business Assistance

Download PA’s comprehensive business resource guide to help you launch your business in Pennsylvania. Here you’ll find expert information regarding building a business plan, registration, funding advice, and more. Our e-guide is printer-friendly and eco-friendly!

How Can We Help You?


  • Our local and regional PREP partners have the experience and know-how to assist individuals who have an idea and need help with the basics of starting a new venture. PREP also meets the demands of existing companies that seek assistance in all aspects of successful business development and growth.
  • Reach out to your local SBDC to gain access to educational workshops and free, confidential consulting services. Offices are conveniently hosted at 18 universities and their 90 outreach centers located across Pennsylvania. Visit the PA SBDC website for more information at .
  • Please contact your local SCORE office to schedule an appointment to speak with a mentor regarding business planning and strategizing. The service is free and confidential. Learn more about SCORE by visiting
  • Visit a local SBA office or one of its partner locations to access the federal government’s vast array of resources, services and programs focused on assisting the establishment of startups and the growth of established small businesses. Many of the resources, articles, and the information on programs can be found simply by visiting their website:


  • Registration for businesses based in PA (domestic) may use PA Department of State’s online filing system, PENN File. Sole proprietorships and partnerships may file a fictitious name while entities may file as an LLC, Corporation, etc. Those with filing questions and businesses based outside of PA (foreign), should contact the Department of State: 717.787.1057.
  • Federal Employer Identification Number (EIN) registration can be completed online by visiting the IRS application page. There is no cost to register your EIN. Filing questions can be directed to the IRS’s Business Tax Line: 1.800.829.4933.
  • Hiring a new employee? PA Department of Labor & Industry’s New Hire Reporting Program has you covered. Here, employers are provided with all the information needed to fully comply with Federal and State mandates to report their newly-hired employees. Visit Pennsylvania Career Link’s New Hire Reporting Program homepage. Further questions regarding hiring and employment can be directed to 1.888.724.4737 (1.888.PAHIRES).
  • PA Sales Tax ID and related tax accounts are filed with the PA Department of Revenue. This is not the same as a Federal Employer Identification Number (EIN). You may file your PA tax accounts online through the PA-100. If you are unsure as to whether or not your business is required to have a sales or other state tax ID, please contact the Department of Revenue for clarification: 717.787.1064.
  • Home Improvement Contract (HIC) Registration. or “PA #”, can be registered with the PA Attorney General’s Office via the HIC Registration page. Contractors with questions about filing requirements may contact the contractor helpline: 717.772.2425.
  • Special licensing and other registration questions can be directed to the Small Business Assistance Network: 1.800.280.3801.


  • DCED offers loans, loan guarantees, tax credits, bonds, and grants. Grants to start a business are not available. Each program has a designated set of guidelines and eligibility requirements. Please read about the program’s eligibility requirements before applying. If you have questions regarding a specific program, you may use the contact information provided in the guidelines or contact the Small Business Assistance Network (1.800.280.3801). For more information, visit DCED’s list of programs .
  • Partnerships for Regional Economic Performance’s (PREP) regional representatives can help assist small businesses locate funding in their local communities.
  • While the Pennsylvania SBDC does not provide financing or loans, your local center will work with you to provide the best tools to finance your small business. When you’re ready, contact your local SBDC for more information.
  • The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) offers a variety of loan programs for very specific purposes. They also play other important roles in helping entrepreneurs finance or grow their business. The SBA website provides detailed information on what is needed to secure loans and financing.


  • The description of a diverse business includes, but is not limited to: minority-owned, woman-owned, veteran-owned, disability-owned, and LGBT-owned businesses. The PA Department of General Services’ Bureau of Diversity, Inclusion & Small Business Opportunities (BDISBO) is responsible for assisting small diverse businesses interested in competing for Commonwealth contracting opportunities. To learn more or become a verified, self-certified small diverse business, please visit the BDISBO webpage or call the Bureau: 717.783.3119.
  • DCED offers programs including, Small Diverse Business Capital Access Program (SDBCA). Pennsylvania Minority Business Development Authority (PMBDA). and Business Opportunities Fund (BOF) to assist disadvantaged and diverse small businesses access financing.
  • For more information regarding services and resources offered to disadvantaged and diverse small businesses, contact the Small Business Assistance Network: 1.800.280.3801

Comments or Suggestions. Let us know how we can improve our resources and webpage to assist you better.

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Commercial LED Lighting Fixtures, Electrician Sacramento – Don Pezzuto Lighting #lighting #services #sacramento, #sacramento


Need an Electrician in Sacramento?

For over 30 years, Don Pezzuto Lighting has been providing lighting and electrical services of all kinds!

We are a leading provider of innovative lighting supplies. We welcome you to choose from a complete line of bulbs, ballasts, fixtures, energy saving lighting supplies and more from leading manufacturers. In Sacramento and the metropolitan area, Don Pezzuto lighting is well-positioned to continue as a leading supplier that solves all your residential, commercial and industrial lighting problems for years to come.

Apart from solving all your electrical problems, Don Pezzuto Lighting also specializes in providing versatile, appealing and safe lighting solutions for businesses in Sacramento. While commercial lighting becomes a major contributor to overhead expenses, LED lighting technology can be your savior. We help you minimize your commercial lighting usage. Portray positive image of your business venture with our LED commercial lighting solutions. Get the same amount of lumens with reduced energy costs and increase aesthetic value of your company!

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As a lighting retrofit company. we’ve worked on cutting edge lighting technology. Our electricians have done lots of retrofits to replace obsolete lighting systems with the most up-to-date LED lighting technology. Our LED lighting fixtures commercial and lamps are designed to have significantly longer life than traditional Fluorescent lighting products and optimized for superior performance. If you’re not satisfied with your current lighting system, we are available to provide you suitable upgrade options. Our trained electricians can also evaluate you exiting lighting system and provide you clear insight into the benefits you’ll reap with the new one. We understand what it takes to design a solution that is optimal for you and so, create a value-based plan.

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Should you move your antivirus protection to the cloud? #cloud #antivirus #software


Should you move your antivirus protection to the cloud?

This review compares three cloud-based antivirus services with a traditional antivirus product — as well as with one another. Find out if it’s a good idea to move your endpoint protection services to the cloud.

The products tested

The following cloud antivirus products were tested for this review:

  • McAfee Total Protection Service v5.0.0
  • Trend Micro TRVProtect v8 SP1
  • Panda Cloud Office Protection v5.04.01

These three products work only on Windows PCs since they each install software on the desktop.

To put these offerings into perspective, we compared them with Symantec Endpoint Protection Small Business Edition v12.0.1. In this traditional client/server antivirus product, a central server manages the various endpoint desktop clients. (While Symantec doesn’t have a comparable cloud-based antivirus service, its MessageLabs division has a cloud-based email protection.)

Note: Microsoft offers two free cloud-based antivirus services: Security Essentials and Intune. However, since both these products are designed for single PC installations, they weren’t reviewed for this article.

The testing process

We focused on how to prevent malware such as spam and viruses from being transmitted around your network, how to protect desktops from phishing and other attacks that can be launched from a browser window, and ways to beef up the supplied Windows firewall to detect and repel intrusions.

Our test PCs ran Windows XP with Service Pack 3 and Internet Explorer 8. On each, the C: drive was reimaged with Acronis True Image Workstation to return it to a virgin state without antivirus software installed. On one PC, we purposely installed Metasploit — a common hacking tool that contains all sorts of mischief — to see how each product’s scanner would react.

How cloud antivirus products work

Cloud antivirus services all work the same way — a small agent or client piece of software runs on each desktop and makes a connection to the central monitoring server in the cloud. As long as you have an Internet connection, updates to the virus signatures are automatic. In terms of protection and processing, most of the heavy lifting happens in the cloud, and as a result, the client needs little memory footprint. The central server’s console is where you keep track of infections, users and other reports, and it can be viewed from an ordinary Web browser.

Benefits for moving your endpoint protection to the cloud include the following:

  1. You don’t have to worry about users turning off protection software or forgetting to install the latest virus signatures.
  2. You can instantly see what is happening across your network and which PCs are protected.
  3. PC deployment is simplified because there is less software to install.
  4. In some cases, you can even initiate antivirus scans through the cloud service and, once again, not have to depend on individual user behavior.

This was last published in July 2010

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Data Entry Worksheet Form

Worksheet Data Entry Form Overview

Thanks to Dave Peterson, who wrote this technique.

Use this worksheet form for Excel data entry, and the following Excel VBA code will save the entry to a list on a different worksheet in the same Excel workbook.

The Excel data entry code checks to see if all the input cells have something in them, and displays a message if any values are missing.

The date and time is automatically added to column A of the summary sheet and the username (taken from Tools | Options | General tab) is added to column B of the summary sheet.

NOTE: For a version of the Worksheet Data Entry form that allows you to select and update existing records, please see Forms — Excel Data Entry and Update Form

Modifying the Worksheet Data Entry Form

All the values from the Excel data entry form are then stored on the summary sheet, starting in Column C, in the same order as the addresses you’ve specified in this line:

You can change those references to match your input worksheet layout.

All the data entry cells that contain constant values are cleared at the end of the code, for the addresses you’ve specified in the myCopy string. Any cells with formulas are left untouched.

Getting Started With Macros

If you’re new to macros, you may want to read David McRitchie’s intro at:

Worksheet Data Entry Form VBA Code

Add Navigation Arrows

If you would prefer to view the records on the data entry sheet, instead of going to the database sheet, use Version 2 of the worksheet Data Entry Form. It has navigation arrows added, so you can scroll through the records, to see the data in each one.

The navigation buttons take you to the first, previous, next or last record, or type a record number in the yellow cell, to go to a specific record.

The Go To Database button is still on the worksheet, but you could remove that, and hide the PartsData sheet, so users are less likely to change the data.

Navigation Arrow Macros

The navigation arrow buttons have macros assigned, and those run when a button is clicked. Those macros are stored in the module named modViewData — ViewLogFirst, ViewLogPrev, ViewLogNext and ViewLogLast

The macros are similar, so here is the ViewLogDown macro as an example, and a brief description of how it works

  • Variables are set at the top of the macro, and two worksheets will be used — Input and PartsData.
  • The last row is found on the PartsData sheet (historyWks), and 1 is subtracted (for 1 heading row), to get the last record number (lLastRec). That will be the limit for scrolling down.
  • Next, the current record number (lRec) is taken from the yellow cell (named CurrRec )
  • If lRec is lower than lLastRec, the macro adds 1 to the number in the yellow cell.
  • Then, it finds the applicable row (lRec + 1) on the PartsData sheet, and gets the values from columns 3, 4 and 5, and puts those values in in D5, D7 and D9 on the Input sheet.

Download the Sample Data Entry Form

Original Version. Excel Data Entry Worksheet Form workbook. The zipped workbook contains macro, so be sure to enable macros if you want to test the data entry form.

Version 2 – Add/View. Data Entry Form (Add/View) Add new records, and use navigation arrows to scroll through the stored records, and view the data. The zipped workbook contains macro, so be sure to enable macros if you want to test the data entry form.

More Versions. For more versions of the Worksheet Data Entry form, go to Forms — Excel Data Entry and Update Form

Data Entry Forms Tutorials

Data Center Rack Cooling Solutions, data center operations best practices.#Data #center #operations #best #practices


Data Center Rack Cooling Solutions

Cooling infrastructure is a significant part of a data center. The complex connection of chillers, compressors and air handlers create the optimal computing environment, ensuring the longevity of the servers, and the vitality of the organization they support.

Yet, the current data center cooling ecosystem has come at a price. The EPA s oft-cited 2007 report predicted that data center energy consumption, if left unchecked, would reach 100 billion kWh by 2011 with a corresponding energy bill of $7.4 billion. This conclusion, however, isn t strictly based on Moore s Law or the need for greater bandwidth. Their estimate envisions tomorrow s processing power will be addressed with yesterday s cooling strategies. The shortcomings of these designs, coupled with demand for more processing power, would require (10) new power plants to provide the juice for it all, according to that report.

According to a more recent study commissioned by the NY Times from Jonathan Koomey Ph.D. Stanford entitled, Growth in Data center electricity use 2005 to 2010, the rapid rates of growth in data center electricity use that prevailed from 2000 to 2005 slowed significantly from 2005 to 2010, yielding total electricity use by data centers in 2010 of about 1.3% of all electricity use for the world, and 2% of all electricity use for the US. Assuming the base line figures are correct, Koomey states that instead of doubling as predicted by the EPA study, energy consumption by data centers increased by 56% worldwide and only 36% in the US.

According to Koomey, the reduced growth rates over earlier estimates were, driven mainly by a lower server installed base than was earlier predicted rather than the efficiency improvements anticipated in the report to Congress. In the NY Times article, Koomey goes on say, Mostly because of the recession, but also because of a few changes in the way these facilities are designed and operated, data center electricity consumption is clearly much lower than what was expected

However, this reduction in growth is likely temporary, as our appetite continues to increase for internet access, streaming and cloud based services. Data centers will continue to consume growing amounts of electricity, more and more data centers will come on line, and data center managers will increasingly look to newer technologies to reduce their ever growing electricity bills. Additionally, when you consider that the estimated energy consumption of the US in 2010 was around 3,889 Billion kWh, 2% still represents close to 78 billion kWh. Clearly the trend is increased data consumption and with it increased energy consumption.

In light of these trends and despite the lower growth rates, many industry insiders are continuing to turn a critical eye toward cooling, recognizing both the inefficiencies of current approaches and the improvements possible through new technologies. The information contained herein is designed to assist the data center professional who, while keeping uptime and redundancy inviolate, must also balance growing demand for computing power with pressure to reduce energy consumption.

Issue: Understanding the Efficiency Metrics Best Practice: Adoption and use of PUE/DCiE

In furtherance of its mission, The Green Grid is focused on the following: defining meaningful, user-centric models and metrics; developing standards, measurement methods, processes and new technologies to improve data center performance against the defined metrics.

Measurements like watts per square foot, kilowatts per rack, and cubic feet per minute (CFM) are ingrained in data center dialogue. Until recently, no standard measurement existed for data center efficiency. Enter the Green Grid, a consortium promoting responsible energy use within critical facilities. The group has successfully introduced two new terms to the data center lexicon: Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) and Data Center Infrastructure Efficiency (DCiE).

Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE)

PUE is derived by dividing the total incoming power by the IT equipment load. The total incoming power includes, in addition to the IT load, the data center s electrical and mechanical support systems such as chillers, air conditioners, fans, and power delivery equipment. Lower results are better, as they indicate more incoming power is consumed by IT equipment instead of the intermediary, support equipment.

While it s not the only consideration, cooling can be a major player in PUE measurement. Consider the following diagram, where the combination of the chiller, humidifier, and CRAC consume 45% of the total energy coming into the facility.

Data center operations best practices Where does the money go? (Source: The Green Grid)

The Uptime Institute approximates an industry average PUE of 2.5. Though there are no tiers or rankings associated with the values, PUE allows facilities to benchmark, measure, and improve their efficiency over time. Companies with large-scale data center operations, like Google and Microsoft, have published their PUE. In 2008, Google had an average PUE of 1.21 across their six company data centers. Microsoft s new Chicago facility, packed with data center containers, calculated an average annual PUE of 1.22.

The widespread adoption of PUE, left in the hands of marketing departments, leaves the door open for manipulation. Though the equation seems simple, there are many variables to consider, and users should always consider the context of these broadcasted measurements. At its core, however, the measurement encourages the benchmarking and improvement at the site level-the actions individual professionals can take to improve the efficiency of their facilities.

Data Center Infrastructure Efficiency (DCiE)

DCiE is simply the inverse of PUE-Total IT Power/Total Facility Power x 100%. DCiE presents a quick snapshot into the amount of energy consumed by the IT equipment. To examine the relationship between PUE and DCiE, A DCiE value of 33% (equivalent to a PUE of 3.0) suggests that the IT equipment consumes 33% of the power in the data center.

ASHRAE temperature and humidity recommendations:

The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is an international technical society organized and a leading authority providing recommendations for data center cooling and humidity ranges. ASHRAE TC 9.9 recently released their 2008 ASHRAE Environmental Guidelines for Datacom Equipment which expanded their recommended environmental envelope as follows:

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Should you save your baby – s umbilical cord blood? #save #umbilical #cord #blood


Should you save your baby s umbilical cord blood?

A newborn baby boy lies on a bed beside a bag of umbilical cord blood collected from him at Beijing Chuiyangliu Hospital on March 8, 2005, in Beijing. See more pregnancy pictures.

­There’s so much to think about when you’re expecting a baby, from decorating the nursery to picking out names. Amidst all of the excitement, there are many important choices to make. Be a stay-at-home parent, or secure child care and return to work after the baby is born? Cloth or disposable diapers? Breast-feed or bottle-feed? Save the baby’s cord ­blood, or not? That last question might be unfamiliar to you if you haven’t been privy to any baby discussions lately, but it’s a decision that today’s parents must make.

Cord blood is essentially the blood from the umbilical cord of a newborn baby, although in actuality it should be called placental blood, as most of the blood is in the placenta. This blood amounts to as much as 180 milliliters, or 6 ounces, on average.

Since the early 1990s, there’s been a movement to save, or bank, this blood for potential future use. Cord blood is a source of a specific type of hematopoietic (blood forming) stem cell and can potentially cure a host of diseases and other conditions. Cord-blood-derived embryoniclike (CBE) stem cells are similar to embryonic stem cells. but with the plus of using something that was going to be thrown away anyway.

Does that mean that CBE stem cells are less controversial than embryonic stem cells? You’d think so, but that’s not the case. Let’s start with looking at how cord blood is collected and stored, as the latter is one of the sources of controversy.

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