Month: October 2017

Air Conditioner Basics, A Homeowner s Guide To Home Cooling, standard air conditioner.#Standard #air


standard air conditioner

Your air conditioner is designed to automatically remove unwanted heat from your home. By understanding some basics, you can help it do this efficiently. This will in turn allow you to keep more of your hard earned money.

These systems consist of an evaporator coil, a condensing unit, and refrigerant lines. These parts work with the fan and control system in the furnace/air handler to cool your home.

Basic Operating Sequence.

The cooling cycle starts when the thermostat senses that the home’s air temperature is above the thermostat setpoint. Contacts in the thermostat are closed and control voltage (24 vac) is supplied to the furnace control board y and g terminals. This causes the blower on the furnace/air handler to start.

The furnace/air handler control board then supplies control voltage to the outdoor part of the system which is called the condensing unit. This control voltage causes a device called a contactor to close its contacts. This supplies power to a fan and to a pump that is referred to as a compressor.

This pump raises the pressure and temperature of the refrigerant gas in the system. This high temperature and high pressure refrigerant passes through the outdoor coil. This coil which is called the condenser coil works the same way as the radiator on a car except it uses refrigerant instead of water. In the condenser, this high pressure refrigerant is cooled and condenses from a gas to a liquid. It is usually cooled to a temperature about 20 degrees below the saturation temperature and is called subcooling.

This high pressure/low temperature liquid refrigerant is pumped to the indoor section of the system. Then the refrigerant passes through a metering device which regulates the flow to the evaporator coil. In smaller and older systems this device consisted of small copper tubes called capillary tubes which lowered the flow and pressure. Others use specialized flow restrictor devices. Modern high efficiency systems use a device called a thermostatic expansion valve.

Standard air conditioner

This device senses the refrigerant temperature at the outlet of the evaporator and automatically adjusts a valve to regulate refrigerant flow.

These devices cause the refrigerant pressure to go down. Air is circulated over and through the evaporator coil by the fan on the furnace/air handler. Heat from the home’s air is transferred to the refrigerant. This heat raises the temperature of the refrigerant above the saturation point and it changes back into a gas. The flow of refrigerant is regulated so that extra heat is added above the saturation temperature. This is called superheat and is added to ensure that the refrigerant stays in the form of a gas as it goes through the compressor. This refrigerant gas is then pumped back to the condenser where the process repeats itself over and over.

When the thermostat senses that the home’s temperature is below the setpoint, the contacts are opened and control voltage is no longer supplied to the furnace or the air conditioner.

Air Conditioner Size & Efficiency?

The size of an air conditioner is expressed as tons of cooling capacity. (The process of finding the proper size unit for your home is called a load calculation .) A ton is equal to the ability of the system to remove 12000 btu of heat per hour. Btu stands for British Thermal Unit and is just a standard measure of heat.

The relative measurement of a unit’s energy use to perform this cooling is it’s SEER rating. SEER stands for Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio and is a ratio of the cooling output divided by the power input. The minimum efficiency of these units that can be manufactured in the U.S.A. is mandated by federal law and is a SEER of 13. In general terms, the higher a unit’s SEER number, the less electricity it requires to produce the rated amount of cooling.

Premium Features.

Higher efficiency units typically have some special features. They usually have two stages (speeds) of operation. In some cases this is accomplished by having two compressors in the unit. One is ran on low speed and both are energized for high speed. In other cases this is achieved by having one compressor with two motors inside it. One motor is energized for low speed and the other is energized for high speed operation.

On some high efficiency units the condenser fan motor can operate in low or high speed too. The most advanced units have a variable speed fan motor to precisely balance the airflow and limit the noise production.

The highest efficiency air conditioner uses an advanced compressor called an inverter drive. This compressor has a motor that runs on direct current(DC) instead of the normal alternating current(AC). The unit is supplied with the normal AC power and a device called an inverter changes it to DC. This DC power can be easily varied to provide almost an endless number of speeds. This allows the unit to precisely match the cooling requirements of the home and can save a lot of energy.

For more information.

Your ac requires some basic maintenance . This is critical for long equipment life and for the unit to perform it’s job efficiently. You can pay a company to do it or, with a little help, you can do it yourself and save.

Even the finest built air conditioner will not always work. But, did you know that most times it is really easy to fix? An average repair call will cost over $100. With our troubleshooting guide you can minimize the need to make that dreaded call.

Like anything else, these units will not last forever. When the time comes to replace it, there are many brands of air conditioning units to choose from and it can be very confusing. But, with our brand ratings you can basically take a repairman with you while you shop. It is like having a member of the family in the heating and air conditioning business.

With our buying guide , you get tips to help you select a unit.

Not all installation jobs are the same. If you don’t know what to look for, it is easy to make mistakes. With our installation guide , you can be sure the job was performed to high standards before you write the check.

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Accredited Online Construction Management Degree Programs #construction #management #degree #san #diego


Accredited Online Construction Management Degree Guide for 2015

As a construction manager, you will be involved in various administrative, business and managerial aspects of building projects. This can include selecting a crew of workers and architects, choosing building materials and making sure that your project stays within its budget and schedule. There are several different educational pathways including a certificate, a two-year associate degree, a four-year bachelor s degree and even a two-year master s degree. Although the specific curriculum for each type of program differs, common core courses cover topics like construction site safety and project management.

The construction manager is often the key leadership figure in a building project, both on the ground and in the office. They are typically responsible for project budgets, payrolls, construction methods, collaboration with engineers and architects, compliance with building codes and much more.

As a construction manager, you will have to select a team of architects, contractors and trade workers for your projects. You must also coordinate the activities of these different types of workers and ensure that progress on your projects stays on schedule. This often requires you to recognize and eliminate any factors that might slow the project time.


Check the Guide to Accreditation in Higher Education to learn more about accreditation and how to determine if the program you select meets the necessary standards.



Some of the most common classes that you can expect to have in an associate or bachelor s degree construction management program include:

  • Construction Project Management offers methods and techniques for preparing accurate cost estimates for building construction projects. You will learn practical strategies to help you manage and coordinate all the different types of specialists who are involved in construction projects.
  • Construction Safety deals with accident prevention, essential in the construction industry, so you will find this course on almost every construction management curriculum. You will learn how to identify common construction-site hazards, use standard building safety techniques and comply with building codes and regulatory requirements.
  • Construction Management Internships usually require you to work in the field at a building construction office. Internships usually require students to assist a professional construction manager with common tasks like scheduling, cost estimating, project planning and contract administration.

Certificate in Construction Management

These education programs are usually for students who already have some hands-on experience in construction management. In addition to certificate programs that are available through traditional construction management schools, professional associations like the Construction Management Association of America (CMAA) also offer certificate programs.

  • Credit hours/length of study: 9-18 months
  • Employment prospects: entry-level construction management positions

Associate Degree in Construction Management

You will find most construction management associate degree programs at two-year community colleges and technical colleges. Although there are many schools that still offer an associate in construction management, you should be aware that an increasing number of employers now view a bachelor s degree in construction management as the entry-level degree for this profession.

  • Credit hours/length of study: two years
  • Employment prospects: entry-level construction management positions

Bachelor s Degree in Construction Management

Schools that offer a four-year bachelor s degree in construction management train students for effective leadership on a construction site.

  • Credit hours/length of study: four years
  • Coursework: construction management, construction practices, legal liabilities and requirements of building projects

Master s Degree in Construction Management

Junior construction managers who already have several years of work experience are some of the most common students who pursue construction management training at the masters level.

  • Credit hours/length of study: two years
  • Employment prospects: senior or more advanced construction management jobs


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Accredited Dental Hygienist Schools in Sacramento, California #dental #hygienist #salary #in #california


Find Your Degree

Dental Hygienist Schools
In Sacramento, California

In Sacramento, there are 2 dental hygienist schools where dental hygienist faculty can find employment. The trends in Sacramento’s dental hygienist academic community can be evaluated by looking at the statistics and graphs below, which includes dental hygienist training at the following levels:

  • Dental Hygienist Certificate
  • Dental Hygienist Certificate
  • Associates degree in Dental Hygienist


Professional Trends

Sacramento Vs. California Dental Hygienist Employment

Exactly 1,690 of California’s 18,050 dental hygienists work in Sacramento. There has been a 24% growth in the number of dental hygienists in Sacramento between the years 2006 and 2010. Overall employment in Sacramento has decreased.

Sacramento Vs. California Dental Hygienist employment growth

Educational Trends

Dental Hygienist Faculty Salaries in Sacramento, California

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Enter your salary to gain access to our continually growing higher education faculty salary database. Don’t worry! This is 100% secure and anonymous.

We are currently gathering data for the number of dental hygienist faculty in Sacramento, growth in the field of dental hygienist academia and dental hygienist faculty salaries in Sacramento. Please enter your information in the form below if you are involved in teaching dental hygienist courses to students at the certificate in dental hygienist, and associates degree in dental hygienist levels. This will help us build a valuable free database resource for the benefit of current and future faculty in the field of dental hygienist in Sacramento. All information you submit will be anonymous. Once you have submitted your information, you will be able to view a summary of some of the data we have collected so far.


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Fort Worth Auto Collision Repair, Haltom City, Burleson, Arlington, fort worth collision repair.#Fort #worth


fort worth collision repair

Fort worth collision repair

Fort worth collision repair

Fort worth collision repair

Welcome to Factory Finish

Fort worth collision repair

Factory Finish auto collision center is your one-stop-shop for all your auto collision repair needs whether you are in Haltom City, Burleson, Fort Worth, Arlington or anywhere in the DFW Metroplex. For over 20 years, Factory Finish has been the best place in DFW for complete auto collision repair, including auto body and auto painting as well as paintless dent repair, hail damage repair, frame straightening, suspension repairs, windshield replacement, and any other repairs related to the collision. To find out all the services we can offer you just click here .

Quality Affordability

Fort worth collision repair

You don t have to settle for the average or low quality collision services. Because we strike the balance of offering high quality with affordable prices. We will provide you an excellent auto collision repair while saving you money. You can t go wrong when you choose Factory Finish for all your auto collision repairs in Fort Worth, Arlington, Haltom City and Burleson. When you bring your vehicle to us, there is no need to worry about our services or customer care. To check out what our customers are saying about us just click here ! Factory Finish invests in training and certifications to ensure you have the most up-to-date technology, equipment, and knowledgable technicians in regards to collision repair and auto body restoration for your vehicle.

Factory Finish is I-Car Gold certified and factory certified for multiple auto manufactures.

Fort worth collision repair

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Gray Divorce: Getting A Divorce After 50 #refinance #after #divorce


Gray divorce: Getting a divorce after 50

A common problem

Divorce among baby boomers is, well, booming. According to a study out of Bowling Green State University, in 2008, a quarter of all divorces in the U.S. involved people aged 50-plus, up from one-tenth in 1990.

At that age, there’s a lot at stake. It’s not just about divvying up assets. Particularly for the lesser earner, it’s important to secure the future.

“Almost nobody gets married anticipating divorce,” says Bruce Christensen, a family law attorney with the law firm Richman Greer in Miami. “What may be obvious to everyone else comes as a surprise. But those over 50 are dealing with a whole different mindset. So it does present additional challenges.”

Getting started

“The first thing you need is a crash course in financial planning, especially if you are not the spouse who handles the finances,” says John Hauserman, a Certified Financial Planner professional in Marriottsville, Md. whose book “RetirementQuest” focuses on financial planning for the 50-plus.

Then, he says, close joint accounts, change the beneficiary on all accounts — “and you might want to start monitoring your credit for unauthorized activity.”

“It’s very important for both parties to have a team of qualified professionals,” says Rita Cheng, a Chartered Retirement Planning Counselor with Ameriprise Financial in Bethesda, Md. She suggests an attorney, financial planner, tax adviser and possibly a business evaluation specialist — because, for example, “a self-employed consultant’s income may appear to be lower than it is.”

Who gets what?

Absent a prenup, Christensen says, marital assets include everything acquired during the marriage, regardless of how it is titled, though laws vary slightly from state to state. In most states, exceptions include “anything brought into the marriage or obtained by gift or inheritance — but with investment accounts, if you buy and sell during the marriage, they become intermingled.”

While the furniture may not be worth much, he adds, “Art and collectibles — wine collections, for example — are a different story. It’s a good idea to hire an appraiser.”

Splitting everything 50-50 may sound like the simplest solution, but it’s probably not an equitable one, Cheng warns.

“Fair is not the same as equal,” she says. “You don’t want to be in a situation where you can find yourself destitute.”

Hauserman recommends making these decisions in the broadest possible context. For example, both partners may be emotionally attached to the marital home, but should consider that they may need to sell it anyway.

With so many mortgages upside down these days, Christensen points out, after a sale the bank will want the difference between what you owe on the mortgage and the selling price, unless it’s a short sale. “So it becomes a logistics problem.”

Pensions and retirement funds

One spouse’s individual retirement account or 401(k), Cheng says, can be split equally or unequally via a qualified domestic relations order, or QDRO.

“Some companies permit the plan account to be divided so that the ex-spouse can also maintain an account with the company,” she says. “Otherwise, the defined contribution plan can be transferred to an IRA for the ex-spouse without triggering negative tax implications. “

Public employee pension plans may have different rules, Cheng says. Be sure to ask whether it will allow a QDRO, pay it in a lump sum or allow the nonemployee spouse to receive benefits prior to the employee spouse.

Social Security

The lesser earner of a divorcing couple is entitled to Social Security retirement benefits based on the higher earner’s work record, as long as the marriage lasted at least 10 years. The lesser-earning spouse must be at least age 62 to begin collecting benefits. Even if the higher-earning spouse qualifies for benefits but has not applied for them, a lesser-earning ex-spouse can collect based on the other’s earnings if the couple has been divorced for at least two years.

In fact, if the higher-earning spouse should remarry, the new wife can also draw benefits based on his record without it affecting his Social Security benefits at all. “A lot of people don’t know that if they are divorced and their ex is remarried,” Cheng says, “that does not mean the new wife can’t get Social Security based on his income as well as the former (wife).”


“Alimony is the toughest issue to face,” Christensen says. “Permanent alimony is rarely actually permanent. It lasts only until either spouse dies or the spouse receiving the alimony remarries. There’s also a statute in effect in some states that if someone is living with someone else in a supportive relationship or sharing expenses, that can also be taken into account.”

In some states, he says, if the marriage lasted 10 years or fewer, there may be a time limit on how long an ex-spouse can receive alimony.

When a supporting spouse remarries, “he may deliberately reduce his income today so the surviving new wife will get more,” says Linda S. Gross, a certified family law specialist in Santa Monica, Calif. But in some states, she says, that won’t wash; alimony can be based on the total income the supporting spouse has access to — including investment income — not just the total he or she chooses to withdraw.

More controversy can ensue when the supporting spouse retires, says Christensen. “It’s ‘I still need alimony’ versus ‘I am living off my retirement and you are getting your share of my retirement fund,'” he says. “But the money in that fund earned after the divorce is not included, so should the spouse who has the greater benefit have to pay more to the ex-spouse?”


A more secure guarantee of support, Gross says, is a life insurance policy. “If the parties purchased life insurance during marriage, even if it is a term policy, it may be given to the supported spouse,” she says, “so that if the supporting spouse dies, the supported spouse gets an insurance payout.”

However, she adds, many people are not comfortable with their ex having a life insurance policy on them after divorce.

If life insurance was not purchased during marriage, Gross says, the supporting spouse may now be uninsurable or have pre-existing conditions that make the cost of obtaining life insurance prohibitively expensive.

Health insurance is another issue to consider. Under COBRA, after a divorce an ex-spouse can continue to receive health insurance coverage for up to 36 months, Cheng says.

But don’t wait for those 36 months to pass to look into replacement health insurance coverage.

“While 50 may be the new 30,” Gross says, “unfortunately, insurance isn’t priced that way. So it’s really important to research your options.”

How we make money is an independent, advertising-supported publisher and comparison service. Bankrate is compensated in exchange for featured placement of sponsored products and services, or your clicking on links posted on this website. This compensation may impact how, where and in what order products appear. does not include all companies or all available products.

2017 Bankrate, LLC All Rights Reserved.

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The Forensic Science eBook Collection, strengthening forensic science in the united states.#Strengthening #forensic #science


strengthening forensic science in the united states

Strengthening forensic science in the united states Strengthening forensic science in the united states Strengthening forensic science in the united states Strengthening forensic science in the united statesStrengthening forensic science in the united states

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Forensic Science eBook Collection

Strengthening forensic science in the united states

The Thinking Behind The Forensic Science eBook Collection

There are literally thousands of forensic science related books and publications that are in the public domain and as such can be found on the Internet in electronic form.

Most electronic books (e-books) come in the form of Portable Document Format (PDF) files, however, they are rarely formatted with readability in mind e.g. optimal font type and size and they simply don’t have the flip style quality associated with reading a ‘real’ book. UNTIL NOW.

Introducing Pokat Reader

This brilliant free software allows you to experience reading PDF e-books as never before, assuming of course that the ebook has been formatted properly – and that’s where the forensic science ebook collection comes in.


First of all, download Pokat Reader.

Strengthening forensic science in the united states

Click Here To Go To The Pokat Reader Homepage.

Either during the installation stage, or When you open the Pokat Reader software you want to make Pokat Reader your default PDF reader.

Strengthening forensic science in the united states

Now open or better still download and keep one the many forensic science eBooks we will be making available via the website. For instance, we invite you to read the outstanding:

Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for Law Enforcement (Technical Working Group on Crime Scene Investigation: U.S. Department of Justice)

Strengthening forensic science in the united states

The Technical Working Group on Crime Scene Investigation (TWGCSI) is a multidisciplinary group of content-area experts from across the United States. Each member of the TWGCSI is experienced in the area of crime scene investigation and evidence collection in the criminal justice system from the standpoints of law enforcement, prosecution, defense, or forensic science.

The experts invited to TWGCSI consisted of 44 members from 25 States. Their expertise was distributed among 18 law enforcement officers and trainers, 16 forensic analysts and educators, 5 prosecutors, and 5 defense attorneys.

Collectively, over a 1-year period, the 44 members of TWGCSI worked together to develop this guide.

To get your free copy of Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for Law Enforcement just enter your details below. As well as being able to download this invaluable e-book, by filling out this form you will be added to the forensic science ebook mailing list and automatically alerted when a new book is added to the collection.

Latest Additions To The Forensic Science eBook Collection

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

Strengthening forensic science in the united states

See following link for more details and to download Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States for free.

Crime Scene Intelligence: An Experiment in Forensic Entomology

Strengthening forensic science in the united states

See following link for more details and to download Crime Scene Intelligence: An Experiment in Forensic Entomology for free.

The CSI Effect: Does It Really Exist?

Strengthening forensic science in the united states

See following for more details and to download The CSI Effect: Does It Really Exist? for free.

Strengthening forensic science in the united states

See following link for more details and to download Fingerprint Identification for free.

Strengthening forensic science in the united states

Over the next few weeks and months we will be making more and more forensic science related e-books available for free download.

Strengthening forensic science in the united states

We will be using Twitter to let people know as soon as a new title has been added to the forensic science eBook collection.

Read FBI Profiling Classics on Kindle

Strengthening forensic science in the united states

This special Kindle collection consists primarily of the landmark articles written by members of the Behavioral Science Units, National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime, at the FBI Academy. These seminal publications in the history of FBI profiling were released by the U.S. Department of Justice as part of the information on serial killers provided by the FBI’s Training Division.

See following link for full details.

Strengthening forensic science in the united states Strengthening forensic science in the united states Strengthening forensic science in the united states Strengthening forensic science in the united statesStrengthening forensic science in the united states

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Is central air conditioning more energy-efficient than window units? #central #air #conditioning #problems


Is central air conditioning more energy-efficient than window units?

Is central air conditioning more energy-efficient than window units?

Global Cooling

For many urbanites, summer means being constantly dripped on from the air conditioners that fill virtually every city window. These ubiquitous boxes must consume a tremendous amount of energy. From an environmental perspective, aren’t central air conditioners better?

Not necessarily. Air conditioning accounts for more than 15 percent of the energy use of the average home—somewhere around 183 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity in the United States per year, according to a 2001 analysis by the Energy Information Administration. Generating that much electricity creates about 119 million tons of carbon dioxide, or roughly the amount of CO2 spewed by 20 million cars each year. Remarkably, the percentage of homes with central air more than doubled. from 27 to 55 percent, between 1980 and 2001.

When deciding on how to air-condition your abode, you have two basic choices: single-room units or a centralized system. Anyone who’s been to a big-box hardware store has seen the single-room air conditioners. They’re heavy, steel boxes designed to wedge into a window and dangle precariously over passing pedestrians. (In case you were wondering: Yes, they do fall on people .) Inside, there’s a condenser, an evaporator, a thermostat, and a couple of fans .

Central air conditioners have a different structure altogether. The condenser typically sits on the roof or in the backyard. A set of pipes runs coolant from the condenser into an air handler, which is usually located near the home’s furnace. The air handler blows the cooled air through the home’s duct system and into individual rooms.

A central air system’s energy efficiency is measured two ways. The more basic rating is the energy efficiency ratio, or EER, which describes the unit’s energy consumption while cooling a prescribed volume of 95-degree air over the course of an hour in a specialized laboratory. The seasonal energy efficiency ratio, or SEER, is a bit more complicated and considers the average energy use at various temperatures and humidity levels.

Window units are rated only by EER, and lose out to central A/C by this metric. An Energy Star-certified central unit must have a minimum EER of 12. while window units only need to achieve between 9.4 and 10.7. depending on size, to be certified. (It’s possible to buy a window unit rated higher than this minimum, but the same goes for central units. Overall, the central units are still rated higher.)

One reason window air conditioners have lower ratings is that it’s impossible to fit much advanced hardware into that little box. While modern central air conditioners can work at a range of speeds, for example, the condensers in most window units only have two: on and off. (This is, incidentally, the primary reason window air conditioners don’t get SEER ratings.)

This can make a significant difference in energy use. Air conditioners not only lower air temperature; they also remove moisture. Just how much moisture is removed depends on how much air passes through the air conditioner. A machine that only works at full speed (or not at all) can drop a room’s temperature quickly by cooling just a small volume of air to an extremely cold state. In contrast, an air conditioner with variable speed settings can have the same effect by processing a larger volume of air, but cooling each unit volume by a smaller amount. The latter situation results in greater dehumidification because more air runs through the machine.

While this seems like a technical point, it’s quite significant, because it means users can set central air conditioners to a higher temperature and feel just as comfortable, because the air is less humid.

But the window units have their advantages, too. Central air conditioners suffer from “duct losses.” As cooled air passes through the system of ducts on its way to the rooms, it warms up and often leaks through the fittings. These losses can decrease an air conditioner’s energy efficiency by up to 30 percent.

Window units that block the sun from your room, buzz, and shake violently every time the condenser switches on are basically begging for attention—very few consumers walk out the door without remembering to shut off their window units. The quiet and unobtrusive functioning of central air conditioners, on the other hand, can lead to accidental overuse. Industry observers note that people tend to set their central air conditioner to a comfortable temperature and never change it.

Window units also offer room-by-room control. For singletons or couples who occupy only one bedroom at night, cooling a single room consumes a small fraction of the energy that a central air conditioner would.

Central air units are getting smarter, though, and accordingly more efficient. Programmable thermostats can make up for forgetful central A/C users by shutting the unit off when no one is home. Some central air systems even divide homes into separately controlled zones, so you don’t have to cool the kitchen at 3 a.m. just to keep your bedroom a sleepable temperature. And some new central air conditioners have an air handler in each room, skipping the ducts entirely, combining precise control with improved efficiency and less noise.

Because of the construction and behavioral variables, it’s impossible to pronounce a winner in this particular competition. As is often the case, the choice is often going to come down to each consumer’s behavior. Generally speaking, the newfangled ductless system is going to be the most efficient but priciest option upfront. If you’re choosing between an old-school central air system and window units, the latter could be better if you’re childless, live in a large home in a dry environment, or tend to be forgetful about adjusting your thermostat.

The Lantern thanks Jennifer Amann of the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy.

Click here to see a slide show of clever and humorous cooling systems.

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Spinal Cord Compression – Neurologic Disorders – Merck Manuals Professional Edition #cord #compression


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Spinal Cord Compression

Acute compression develops within minutes to hours. It is often due to trauma (eg, vertebral crush fracture with displacement of fracture fragments, acute disk herniation. metastatic tumor, severe bone or ligamentous injury causing hematoma, vertebral subluxation or dislocation). It is occasionally due to abscess and rarely due to spontaneous epidural hematoma. Acute compression may follow subacute and chronic compression, especially if the cause is abscess or tumor.

Subacute compression develops over days to weeks. It is usually caused by a metastatic extramedullary tumor, a subdural or an epidural abscess or hematoma, or a cervical or, rarely, thoracic herniated disk.

Chronic compression develops over months to years. It is commonly caused by bony protrusions into the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spinal canal (eg, due to osteophytes or spondylosis, especially when the spinal canal is narrow, as occurs in spinal stenosis ). Compression can be aggravated by a herniated disk and hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum. Less common causes include arteriovenous malformations and slow-growing extramedullary tumors.

Lesions that compress the spinal cord may also compress nerve roots or, rarely, occlude the spinal cord’s blood supply, causing spinal cord infarction .

Symptoms and Signs

Acute or advanced spinal cord compression causes segmental deficits, paraparesis or quadriparesis, hyporeflexia (when acute) followed by hyperreflexia, extensor plantar responses, loss of sphincter tone (with bowel and bladder dysfunction), and sensory deficits. Subacute or chronic compression may begin with local back pain, often radiating down the distribution of a nerve root (radicular pain), and sometimes hyperreflexia and loss of sensation. Sensory loss may begin in the sacral segments. Complete loss of function may follow suddenly and unpredictably, possibly resulting from secondary spinal cord infarction.

Spinal percussion tenderness is prominent if the cause is metastatic carcinoma, abscess, or hematoma.

Intramedullary lesions tend to cause poorly localized burning pain rather than radicular pain and to spare sensation in sacral dermatomes. These lesions usually result in spastic paresis.


Also of Interest

Merck and the Merck Manuals

Merck Co. Inc. Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Manual was first published in 1899 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America.Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.

2017 Merck Sharp Dohme Corp. a subsidiary of Merck Co. Inc. Kenilworth, NJ, USA

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Home – Laramie County School District 1 #la #nursing #schools



I’m John Lyttle. It is my honor to serve our students, parents, community and our elected Board of Trustees as Superintendent of Schools for Laramie County School District 1. LCSD1 is the largest school district in Wyoming, with nearly 14,000 exceptional students at 36 schools from small, rural schools to our larger schools in Wyoming’s wonderful capital city, Cheyenne.


The mission of LCSD1, in cooperation with students, parents, staff, and the community is to guarantee a high quality education in a safe and orderly environment for all students, inspiring them to become life-long learners and responsible, productive citizens.

Core Values

We are a district of learners for learners.

  • We will ensure all students meet or exceed essential skill proficiency
  • We will measure success based on student learning
  • We will measure continuous learning for all staff and students
  • We will share responsibility for each student’s learning with all stakeholders including students, parents, staff and community

Maximizing Learning Opportunities

  • We will maximize learning by making data driven decisions
  • . to guide the implementation of scientifically researched best practice
  • . to guide multiple learning opportunities
  • We will model what we expect from others
  • We will treat all stakeholders with mutual respect and dignity
  • We will develop positive relationships with every student, parent, and stakeholder


LCSD1 is the premier district “of learners for learners” in the Rocky Mountain Region where every student is successfully learning.


LCSD1 students will:

  • achieve academic success
  • graduate from high school
  • be prepared for college and careers
  • be responsible citizens

State of the District

Please click here for a video of the 2016-17 State of the District.


Laramie County School District 1 does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, gender, religion, national origin, disability or age in admission or access to, or treatment, or employment in, its educational programs or activities. Inquiries concerning Title VI and Title IX pertaining to adults, may be referred to the LCSD1 Assistant Superintendent of Human Resources located in the LCSD1 Administration Building at 2810 House Ave. Cheyenne, WY 82001, or phone 307-771-2160. Inquiries concerning Title VII and Title IX pertaining to students and any Section 504 concerns may be referred to the LCSD1 Assistant Director of Special Services located in the LCSD1 Administration Building at 2810 House Ave. Cheyenne, WY 82001, or phone 307-771-2174. We continually strive towards compliance with LCSD1 Non-Discrimination Policies, Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), Americans with Disabilities Act, World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), as well as Section 508 policy regarding web accessibility. LCSD1 is committed to providing accessibility to all users, and we will continue to make improvements to our website to ensure that it meets the requirements of these laws and standards. If assistance is needed in accessing material on any of the LCSD1 websites, please contact our Service Desk at 307-771-2242. The State of Wyoming provides Hathaway Merit and Needs-based Scholarships to Wyoming students attending the University of Wyoming and Wyoming Community Colleges. Every student who meets the merit requirements can earn a Hathaway Merit Scholarship. Contact your school counselor for more information.

Welcome to the SchoolBlocks
self-guided tour!

The most common question we receive is, how is SchoolBlocks inspired by Pinterest? SchoolBlocks eliminates navigation bars and uses a block style layout that’s similar to Pinterest. It creates a unique and engaging browsing experience, optimizes for mobile and removes a lot of navigational complexity.

Please click on the red plus signs found on this page to learn more about specific features.

Custom Pages

As an administrator, you will have the custom page editing tools auto-load. Just click ‘read more’ to access our advanced page editing tools.

Add Block Bar

This bar holds all content types. Click on the Admin button, click “add block”, select a content type, add your content then insert the block into the page.

Drag & Drop

This icon appears when you have edit permissions. Hold your mouse down and move the block. You’ll see the page reorganize!


Each block type has a custom editing experience. Click the pencil on any block or view our help documentation to learn more about block types.

Mobile Experience

No need to download an app! To view the mobile experience. please shrink your browser window by undocking the browser in order to make it resizable then resize the browser to be the size of an iPad then an iPhone.

Mobile Navigation

When your browser’s width conforms to a tablet or mobile phone, the menu bar changes to be mobile optimized.

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Hanlon Windows Australia – Aluminium and Timber Windows and Doors #vantage, #vantage, #aws, #commercial,


Hanlon Windows manufactures high performance, energy efficient aluminium and timber windows and doors for architecturally inspired projects

We have been manufacturing aluminium and timber windows and doors for over 35 years and have steadily grown to be one of the largest and most successful family owned window companies in Australia. We are 100% Australian owned and operated and pride ourselves on delivering the best windows and doors in Australia.

We manufacture high performance, energy efficient aluminium and timber windows and doors from the Vantage, Elevate and ThermalHEART ranges. Our timber windows and doors are beautifully crafted from sustainable managed Western Red Cedar and lend themselves to staining to bring out the rich variations in colour or can be primed ready for painting to suit the colour design of your home.

We offer a full complement of aluminium and timber windows and doors including sliding windows, louvre windows, bi-fold windows, double hung windows, awning windows, casement windows, sashless windows, sliding doors, stacking doors, bi-fold doors, hinged doors, french doors all in residential and commercial architectural styles. We have a large selection of glass products available including double glazed windows, laminated glass, energy-efficient glass, LowE glass, SmartGlass, ComfortPlus glass, safety glass, toned glass, security glass all supplied by Viridian. Australia s only local manufacturer of float glass and hard coat performance products.

We have won numerous National and Regional awards over the years for our quality products and customer service. We were recently announced as the winner of an award at the 2014 Australian Window Association Conference for the best use of windows and doors in a commercial new construction. This is an amazing achievement considering the calibre of projects entered into the awards and we would like to acknowledge the outstanding work that was put in by our great team and our fantastic suppliers, customers, architects and builders.

We understand that purchasing windows and doors can sometimes be a very daunting experience, especially with the amount of energy efficient, high performance products now available. No matter how big or small your project is our highly trained sales team is here to assist you select the most suitable product for your project.

Whether you re a Builder, Renovator, Architect or Building Designer you can rest assured knowing you ve made the right decision with Hanlon s.

Latest Projects

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